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Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development
Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development
5.1 What is UML
5.1 What is UML
UML diagrams
UML diagrams
UML features
UML features
What constitutes a good model
What constitutes a good model
5.2 Essentials of UML Class Diagrams
5.2 Essentials of UML Class Diagrams
Classes
Classes
5.3 Associations and Multiplicity
5.3 Associations and Multiplicity
Labelling associations
Labelling associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
A more complex example
A more complex example
Association classes
Association classes
Reflexive associations
Reflexive associations
Directionality in associations
Directionality in associations
5.4 Generalization
5.4 Generalization
Avoiding unnecessary generalizations
Avoiding unnecessary generalizations
Avoiding unnecessary generalizations (cont)
Avoiding unnecessary generalizations (cont)
Handling multiple discriminators
Handling multiple discriminators
Handling multiple discriminators
Handling multiple discriminators
Avoiding having instances change class
Avoiding having instances change class
5.5 Object Diagrams
5.5 Object Diagrams
Associations versus generalizations in object diagrams
Associations versus generalizations in object diagrams
5.6 More Advanced Features: Aggregation
5.6 More Advanced Features: Aggregation
When to use an aggregation
When to use an aggregation
Composition
Composition
Aggregation hierarchy
Aggregation hierarchy
Propagation
Propagation
Interfaces
Interfaces
Notes and descriptive text
Notes and descriptive text
5.7 Object Constraint Language (OCL)
5.7 Object Constraint Language (OCL)
OCL statements
OCL statements
An example: constraints on Polygons
An example: constraints on Polygons
5.8 Detailed Example: A Class Diagram for Genealogy
5.8 Detailed Example: A Class Diagram for Genealogy
Genealogy example: Possible solutions
Genealogy example: Possible solutions
5.9 The Process of Developing Class Diagrams
5.9 The Process of Developing Class Diagrams
System domain model vs System model
System domain model vs System model
System domain model vs System model
System domain model vs System model
Suggested sequence of activities
Suggested sequence of activities
Identifying classes
Identifying classes
A simple technique for discovering domain classes
A simple technique for discovering domain classes
Identifying associations and attributes
Identifying associations and attributes
Tips about identifying and specifying valid associations
Tips about identifying and specifying valid associations
Actions versus associations
Actions versus associations
Identifying attributes
Identifying attributes
Tips about identifying and specifying valid attributes
Tips about identifying and specifying valid attributes
An example (attributes and associations)
An example (attributes and associations)
Identifying generalizations and interfaces
Identifying generalizations and interfaces
An example (generalization)
An example (generalization)
Allocating responsibilities to classes
Allocating responsibilities to classes
Categories of responsibilities
Categories of responsibilities
An example (responsibilities)
An example (responsibilities)
Prototyping a class diagram on paper
Prototyping a class diagram on paper
Identifying operations
Identifying operations
An example (class collaboration)
An example (class collaboration)
Class collaboration ‘a’
Class collaboration ‘a’
Class collaboration ‘b’
Class collaboration ‘b’
Class collaboration ‘c’
Class collaboration ‘c’
Class collaboration ‘d’
Class collaboration ‘d’
Class collaboration ‘e’
Class collaboration ‘e’
5.10 Implementing Class Diagrams in Java
5.10 Implementing Class Diagrams in Java
Example: SpecificFlight
Example: SpecificFlight
Example: RegularFlight
Example: RegularFlight
5.11 Difficulties and Risks when creating class diagrams
5.11 Difficulties and Risks when creating class diagrams

Презентация на тему: «Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development using UML and Java». Автор: Timothy C. Lethbridge. Файл: «Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development using UML and Java.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 1144 КБ.

Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development using UML and Java

содержание презентации «Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development using UML and Java.ppt»
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1 Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development

Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development

using UML and Java

Chapter 5: Modelling with Classes

2 5.1 What is UML

5.1 What is UML

The Unified Modelling Language is a standard graphical language for modelling object oriented software At the end of the 1980s and the beginning of 1990s, the first object-oriented development processes appeared The proliferation of methods and notations tended to cause considerable confusion Two important methodologists Rumbaugh and Booch decided to merge their approaches in 1994. They worked together at the Rational Software Corporation In 1995, another methodologist, Jacobson, joined the team His work focused on use cases In 1997 the Object Management Group (OMG) started the process of UML standardization

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3 UML diagrams

UML diagrams

Class diagrams describe classes and their relationships Interaction diagrams show the behaviour of systems in terms of how objects interact with each other State diagrams and activity diagrams show how systems behave internally Component and deployment diagrams show how the various components of systems are arranged logically and physically

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4 UML features

UML features

It has detailed semantics It has extension mechanisms It has an associated textual language Object Constraint Language (OCL) The objective of UML is to assist in software development It is not a methodology

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5 What constitutes a good model

What constitutes a good model

A model should use a standard notation be understandable by clients and users lead software engineers to have insights about the system provide abstraction Models are used: to help create designs to permit analysis and review of those designs. as the core documentation describing the system.

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6 5.2 Essentials of UML Class Diagrams

5.2 Essentials of UML Class Diagrams

The main symbols shown on class diagrams are: Classes represent the types of data themselves Associations represent linkages between instances of classes Attributes are simple data found in classes and their instances Operations represent the functions performed by the classes and their instances Generalizations group classes into inheritance hierarchies

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7 Classes

Classes

A class is simply represented as a box with the name of the class inside The diagram may also show the attributes and operations The complete signature of an operation is: operationName(parameterName: parameterType …): returnType

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8 5.3 Associations and Multiplicity

5.3 Associations and Multiplicity

An association is used to show how two classes are related to each other Symbols indicating multiplicity are shown at each end of the association

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9 Labelling associations

Labelling associations

Each association can be labelled, to make explicit the nature of the association

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10 Analyzing and validating associations

Analyzing and validating associations

Many-to-one A company has many employees, An employee can only work for one company. This company will not store data about the moonlighting activities of employees! A company can have zero employees E.g. a ‘shell’ company It is not possible to be an employee unless you work for a company

Employee

Company

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1

*

worksFor

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11 Analyzing and validating associations

Analyzing and validating associations

Many-to-many An assistant can work for many managers A manager can have many assistants Assistants can work in pools Managers can have a group of assistants Some managers might have zero assistants. Is it possible for an assistant to have, perhaps temporarily, zero managers?

Open in Umple

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12 Analyzing and validating associations

Analyzing and validating associations

One-to-one For each company, there is exactly one board of directors A board is the board of only one company A company must always have a board A board must always be of some company

Open in Umple

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13 Analyzing and validating associations

Analyzing and validating associations

Avoid unnecessary one-to-one associations Avoid this do this

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14 A more complex example

A more complex example

A booking is always for exactly one passenger no booking with zero passengers a booking could never involve more than one passenger. A Passenger can have any number of Bookings a passenger could have no bookings at all a passenger could have more than one booking The frame around this diagram is an optional feature that any UML 2.0 may possess.

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15 Association classes

Association classes

Sometimes, an attribute that concerns two associated classes cannot be placed in either of the classes The following are equivalent

Open in Umple and extended example

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16 Reflexive associations

Reflexive associations

It is possible for an association to connect a class to itself

Open in Umple

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17 Directionality in associations

Directionality in associations

Associations are by default bi-directional It is possible to limit the direction of an association by adding an arrow at one end

Open in Umple

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18 5.4 Generalization

5.4 Generalization

Specializing a superclass into two or more subclasses A generalization set is a labeled group of generalizations with a common superclass The label (sometimes called the discriminator) describes the criteria used in the specialization

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19 Avoiding unnecessary generalizations

Avoiding unnecessary generalizations

Inappropriate hierarchy of classes, which should be instances

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20 Avoiding unnecessary generalizations (cont)

Avoiding unnecessary generalizations (cont)

Improved class diagram, with its corresponding instance diagram

Open in Umple

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21 Handling multiple discriminators

Handling multiple discriminators

Creating higher-level generalization

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22 Handling multiple discriminators

Handling multiple discriminators

Using multiple inheritance Using the Player-Role pattern (in Chapter 6)

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23 Avoiding having instances change class

Avoiding having instances change class

An instance should never need to change class

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24 5.5 Object Diagrams

5.5 Object Diagrams

A link is an instance of an association In the same way that we say an object is an instance of a class

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25 Associations versus generalizations in object diagrams

Associations versus generalizations in object diagrams

Associations describe the relationships that will exist between instances at run time. When you show an instance diagram generated from a class diagram, there will be an instance of both classes joined by an association Generalizations describe relationships between classes in class diagrams. They do not appear in instance diagrams at all. An instance of any class should also be considered to be an instance of each of that class’s superclasses

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26 5.6 More Advanced Features: Aggregation

5.6 More Advanced Features: Aggregation

Aggregations are special associations that represent ‘part-whole’ relationships. The ‘whole’ side is often called the assembly or the aggregate This symbol is a shorthand notation association named isPartOf

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27 When to use an aggregation

When to use an aggregation

As a general rule, you can mark an association as an aggregation if the following are true: You can state that the parts ‘are part of’ the aggregate or the aggregate ‘is composed of’ the parts When something owns or controls the aggregate, then they also own or control the parts

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28 Composition

Composition

A composition is a strong kind of aggregation if the aggregate is destroyed, then the parts are destroyed as well Two alternatives for addresses

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29 Aggregation hierarchy

Aggregation hierarchy

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30 Propagation

Propagation

A mechanism where an operation in an aggregate is implemented by having the aggregate perform that operation on its parts At the same time, properties of the parts are often propagated back to the aggregate Propagation is to aggregation as inheritance is to generalization. The major difference is: inheritance is an implicit mechanism propagation has to be programmed when required

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31 Interfaces

Interfaces

An interface describes a portion of the visible behaviour of a set of objects. An interface is similar to a class, except it lacks instance variables and implemented methods

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32 Notes and descriptive text

Notes and descriptive text

Descriptive text and other diagrams Embed your diagrams in a larger document Text can explain aspects of the system using any notation you like Highlight and expand on important features, and give rationale Notes: A note is a small block of text embedded in a UML diagram It acts like a comment in a programming language

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33 5.7 Object Constraint Language (OCL)

5.7 Object Constraint Language (OCL)

OCL is a specification language designed to formally specify constraints in software modules An OCL expression simply specifies a logical fact (a constraint) about the system that must remain true A constraint cannot have any side-effects it cannot compute a non-Boolean result nor modify any data. OCL statements in class diagrams can specify what the values of attributes and associations must be

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34 OCL statements

OCL statements

OCL statements can be built from: References to role names, association names, attributes and the results of operations The logical values true and false Logical operators such as and, or, =, >, < or <> (not equals) String values such as: ‘a string’ Integers and real numbers Arithmetic operations *, /, +, -

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35 An example: constraints on Polygons

An example: constraints on Polygons

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36 5.8 Detailed Example: A Class Diagram for Genealogy

5.8 Detailed Example: A Class Diagram for Genealogy

Problems A person must have two parents Marriages not properly accounted for

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37 Genealogy example: Possible solutions

Genealogy example: Possible solutions

Open in Umple

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38 5.9 The Process of Developing Class Diagrams

5.9 The Process of Developing Class Diagrams

You can create UML models at different stages and with different purposes and levels of details Exploratory domain model: Developed in domain analysis to learn about the domain System domain model: Models aspects of the domain represented by the system System model: Includes also classes used to build the user interface and system architecture

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39 System domain model vs System model

System domain model vs System model

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40 System domain model vs System model

System domain model vs System model

The system domain model omits many classes that are needed to build a complete system Can contain less than half the classes of the system. Should be developed to be used independently of particular sets of user interface classes architectural classes The complete system model includes The system domain model User interface classes Architectural classes Utility classes

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41 Suggested sequence of activities

Suggested sequence of activities

Identify a first set of candidate classes Add associations and attributes Find generalizations List the main responsibilities of each class Decide on specific operations Iterate over the entire process until the model is satisfactory Add or delete classes, associations, attributes, generalizations, responsibilities or operations Identify interfaces Apply design patterns (Chapter 6) Don’t be too disorganized. Don’t be too rigid either.

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42 Identifying classes

Identifying classes

When developing a domain model you tend to discover classes When you work on the user interface or the system architecture, you tend to invent classes Needed to solve a particular design problem (Inventing may also occur when creating a domain model) Reuse should always be a concern Frameworks System extensions Similar systems

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43 A simple technique for discovering domain classes

A simple technique for discovering domain classes

Look at a source material such as a description of requirements Extract the nouns and noun phrases Eliminate nouns that: are redundant represent instances are vague or highly general not needed in the application Pay attention to classes in a domain model that represent types of users or other actors

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44 Identifying associations and attributes

Identifying associations and attributes

Start with classes you think are most central and important Decide on the clear and obvious data it must contain and its relationships to other classes. Work outwards towards the classes that are less important. Avoid adding many associations and attributes to a class A system is simpler if it manipulates less information

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45 Tips about identifying and specifying valid associations

Tips about identifying and specifying valid associations

An association should exist if a class possesses controls is connected to is related to is a part of has as parts is a member of, or has as members some other class in your model Specify the multiplicity at both ends Label it clearly.

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46 Actions versus associations

Actions versus associations

A common mistake is to represent actions as if they were associations

Better: The

operation creates a

, and

borrow

Loan

Bad, due to the use of associations

the

operation sets the

return

returnedDate

that are actions

attribute.

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47 Identifying attributes

Identifying attributes

Look for information that must be maintained about each class Several nouns rejected as classes, may now become attributes An attribute should generally contain a simple value E.g. string, number

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48 Tips about identifying and specifying valid attributes

Tips about identifying and specifying valid attributes

It is not good to have many duplicate attributes If a subset of a class’s attributes form a coherent group, then create a distinct class containing these attributes

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49 An example (attributes and associations)

An example (attributes and associations)

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50 Identifying generalizations and interfaces

Identifying generalizations and interfaces

There are two ways to identify generalizations: bottom-up Group together similar classes creating a new superclass top-down Look for more general classes first, specialize them if needed Create an interface, instead of a superclass if The classes are very dissimilar except for having a few operations in common One or more of the classes already have their own superclasses Different implementations of the same class might be available

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51 An example (generalization)

An example (generalization)

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52 Allocating responsibilities to classes

Allocating responsibilities to classes

A responsibility is something that the system is required to do. Each functional requirement must be attributed to one of the classes All the responsibilities of a given class should be clearly related. If a class has too many responsibilities, consider splitting it into distinct classes If a class has no responsibilities attached to it, then it is probably useless When a responsibility cannot be attributed to any of the existing classes, then a new class should be created To determine responsibilities Perform use case analysis Look for verbs and nouns describing actions in the system description

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53 Categories of responsibilities

Categories of responsibilities

Setting and getting the values of attributes Creating and initializing new instances Loading to and saving from persistent storage Destroying instances Adding and deleting links of associations Copying, converting, transforming, transmitting or outputting Computing numerical results Navigating and searching Other specialized work

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54 An example (responsibilities)

An example (responsibilities)

Creating a new regular flight Searching for a flight Modifying attributes of a flight Creating a specific flight Booking a passenger Canceling a booking

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55 Prototyping a class diagram on paper

Prototyping a class diagram on paper

As you identify classes, you write their names on small cards As you identify attributes and responsibilities, you list them on the cards If you cannot fit all the responsibilities on one card: this suggests you should split the class into two related classes. Move the cards around on a whiteboard to arrange them into a class diagram. Draw lines among the cards to represent associations and generalizations.

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56 Identifying operations

Identifying operations

Operations are needed to realize the responsibilities of each class There may be several operations per responsibility The main operations that implement a responsibility are normally declared public Other methods that collaborate to perform the responsibility must be as private as possible

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57 An example (class collaboration)

An example (class collaboration)

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58 Class collaboration ‘a’

Class collaboration ‘a’

Making a bi-directional link between two existing objects; e.g. adding a link between an instance of SpecificFlight and an instance of Airplane. 1. (public) The instance of SpecificFlight makes a one-directional link to the instance of Airplane then calls operation 2. 2. (non-public) The instance of Airplane makes a one-directional link back to the instance of SpecificFlight

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SpecificFlight

Airplane

0..1

*

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59 Class collaboration ‘b’

Class collaboration ‘b’

Creating an object and linking it to an existing object e.g. creating a FlightLog, and linking it to a SpecificFlight. 1. (public) The instance of SpecificFlight calls the constructor of FlightLog (operation 2) then makes a one-directional link to the new instance of FlightLog. 2. (non-public) Class FlightLog’s constructor makes a one-directional link back to the instance of SpecificFlight.

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1

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60 Class collaboration ‘c’

Class collaboration ‘c’

Creating an association class, given two existing objects e.g. creating an instance of Booking, which will link a SpecificFlight to a PassengerRole. 1. (public) The instance of PassengerRole calls the constructor of Booking (operation 2). 2. (non-public) Class Booking’s constructor, among its other actions makes a one-directional link back to the instance of PassengerRole makes a one-directional link to the instance of SpecificFlight calls operations 3 and 4. 3. (non-public) The instance of SpecificFlight makes a one-directional link to the instance of Booking. 4. (non-public) The instance of PassengerRole makes a one-directional link to the instance of Booking.

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1

1

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61 Class collaboration ‘d’

Class collaboration ‘d’

Changing the destination of a link e.g. changing the Airplane of to a SpecificFlight, from airplane1 to airplane2 1. (public) The instance of SpecificFlight deletes the link to airplane1 makes a one-directional link to airplane2 calls operation 2 then calls operation 3. 2. (non-public) airplane1 deletes its one-directional link to the instance of SpecificFlight. 3. (non-public) airplane2 makes a one-directional link to the instance of SpecificFlight.

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62 Class collaboration ‘e’

Class collaboration ‘e’

Searching for an associated instance e.g. searching for a crew member associated with a SpecificFlight that has a certain name. 1. (public) The instance of SpecificFlight creates an Iterator over all the crewMember links of the SpecificFlight\ for each of them call operation 2, until it finds a match. 2. (may be public) The instance of EmployeeRole returns its name.

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63 5.10 Implementing Class Diagrams in Java

5.10 Implementing Class Diagrams in Java

Attributes are implemented as instance variables Generalizations are implemented using extends Interfaces are implemented using implements Associations are normally implemented using instance variables Divide each two-way association into two one-way associations so each associated class has an instance variable. For a one-way association where the multiplicity at the other end is ‘one’ or ‘optional’ declare a variable of that class (a reference) For a one-way association where the multiplicity at the other end is ‘many’: use a collection class implementing List, such as Vector

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64 Example: SpecificFlight

Example: SpecificFlight

class SpecificFlight { private Calendar date; private RegularFlight regularFlight; ... // Constructor that should only be called from // addSpecificFlight SpecificFlight( Calendar aDate, RegularFlight aRegularFlight) { date = aDate; regularFlight = aRegularFlight; } }

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65 Example: RegularFlight

Example: RegularFlight

class RegularFlight { private List specificFlights; ... // Method that has primary responsibility public void addSpecificFlight(Calendar aDate) { SpecificFlight newSpecificFlight; newSpecificFlight = new SpecificFlight(aDate, this); specificFlights.add(newSpecificFlight); } ... }

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66 5.11 Difficulties and Risks when creating class diagrams

5.11 Difficulties and Risks when creating class diagrams

Modeling is particularly difficult skill Even excellent programmers have difficulty thinking at the appropriate level of abstraction Education traditionally focus more on design and programming than modeling Resolution: Ensure that tem members have adequate training Have experienced modeler as part of the team Review all models thoroughly

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