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Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural
Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural
Structure of the talk
Structure of the talk
Our work on prosody forms part of a wider goal: to try to develop an
Our work on prosody forms part of a wider goal: to try to develop an
Heres an example: You stop talking when I tell you to stop talking
Heres an example: You stop talking when I tell you to stop talking
The complexity of utterances
The complexity of utterances
Our research aims to explore: The meanings of prosody
Our research aims to explore: The meanings of prosody
Procedural meanings have been described as instructions:
Procedural meanings have been described as instructions:
Procedural meaning has also been described as a guide
Procedural meaning has also been described as a guide
introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other
introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other
Wilson and Wharton (2006) suggest that there are three varieties of
Wilson and Wharton (2006) suggest that there are three varieties of
Natural meaning (Grice 1957) arises because of a causal connection
Natural meaning (Grice 1957) arises because of a causal connection
Natural signs: are not inherently communicative (this is not their
Natural signs: are not inherently communicative (this is not their
introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other
introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other
Natural signals: are inherently communicative (this is their main
Natural signals: are inherently communicative (this is their main
Natural signals: are inherently communicative (this is their main
Natural signals: are inherently communicative (this is their main
Wharton (2003, 2009) illustrates the sign-signal distinction in human
Wharton (2003, 2009) illustrates the sign-signal distinction in human
To summarise, then, there are three types of prosodic inputs:
To summarise, then, there are three types of prosodic inputs:
Weve been developing a proposal for some tones (fall, rise, fall-rise
Weve been developing a proposal for some tones (fall, rise, fall-rise
In developing our account, we aim to account for the
In developing our account, we aim to account for the
We followed previous approaches (e
We followed previous approaches (e
FALL:
FALL:
FALL:
FALL:
RISE:
RISE:
FALL RISE :
FALL RISE :
Interaction between conceptual and procedural meaning: disappointed
Interaction between conceptual and procedural meaning: disappointed
Interaction between conceptual and procedural meaning: Sometimes, the
Interaction between conceptual and procedural meaning: Sometimes, the
Any coding that functions to narrow down the search space for
Any coding that functions to narrow down the search space for
Facial expressions: Smiling and other spontaneous facial expressions
Facial expressions: Smiling and other spontaneous facial expressions
Gestures:
Gestures:
Ultimate aim: to account for the interaction of all kinds of
Ultimate aim: to account for the interaction of all kinds of
Questions:
Questions:
There are still many questions to explore, including empirical
There are still many questions to explore, including empirical
THE END  THANK YOU
THE END THANK YOU

: Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural meaning. : billy clark. : Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural meaning.ppt. zip-: 943 .

Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural meaning

Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural meaning.ppt
1 Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural

Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural

meaning

Procedural meaning: problems and perspectives UNED, Madrid, October 2009

Billy Clark b.clark@mdx.ac.uk

Tim Wharton twharton@clara.co.uk

2 Structure of the talk

Structure of the talk

Introduction Procedural meaning Prosody Prosody and other meanings Questions

3 Our work on prosody forms part of a wider goal: to try to develop an

Our work on prosody forms part of a wider goal: to try to develop an

account of how linguistic and non-linguistic behaviours interact in the interpretation of utterances. Any analysis must focus on one aspect of meaning at a time. Ultimately, though, we aim to integrate analyses in order to account for overall interpretations in context.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

4 Heres an example: You stop talking when I tell you to stop talking

Heres an example: You stop talking when I tell you to stop talking

Weve had a complaint from the teacher across the hall about how much noise youve been making. Ive been busy doing something Youve been getting out of hand here. You will settle down now and you will stay that way

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

5 The complexity of utterances

The complexity of utterances

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3aGSl6tCQM0

6 Our research aims to explore: The meanings of prosody

Our research aims to explore: The meanings of prosody

How conceptual and procedural meanings interact in the interpretation of utterances, with reference to prosody and to other linguistic and non-linguistic behaviour. (3) General theoretical questions about the nature of conceptual and procedural meaning, and about natural and non-natural meanings involved in linguistic and non-linguistic communication.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

7 Procedural meanings have been described as instructions:

Procedural meanings have been described as instructions:

Procedural lexical items encode instructions for processing propositional representations (Blakemore 1992: 151). An analysis of although: what follows (i.e. P) contradicts, but does not eliminate, X. X is an aspect of the interpretation of Q. (Iten 1998: 20)

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

8 Procedural meaning has also been described as a guide

Procedural meaning has also been described as a guide

[Prosodic procedural information] guides the listener in how to proceed: how to access the relevant cognitive context within which to interpret the speakers contribution, how to evaluate that contribution, and how to construct the interaction itself, to enable the communication to take place. (House 2007)

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

9 introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other

meanings - questions

10 Wilson and Wharton (2006) suggest that there are three varieties of

Wilson and Wharton (2006) suggest that there are three varieties of

prosodic meaning:

Prosodic inputs

Linguistic

Natural

Signals

Signs

Coding (plus inference)

Coding

Inference

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

11 Natural meaning (Grice 1957) arises because of a causal connection

Natural meaning (Grice 1957) arises because of a causal connection

between the phenomenon and its meaning (smoke means fire). A distinction between natural signs and natural signals is based on a distinction made by Hauser (1996) in looking at animal communication.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

12 Natural signs: are not inherently communicative (this is not their

Natural signs: are not inherently communicative (this is not their

main function) and are understood by inference.

e.g. chimpanzee nests provide evidence (to forest monkeys) of the presence of chimpanzees but they are not built in order to communicate this (they would still build them even if there were no forest monkeys to interpret this evidence) Tree rings are another example

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

13 introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other

meanings - questions

14 Natural signals: are inherently communicative (this is their main

Natural signals: are inherently communicative (this is their main

function) and are understood by a process of decoding.

e.g. honeybee dances provide information about the location of nectar (there is no reason to assume the dances would exist if they did not have this communicative function) The alarm calls of vervet monkeys are another example

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

15 Natural signals: are inherently communicative (this is their main

Natural signals: are inherently communicative (this is their main

function) and are understood by a process of decoding.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

16 Wharton (2003, 2009) illustrates the sign-signal distinction in human

Wharton (2003, 2009) illustrates the sign-signal distinction in human

behaviour by considering shivering and smiling.

Shivering might provide evidence that someone is cold but its main function is to provide heat through rapid muscle movement. Smiling, on the other hand, seems to have evolved to fulfil a communicative function.

Wilson and Wharton claim that there are prosodic inputs which count as examples of natural signs and natural signals, as well as linguistic prosodic inputs.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

17 To summarise, then, there are three types of prosodic inputs:

To summarise, then, there are three types of prosodic inputs:

Natural signs: (comparable to shivering) provide evidence for a conclusion but are not designed to be communicative, e.g. prosody affected by tiredness/nervousness/ drunkenness, etc. Natural signals: (comparable to smiling) reveal information via innately determined interpretive codes, e.g. affective tones of voice Linguistic prosody: (comparable to other linguistic expressions) provide coded information which is the starting point for inferential interpretation

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

18 Weve been developing a proposal for some tones (fall, rise, fall-rise

Weve been developing a proposal for some tones (fall, rise, fall-rise

level) of an idealised version of a variety of Southern British English (Clark 2007). In each case, were assuming an idealised speaker with no variation and ignoring both the fact that there are a range of different ways of realising each of the different tones and the effects of different tonicity.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

19 In developing our account, we aim to account for the

In developing our account, we aim to account for the

intuitions/observations that:

Falls seem to be default tones, in some sense Intonational meaning seems to be natural in some sense (can be understood as having a large pragmatic component)

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

20 We followed previous approaches (e

We followed previous approaches (e

g. Fretheim 1998, Escandell-Vidal 2002) in assuming that the tones guide hearers in constructing higher-level explicatures (explicatures which contain other embedded explicatures). At each stage we proposed as little linguistic encoding as we felt was needed in order to help account for the interpretation of utterances with the tone we were looking at.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

21 FALL:

FALL:

The proposition expressed is entertained as either a description of a state of affairs or as an interpretation of a thought of someone other than the speaker at the time of utterance.

There is a sense in which this is a default tone (in this variety of English) and this proposed analysis could be understood as a rather complex way of actually not stating very much (since all utterances could be understood either as descriptions or interpretations like this).

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

22 FALL:

FALL:

The proposition expressed is entertained as either a description of a state of affairs or as an interpretation of a thought of someone other than the speaker at the time of utterance.

This is consistent with a wide range of uses, including statements, questions, attributed speech and thought

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

23 RISE:

RISE:

An explicature of the utterance is entertained as an interpretation of a thought not entertained by the speaker at the time of utterance.

This encodes something quite specific but only about one explicature of the utterance and so this is consistent with a wide range of interpretations (including some that seem very similar to what is possible for falls, e.g. uptalk).

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

24 FALL RISE :

FALL RISE :

The proposition expressed is entertained as either a description of a state of affairs or as an interpretation of a thought of someone other than the speaker at the time of utterance AND an explicature of the utterance is entertained as an interpretation of a thought not entertained by the speaker at the time of utterance.

This sees fall-rise as amounting roughly to what might have been compositionally derived from the combination of a fall and a rise.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

25 Interaction between conceptual and procedural meaning: disappointed

Interaction between conceptual and procedural meaning: disappointed

encodes a general concept: DISAPPOINTED (covering a range of degrees and types of disappointment). What the speaker may intend to express is a narrower concept, indicated by her tone of voice, facial expression, etc. Thus, the hearer will understand the speaker as expressing a narrowed concept DISAPPOINTED* commensurate with the degree and type of disappointment the speaker intends to convey.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

26 Interaction between conceptual and procedural meaning: Sometimes, the

Interaction between conceptual and procedural meaning: Sometimes, the

speaker might be less disappointed.

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

27 Any coding that functions to narrow down the search space for

Any coding that functions to narrow down the search space for

contextual assumptions during the inferential phase of comprehension is a candidate for procedural encoding. Questions: Can/should we distinguish guides from instructions? Procedures from meta-procedures?

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

28 Facial expressions: Smiling and other spontaneous facial expressions

Facial expressions: Smiling and other spontaneous facial expressions

have been selected and refined over the course of evolution for their role in social communication, (Ekman 1999, 51)

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

29 Gestures:

Gestures:

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

30 Ultimate aim: to account for the interaction of all kinds of

Ultimate aim: to account for the interaction of all kinds of

linguistic and non-linguistic communication:

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

31 Questions:

Questions:

How can we decide which elements of prosody are linguistic and which are not? How can we draw distinctions between linguistic coding, natural coding and purely cultural coding?

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

32 There are still many questions to explore, including empirical

There are still many questions to explore, including empirical

questions about the existence of these different kinds of coding, how well the proposal handles existing data and how it might be tested by informant judgements, perceptual experiments, etc.

Our idealised analyses of tones are consistent with a wide range of interpretations of utterances. Can we show that they make it possible to explain how interpretations are actually inferred in context?

introduction - procedural meaning - prosody - prosody and other meanings - questions

33 THE END  THANK YOU

THE END THANK YOU

b.clark@mdx.ac.uk twharton@clara.co.uk

Prosody: conceptual and procedural meaning; natural and non-natural meaning
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