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Re-use & Second Use of advanced rechargeable batteries for e-mobility
Re-use & Second Use of advanced rechargeable batteries for e-mobility
Can it be a realistic option for EV-batteries life cycle extension
Can it be a realistic option for EV-batteries life cycle extension
Prior to answering that question
Prior to answering that question
1. The market expectation of industry & government of e-mobility by
1. The market expectation of industry & government of e-mobility by
2. Legislation: terms used in litterature
2. Legislation: terms used in litterature
2. Legislation: terms defined
2. Legislation: terms defined
3. Legislation - EU Political context
3. Legislation - EU Political context
3. Availability of EV-batteries (schematic view)
3. Availability of EV-batteries (schematic view)
4. Does it make sense technologically
4. Does it make sense technologically
4. Does it make sense technologically
4. Does it make sense technologically
5. Does it make sense economically
5. Does it make sense economically
Prices of battery materials are decreasing
Prices of battery materials are decreasing
IERC 2015 - Salzburg – DELL presentation
IERC 2015 - Salzburg – DELL presentation
These considerations give an indication
These considerations give an indication
And what about
And what about
Business example 1: the Renault model
Business example 1: the Renault model
Business example 2: BMW – BOSCH - Vattenfall
Business example 2: BMW – BOSCH - Vattenfall
Business example 3: Field study by VW
Business example 3: Field study by VW
Business example 4: e-mobility industrial batteries
Business example 4: e-mobility industrial batteries
Business example 5: Ford of North America
Business example 5: Ford of North America
Our current position - Re-use
Our current position - Re-use
Our current position - Second Use
Our current position - Second Use

Презентация: «Re-use Second Use of advanced rechargeable batteries for e-mobility in Europe». Автор: Fran?oise Moehler. Файл: «Re-use Second Use of advanced rechargeable batteries for e-mobility in Europe.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 2295 КБ.

Re-use Second Use of advanced rechargeable batteries for e-mobility in Europe

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1 Re-use & Second Use of advanced rechargeable batteries for e-mobility

Re-use & Second Use of advanced rechargeable batteries for e-mobility

in Europe.

Follow-up of WRBRF, May 2013

PPT 8.1.

6th. WRBRF - 2015 Berlin, Germany March 23-24, 2015

2 Can it be a realistic option for EV-batteries life cycle extension

Can it be a realistic option for EV-batteries life cycle extension

prior to recycling, to meet the EU Resource and Energy Efficiency objectives ?

Follow-up of WRBRF, May 2013

PPT 8.1.

6th. WRBRF - 2015 Berlin, Germany March 23-24, 2015

3 Prior to answering that question

Prior to answering that question

..

A couple of considerations should be examined: What’s the market going to look like ? What does the law say ? What’s the availability of batteries ? Does it make sense technologically ? Does it make sense economically ? Show a few business examples Present our current position

Can it be a realistic option for EV-batteries life cycle extension prior to recycling, to meet the Resource and Energy Efficiency objectives ?

3

4 1. The market expectation of industry & government of e-mobility by

1. The market expectation of industry & government of e-mobility by

2020

Germany < 30,000 units in 2015 (IQPC-de)

4

5 2. Legislation: terms used in litterature

2. Legislation: terms used in litterature

Re-use

Second use

Second hand

Double use

Re-pairing

Re-purposing

Re-manufacturing

Re-labelling

Re-building

Re-designing

Re-conditioning

Each of these ‘actions’ have different legal & economic implications for the seller, the buyer, and the user !

5

6 2. Legislation: terms defined

2. Legislation: terms defined

No definition

6

7 3. Legislation - EU Political context

3. Legislation - EU Political context

< EU Commission Fitness Check of the waste regulations - during 2013 - 2014 >

Priority according the Waste hierarchy Extend product life ? re-use ? recycle

The Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe concludes that if waste is to become a resource to be fed back into the economy as a raw material, then much higher priority needs to be given to re-use and recycling. The 2020 milestone for the EU should be to achieve a state where waste is managed as a resource. .

7

8 3. Availability of EV-batteries (schematic view)

3. Availability of EV-batteries (schematic view)

Sales of electric cars started slowly from 2010 onwards and is expected to take-off by 2020

gap

units

gap

year

sales

ELV & recycling

2020

2025 ~

2010

2015

Warranty – quality control returns to OEM

Car Service Life 10-15 years

Return Rate <<< Rate of POM

9 4. Does it make sense technologically

4. Does it make sense technologically

(Reference: Batteries2014)

9

10 4. Does it make sense technologically

4. Does it make sense technologically

Stationary battery packs with the latest technology might be more reliable and better than a 12-year old used battery (how used ?) This battery was initially designed for an automotive or industrial mobile application As an old and used battery, this battery has to be converted to a stationary application (including BMS)

Does it make sense from a technologically point-of-view to put an old battery technology in a new high-tech device ?

10

11 5. Does it make sense economically

5. Does it make sense economically

Also an issue for the recycling industry !

Ref. ICBR2014

11

12 Prices of battery materials are decreasing

Prices of battery materials are decreasing

The constant market price decrease of Li batteries, makes each battery manufactured 10 years ago not very competitive

12

13 IERC 2015 - Salzburg – DELL presentation

IERC 2015 - Salzburg – DELL presentation

Challenges for a circular economy: use resources more effectively Sometimes re-use only possible if transfer from customer in one country to refurbishment in another country Less valuable materials in the products Large volumes are lost out of the formal waste streams Basel convention: current proposed guidance does not promote re-use

13

14 These considerations give an indication

These considerations give an indication

..

1. What’s the market going to look like ? Optimistic 6-8 million on the road – big uncertainty 2. What does the law say ? Unclear, need for harmonized definitions, legal gap with (extended) producer responsibilities 3. What’s the availability of batteries ? Depends on the market availability – big uncertainty 4. Does it make sense technologically ? Old technology (10-12 years old at a time of rapid technical battery developments) in a new stationary device ? Who would want that ? 5. Does it make sense economically ? With the current material values, not likely

14

15 And what about

And what about

..

Warranty of the original usage / warranty of the re-use or second use ? who’s responsible ? Insurance policy issues in case of incident (fire) Battery in the vehicle – part of the vehicle Battery in the vehicle, used for energy storage at home, or being charged in the garage at home Car insurance ? Home insurance ? Where’s the consumer protection when different parties are involved in producer responsibility issues, product warranty, insurance matters ?

15

16 Business example 1: the Renault model

Business example 1: the Renault model

The industrial battery stays in ownership of Renault. The battery is leased. A practical solution to control the complete value chain. It allows Renault to decide whether a battery should be re-used, go for second use, or be offered for recycling.

Key: there’s no basic change of ownership

16

17 Business example 2: BMW – BOSCH - Vattenfall

Business example 2: BMW – BOSCH - Vattenfall

Project Batteries of the BMW i3 will get a second life as buffer storage for solar or wind facilities. To start by end 2015.

BMW expects that aftermarket alternatives or refurbished batteries will hit the market at some time in the future.

17

18 Business example 3: Field study by VW

Business example 3: Field study by VW

In a pilot project, VW and LichtBlick (Green energy provider) want to use electric cars as forms of energy storage.

From November 2013 onwards, VW will equip 20 households in Berlin with electric cars of E-Up type. The cars will be modified, enabling their batteries to feed electricity into the grid. The batteries will be charged in times when solar panels and wind turbines produce large amounts of energy and the price for electricity is low. In times of acute energy shortages, when the price for electricity is very high, the e-car can feed electricity into the grid, enabling their owners to make money. Combined energy storage to increase demand for electric cars Field-study scientifically supported by Fraunhofer

18

19 Business example 4: e-mobility industrial batteries

Business example 4: e-mobility industrial batteries

Research initiative in the Netherlands

19

20 Business example 5: Ford of North America

Business example 5: Ford of North America

20

21 Our current position - Re-use

Our current position - Re-use

RECHARGE supports the re-use of batteries for their original applications. This requires that quality, performances and safety standards are observed before placing the battery for a second time on the market

21

22 Our current position - Second Use

Our current position - Second Use

RECHARGE only supports the second use of batteries when the battery remains under the responsibility of the first producer, acting as the first entity placing the battery on the market. In absence of a legal basis and clear minimum requirements , RECHARGE does not support second use of batteries, when there is a transfer of ownership, as there are too many unknown factors that could impact product’s reliability and end users safety.

22

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