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Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions
Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions
Language: The First Information Technology
Language: The First Information Technology
Language Families
Language Families
The Indo-European Languages
The Indo-European Languages
Tracking Language Evolution
Tracking Language Evolution
A Modern Idea
A Modern Idea
The Oldest Idea in the Book
The Oldest Idea in the Book
How We Got English
How We Got English
English is a Germanic Language
English is a Germanic Language
Word Endings
Word Endings
Dropping the Endings
Dropping the Endings
The French Influence
The French Influence
A Double Language
A Double Language
A Double Language
A Double Language
A Double Language
A Double Language
A Double Language
A Double Language
Prerequisites for Printing
Prerequisites for Printing
Advent of movable type
Advent of movable type
The Spread of Printing
The Spread of Printing
The Great Vowel Shift
The Great Vowel Shift
Why English Spelling is so Chaotic
Why English Spelling is so Chaotic
Effects of printing
Effects of printing
Change in our concept of "fact"
Change in our concept of "fact"
The printed image
The printed image
Printing, Culture, and Control
Printing, Culture, and Control

Презентация на тему: «Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions». Автор: Steven I. Dutch. Файл: «Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 58 КБ.

Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions

содержание презентации «Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions.ppt»
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1 Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions

Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions

Printing

2 Language: The First Information Technology

Language: The First Information Technology

English One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten

German Eins Zwei Drei Vier Funf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn

Latin Unus Duo Tres Quattuor Quinque Sex Septem Octo Novem Decem

Greek Ena Dio Tria Tessera Pente Hexa Hepta Okto Ennea Deka

Russian Odin Dva Tri Chetyre Pyat Shest Sem Vosem Dyevyat Dyesyat

Kurdish Eg Du Shay Char Pench Shash Haysh Heft Na Da

3 Language Families

Language Families

English One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten

Kurdish Eg Du Shay Char Pench Shash Haysh Heft Na Da

Arabic Wahid Ithnain Thalatha Arba’a Khamsa Sitta Saba Thamanya Tisa Ashra

Turkish Bir Iki Uc Dort Bes Alti Yedi Sekiz Dokuz On

4 The Indo-European Languages

The Indo-European Languages

Germanic English, German, Dutch, Scandinavian Romance (From Latin) French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian Slavic Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian Others: Hellenic, Iranian, Indian, etc.

5 Tracking Language Evolution

Tracking Language Evolution

Historical Documents Words resistant to borrowing (small numbers, self, mother, sun, etc.) Patterns of Sound Change Grammatical Structures Genetics Search for the Proto-Language

6 A Modern Idea

A Modern Idea

Alfa Hotel Oscar Victor Bravo India Papa Whiskey Charlie Juliet Quebec X-Ray Delta Kilo Romeo Yankee Echo Lima Sierra Zulu Foxtrot Mike Tango Golf November Uniform

7 The Oldest Idea in the Book

The Oldest Idea in the Book

In a pre-literate world, the best way to learn the alphabet is to use words as mnemonics, not meaningless syllables

Hebrew 1000 B.C. Aleph - Ox Beth - House Gimel - Camel Daleth - Door

Old Slavic 1000 A.D. Az (I) Buki (Beech Tree) Vedi (Know) Glagol (Word) Dobro (Good)

8 How We Got English

How We Got English

Pre-Roman Britain was Celtic Only a few place names are relics (Ben for mountain, glen for valley) Romans occupied Britain Castra, military camp, survives in Lancaster, Worcester, Manchester Angles and Saxons invaded starting in the 5th Century Largely wiped the linguistic slate clean

9 English is a Germanic Language

English is a Germanic Language

Closest language is Frisian, spoken by 300,000 in Holland and Germany Closest national language to English is Dutch About 80% of our small everyday words (day, word, father, mother, sun, moon) are Germanic Sometimes the relationship is hard to see: Vogel isn’t much like bird but very similar to fowl

10 Word Endings

Word Endings

The Dog Bites the Man is not the same as The Man Bites the Dog -but- Der Hund beisst den Mann means exactly the same as Den Mann beisst der Hund

11 Dropping the Endings

Dropping the Endings

Languages that use word endings for meaning are called inflected England was partly occupied by the Vikings beginning in 865 A.D. Vikings and Anglo-Saxons spoke Germanic languages but differed in word endings We just dropped the word endings (except for plural s, possessive ‘s, and a few others)

12 The French Influence

The French Influence

In 911 the King of France gave part of France to a Viking chief in return for protection This region, settled by the “Norsemen,” came to be called Normandy In 1066, William of Normandy (a Viking descendant) defeated Harold (also a Viking descendant) and conquered England By this time, the Normans spoke French

13 A Double Language

A Double Language

More earthy terms tend to be Anglo-Saxon, more abstract synonyms French: Friendship Amity Freedom Liberty Love Affection

14 A Double Language

A Double Language

Rural and small-town occupation names are often English, more urban or technical ones French: Baker Carpenter Miller Painter Weaver Mason

15 A Double Language

A Double Language

French government terms reflect a more complex society than Anglo-Saxon terms King Governor Queen Parliament

16 A Double Language

A Double Language

The English grew it, the French cooked it Sheep Mutton Cow Beef Deer Venison Of course, many cooking terms are French: Fry, Broil

17 Prerequisites for Printing

Prerequisites for Printing

Paper! Cheap, abundant, smooth and absorbent. Far better for printing than papyrus or vellum. Means of printing impressions. Chinese wood-block printing. Wood block used in Europe in 14th century for religious pictures and cards. Laurenz Janzoon (1420-30) used blocks for individual letters. Press adapted from wine-making, book-binding, paper-making

18 Advent of movable type

Advent of movable type

Metal type used ca. 1430 in Holland to stamp copper plates. Lead poured on to copper to make printing face Gutenberg ca. 1450 used dies as masters to cast copies of letters. Early type letters Pb-Sn (for corrosion resistance) - Sb (for hardness). Basically modern composition. Type metal is one of the oldest unchanged industrial materials.

19 The Spread of Printing

The Spread of Printing

By 1480, there were printing presses in 110 towns. Ten million books in print by 1500. Aldus Manutius of Venice (d. 1515). First cheap mass-market books. William Caxton, 1476, first press in England

20 The Great Vowel Shift

The Great Vowel Shift

Almost all English “long” vowels are diphthongs or blends of vowel sounds “a” in “bay” = a + i as in “bait” “i” as in “bite” = e + i as in “height” “o” as in “go” = o + u as in “though” We also dropped or changed guttural “gh”: cough, through, light, sight

21 Why English Spelling is so Chaotic

Why English Spelling is so Chaotic

Great Vowel Shift happened just as English was first being printed Caxton used the spelling system of Chaucer (ca. 1400) Result: English was set into print with an already-obsolete spelling system Also, English has borrowed from just about every other language and preserved their spelling

22 Effects of printing

Effects of printing

Vast increase in literacy. Rapid dissemination of ideas. Standardization and simplification of spelling. (& from Latin et and % from p/c are relics of pre-printing days) Stimulus toward accuracy.

23 Change in our concept of "fact"

Change in our concept of "fact"

Before printing, documents were suspect as too easily forged. Eyewitnesses and personal testimony were considered more reliable. Printing made documents more authoritative than personal testimony. Hard to fake printed documents. Before printing, people relied on memory to store facts. Printing changed the concept of "fact" to "printed fact"; "show me in black and white.” Electronic forgery: we have come full circle from pre-printing days

24 The printed image

The printed image

Wood-cut along with type. Itaglio-engraved metal. Copper plates with engraved lines did for pictures what type did for text. Lithography. Zinc plate, 1868. Photography-halftone method. Xerography, computer graphics, etc.

25 Printing, Culture, and Control

Printing, Culture, and Control

Europe: mass literature China: official documents, validation Islamic World: suppressed until 19th century Modern corporate and government attempts to control Internet, copyrights, etc.

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