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Private and public partnership in education: Charter schools in the
Private and public partnership in education: Charter schools in the
Overview
Overview
School reform in the states
School reform in the states
Charter school concept
Charter school concept
Original goals for charter schools
Original goals for charter schools
Summary of state studies of student achievement in charter schools
Summary of state studies of student achievement in charter schools
Reasons why goals for charter schools have not been achieved
Reasons why goals for charter schools have not been achieved
Current trends in charter schools
Current trends in charter schools
Questions policymakers should be asking
Questions policymakers should be asking
More specific questions policy-makers should be asking
More specific questions policy-makers should be asking
Even as original goals for charter schools are largely ignored,
Even as original goals for charter schools are largely ignored,
Recommendations for legislation
Recommendations for legislation
Education Management Organizations (EMOs)
Education Management Organizations (EMOs)
Number of EMOs by Size and Year
Number of EMOs by Size and Year
Number of Schools Operated by EMOs by Size and Year
Number of Schools Operated by EMOs by Size and Year
Number of Students in EMO-Operated Schools, by Size and Year
Number of Students in EMO-Operated Schools, by Size and Year
General trends regarding EMOs
General trends regarding EMOs
Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement
Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement
Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement
Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement
Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement
Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement
EMOs: So What
EMOs: So What
School choice reforms
School choice reforms
School choice reforms
School choice reforms
Why school choice: Review of relevant theory
Why school choice: Review of relevant theory
What is school choice
What is school choice
School choice: Why not
School choice: Why not
School Choice - When
School Choice - When
School Choice - Where
School Choice - Where
Actual School Choice Provisions in OECD and Select PISA Countries
Actual School Choice Provisions in OECD and Select PISA Countries
Support for School Choice in OECD Countries
Support for School Choice in OECD Countries
Money following the student in OECD countries
Money following the student in OECD countries
How: Diverse types of school choice
How: Diverse types of school choice
So what
So what

Презентация: «Private and public partnership in education: Charter schools in the USA». Автор: Gary Miron. Файл: «Private and public partnership in education: Charter schools in the USA.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 1180 КБ.

Private and public partnership in education: Charter schools in the USA

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1 Private and public partnership in education: Charter schools in the

Private and public partnership in education: Charter schools in the

USA With notes about Grundtvig, Monty Python, and trends in school choice internationally

Gary Miron, Professor of Evaluation, Measurement, and Research Western Michigan University Conference on The State and Market in Education: Partnership or Competition? 19 March , 2014

2 Overview

Overview

School reform in the USA Charter schools Private Education Management Organizations (EMOs) School choice in international context Patenting and copying ideas across countries What we know about school choice outcomes

3 School reform in the states

School reform in the states

Grundtvig has had influence, both direct and indirect. There are also parallels between Gruntvig’s ideas and the ideas of some progressive school reformers in the USA. Dewey, Highlander Center, Alternative schools, and charter schools Alternative schools recaptured by traditional public schools (LEAs) Charter schools hijacked by private sector interests

4 Charter school concept

Charter school concept

Figure 1. Illustration of the Charter School Concept (adopted from Miron and Nelson, 2002, p.4).

5 Original goals for charter schools

Original goals for charter schools

Empower local actors and communities. Enhance opportunities for parent involvement. Create new opportunities for school choice with open access for all. Develop innovations in curriculum and instruction Enhance professional autonomy and opportunities for professional development for teachers. Create high performing schools where children would learn more. Create highly accountable schools.

6 Summary of state studies of student achievement in charter schools

Summary of state studies of student achievement in charter schools

7 Reasons why goals for charter schools have not been achieved

Reasons why goals for charter schools have not been achieved

Lack of effective oversight and insufficient accountability Insufficient autonomy Inefficient use of resources Privatization and pursuit of profits High attrition of teachers and administrators Rapid growth of reforms Strong and effective lobbying and advocacy groups for charter schools

8 Current trends in charter schools

Current trends in charter schools

More homogeneity among the charter schools Increasingly stronger role for school leaders and management companies EMOs now start their own schools rather than wait for an invitation from existing schools or a community planning group to start a school An increasing number of charter schools Further segmentation of public schools by race, class, and ability Decreasing provision at secondary level Increasing school size Rapid growth of virtual schools

9 Questions policymakers should be asking

Questions policymakers should be asking

Can we create better public schools through de-regulation and demands for greater accountability? How are charter schools using the opportunity provided them? The answers to these questions require comprehensive evaluations—resisting the dodge that every charter school is its own reform and should be looked at separately.

10 More specific questions policy-makers should be asking

More specific questions policy-makers should be asking

How can charter school laws be revised to create more accountable schools? How can funding formulae be changed to ensure that charter schools will seek to enroll more ‘costly-to-educate’ students. How can incentives and regulations be used to ensure poorly performing charter schools will be closed? Are there better uses for public resources than charter schools?

11 Even as original goals for charter schools are largely ignored,

Even as original goals for charter schools are largely ignored,

charter schools fulfill other purposes

Charter schools facilitate privatization of our public school system Charter schools accelerate the re-segregation of public schools by race, class, and ability Charter schools provide model for reform, even though evidence shows that they do not work Who stole my charter school reform?

12 Recommendations for legislation

Recommendations for legislation

Create or refuse to lift caps on charter schools in order to exert pressure for accountability. Leverage federal funds to ensure greater accountability for charter schools. Provide funding for oversight, but require repayment of funds from authorizers when the schools they oversee are failing. Curtail the influence and power of the charter school establishment.

13 Education Management Organizations (EMOs)

Education Management Organizations (EMOs)

EMOs: What are they? Private contractors that operate public schools Executive control, accountable for outcomes Vendor vs. EMO? For-profits vs. Nonprofits & CMOs EMO Profiles Project: What is it? Statistical digest Profiles of EMOs & lists of schools Project of the National Education Policy Center 14th Edition released in 2013

14 Number of EMOs by Size and Year

Number of EMOs by Size and Year

For-profit EMOs

Nonprofit EMOs

15 Number of Schools Operated by EMOs by Size and Year

Number of Schools Operated by EMOs by Size and Year

For-profit EMOs

Nonprofit EMOs

16 Number of Students in EMO-Operated Schools, by Size and Year

Number of Students in EMO-Operated Schools, by Size and Year

For-profit EMOs

Nonprofit EMOs

17 General trends regarding EMOs

General trends regarding EMOs

Trend for single school operators to move to multiple school operators Small-scale or limited service operators moving toward full service operators Private conversions and some founders now starting their own company to retain/gain financial control/interest in the school The number of EMOs and their portion of the education market is increasing rapidly in the nation, the charter school sector, the contract sector and the provision of other services such as tutoring, after school care, vocational programs, juvenile services, etc.

18 Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement

Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement

Enforce requirements to recruit students from all sectors of the district Restrict maximum enrollment of charter schools to between 250 and 350 Require provision of transportation and other services, or deduct the cost for these from per pupil grants to charter schools Require full disclosure of how public funds are used by private companies

19 Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement

Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement

Require charter school boards to consider two or more different bids from different EMOs Make efforts to ensure that the board members are not personally or professionally connected with the EMO Limit length of contracts between charter schools and EMOs to no more than the length of the charter, but preferably less

20 Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement

Safeguards to restrict EMO involvement

Provide more, not less money for start-up Ensure equal access to start up money based on projected enrollments. Competitive applications for start up money favor EMOs who have experience and qualified personnel for grant writing Base per pupil grants on average district costs for students at same level (elementary, middle and high school) rather than on average costs across all 3 levels

21 EMOs: So What

EMOs: So What

Horse in front of the cart Veil of privacy? Lack of accountability Stockholders vs. taxpayers Require competitive bidding? Require arms-length agreement? Distortion of charter school concept

22 School choice reforms

School choice reforms

School choice is a reform idea that is widely debated and contested (school choice means different things to different people) The debate often overlooks the diverse forms of school choice and the differences in how these reforms can be designed School choice can be designed to pursue a range of outcomes Choice rules can be written to reduce isolation by race, class, or special needs status. Or, they can be used as a vehicle for accelerating resegregation of our public school systems.

23 School choice reforms

School choice reforms

Choice reforms can promote innovation and diverse options from which parents can choose; or, they can result in a stratified marketplace that appeals to conservative consumers who eschew innovation. School choice reforms have the potential to promote accountability or—if the oversight mechanisms are not in place—choice plans can facilitate the circumvention or avoidance of oversight

24 Why school choice: Review of relevant theory

Why school choice: Review of relevant theory

Parents right. School choice as an end in itself. Market accountability on new schools Market theory: threat of choice Economic theory on sorting effect and efficiency Belief in innovation in private organizations

25 What is school choice

What is school choice

Parents and students choosing schools School choice always exists, at least for some For choice to be meaningful, there needs to be a diversity of options Most say they want choice, but most still do not exercise choice

26 School choice: Why not

School choice: Why not

Segregation. Winners and losers. Hank Levin: framework for evaluating vouchers Social cohesion, Productivity, Efficiency, Equity My own thinking: Splitting limited resources across dual or parallel systems.

27 School Choice - When

School Choice - When

As policy objective we can see most current school choice reforms with roots in 1980s and 1990s. Some school choice reforms have existed for more than a century in countries like Netherlands. Old choice reforms actually choice in provider but not real choice in school profiles, etc. Shifts in goals and purposes of public schools over time. (Miron 2009. “Shifting notion of publicness”)

28 School Choice - Where

School Choice - Where

UK 1987-88 Sweden 1992 USA - magnet schools in 80s, charter schools in 90s, exploration of vouchers since 50s New Zealand @1990s - Independent schools Back to the UK

29 Actual School Choice Provisions in OECD and Select PISA Countries

Actual School Choice Provisions in OECD and Select PISA Countries

30 Support for School Choice in OECD Countries

Support for School Choice in OECD Countries

31 Money following the student in OECD countries

Money following the student in OECD countries

32 How: Diverse types of school choice

How: Diverse types of school choice

Private providers and public support for private providers (vouchers) Intra-district choice Inter-district choice Charter schools Homeschooling Virtual schools Other thoughts: Choice by location Choice within schools

33 So what

So what

What have we learned?

Parent satisfaction Segregation based on race/ethnicity, social class, ability, language of instruction Innovation/lack of diversity of options Empowering teachers? Impact on student performance on standardized assessments Effects of competition

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