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Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Learning objectives
Learning objectives
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
What can communication do
What can communication do
Effective health programs
Effective health programs
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Cost-effective tip
Cost-effective tip
Understand Your Audience
Understand Your Audience
Who are you trying to reach
Who are you trying to reach
Ask
Ask
CDC Audience Insights
CDC Audience Insights
Develop Strong Content
Develop Strong Content
User-focused writing
User-focused writing
Plain language
Plain language
Tips for writing plainly
Tips for writing plainly
Avoid excess words
Avoid excess words
Simple is better
Simple is better
Plain: Before and after
Plain: Before and after
Health concepts
Health concepts
Graphic design and visuals
Graphic design and visuals
Whats wrong with this picture
Whats wrong with this picture
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Cultural Competence
Cultural Competence
Components of cultural competence
Components of cultural competence
Culturally competent guiding values
Culturally competent guiding values
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
How cultures vary
How cultures vary
Attitudes and values
Attitudes and values
Low Literacy
Low Literacy
Never underestimate the need
Never underestimate the need
Literacy
Literacy
NIDA low-literacy website
NIDA low-literacy website
Preference for homepage that showed a human face; mixed reactions to
Preference for homepage that showed a human face; mixed reactions to
Sample design guidelines
Sample design guidelines
Plain language, scannable text
Plain language, scannable text
Inspire Action
Inspire Action
The power of words
The power of words
Focus on behavior
Focus on behavior
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
Create motivation
Create motivation
Behavior theory
Behavior theory
Does fear work
Does fear work
Positive emotional appeals
Positive emotional appeals
What about humor
What about humor
What makes messages go viral
What makes messages go viral
Test Your Materials
Test Your Materials
Ask for input
Ask for input
Reach Your Audience
Reach Your Audience
Consider your dissemination strategy
Consider your dissemination strategy
The ever-evolving web
The ever-evolving web
Considering social media
Considering social media
Why Twitter
Why Twitter
Social media is more than Facebook and Twitter
Social media is more than Facebook and Twitter
The Digital Divide still exists
The Digital Divide still exists
But mobile is closing the gap
But mobile is closing the gap
The rise of texting
The rise of texting
NCI Smokefree TXT
NCI Smokefree TXT
Text4Baby
Text4Baby
Find dissemination partners
Find dissemination partners
In Closing
In Closing
3 more tips for getting creative with limited resources
3 more tips for getting creative with limited resources
Thank you
Thank you

: Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications. : ahorowitz. : Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications.ppt. zip-: 7198 .

Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications

Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications.ppt
1 Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications

Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications

Heather Pierce, MPH May 9, 2012

2 Learning objectives

Learning objectives

Describe characteristics of effective health messages. Learn cost-effective ways to create clear and compelling health communications materials. Learn how technology and social media can help increase your audience reach and engagement.

3 Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
4 What can communication do

What can communication do

Communication can: Increase knowledge and awareness of problems. Influence and reinforce perceptions, beliefs, attitudes and norms. Prompt action. Communication cannot: Compensate for inadequate or inaccessible services. Produce sustained change in absence of parallel changes in services, technology, and policy.

Source: Making health communication programs work, 2nd ed., NCI, 2002.

5 Effective health programs

Effective health programs

Use audience research and theory to design effective messages and create dissemination strategies that move audiences to action or link them to available services.

6 Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
7 Cost-effective tip

Cost-effective tip

Use Microsoft templates and SmartArt

8 Understand Your Audience

Understand Your Audience

9 Who are you trying to reach

Who are you trying to reach

Define and understand your target audience. Consider race, ethnicity, age, location, other demographics. Recognize barriers and challenges to reaching your audience, getting their attention, and ensuring their understanding.

10 Ask

Ask

Listen. Take action.

Telephone Emails or letters Online forums or discussion groups An intermediary to ask users on your behalf Online surveys Small focus groups with selected user types Postage-paid input or feedback cards Conferences, meetings, or chance encounters Eavesdropping on online gathering-spots Subscribing to users newsletters Holding an online chat with users User needs assessments conducted by others Public polling data or marketing profiles Social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter

11 CDC Audience Insights

CDC Audience Insights

http://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/Audience/ Moms Tweens Teens Internists Responsible generation Boomers Family physicians Hispanics

12 Develop Strong Content

Develop Strong Content

13 User-focused writing

User-focused writing

Accessible to your target audience, given their use of technology or their disability-related needs Useful to your audience Relevant to their needs and concerns Easy to understand, given your target users reading ability, dominant language, and prior knowledge of your topic Sensitive to cultural issues, beliefs, and backgrounds

14 Plain language

Plain language

Can the people who are the audience for the material quickly and easily: Find what they need? Understand what they find? Act appropriately on that understanding?

Source: Center for Plain Language. (n.d.). About plain language. Retrieved August 11, 2009 from http://www.centerforplainlanguage.org/aboutpl/index.html

15 Tips for writing plainly

Tips for writing plainly

Write for the average reader. Organize to serve the readers needs. Use helpful headings. Use you to speak to your reader. Use active voice. Use short sentences and short sections. Use concrete familiar words. Omit excess words. Place words carefully. Use no more than 2 or 3 levels.

16 Avoid excess words

Avoid excess words

Excess words

Plain alternatives

`

As a means of As prescribed by in At a later date At the present time Constitutes For the purpose of Heretofore In order to On a monthly basis Pertaining to Related to So as to Should it appear that With regard to

To Under Later Now, currently Forms, makes up To, for Until now To Monthly About Of To If About

17 Simple is better

Simple is better

Instead of

Try

a and/or b accomplish carry out accorded accordingly addressees advantageous afford an opportunity apparent clear assist, assistance aid commence comply with Implement in order that in the amount of in the event of utilize, utilization

a or b or both do given so you helpful allow, let plain help begin, start by, per start so for if use

18 Plain: Before and after

Plain: Before and after

Before

After

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends a half hour or more of moderate physical activity on most days, preferably every day. The activity can include brisk walking, calisthenics, home care, gardening, moderate sports exercise, and dancing.

Do at least 30 minutes of exercise, like brisk walking, 5 or more days a week.

19 Health concepts

Health concepts

Use chance or more likely or less likely instead of risk. Talk about weight loss in pounds instead of percentage of body weight. Use 9 out of 10 people instead of 90%. Use visuals to help explain numeric concepts.

20 Graphic design and visuals

Graphic design and visuals

Attractive Relevant Supports the messages and purpose of the content Includes white space Uses images that demonstrate desired behaviors Creates good contrast between printed text and paper color; makes limited use of reverse text Shows consistency in font size and style

21 Whats wrong with this picture

Whats wrong with this picture

22 Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
23 Cultural Competence

Cultural Competence

24 Components of cultural competence

Components of cultural competence

Awareness of ones own cultural worldview Attitude toward cultural differences Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews Cross-cultural skills

25 Culturally competent guiding values

Culturally competent guiding values

Cultural competence is achieved by identifying and understanding the needs and help-seeking behaviors of individuals and families. Culturally competent organizations design and implement services that are tailored or matched to the unique needs of individuals, children, families, organizations, and communities served. Practice is driven in service delivery systems by client-preferred choices, not by culturally blind or culturally free interventions.

26 Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
27 How cultures vary

How cultures vary

Communication styles (e.g., language use, non-verbal expression, sense of time, personal distance) Attitudes toward conflict (e.g., Is it OK to be direct in a conflict?) Approaches to completing tasks (e.g., How important is it to establish the personal relationship early in a collaboration?) Decision-making styles (e.g., Is authority delegated or kept to ones self? Are decisions reached by majority rule or by consensus building?) Attitudes toward disclosure (e.g., Is it appropriate to be frank about emotions or ask about personal matters) Approaches to knowing (e.g., analytic, scientific method, or affective, intuitive)

Source: DuPraw, M.E., and Axner, M. (n.d.). Working on common cross-cultural communication challenges. Retrieved from the PBS website: http://www.pbs.org/ampu/crosscult.html

28 Attitudes and values

Attitudes and values

Whether the individual or community is of primary importance Accepted roles of men, women, and children Preferred family structure Relative importance of folk wisdom, life experience, value of common sense compared with formal education and advanced degrees Ways that wealth is measured (material goods, personal relationships) Relative value placed on different age groups Whether people are more comfortable with traditions or open to new ways Favorite and forbidden foods Manner of dress and adornment Body language, particularly whether touching or proximity is permitted in specific situations

29 Low Literacy

Low Literacy

30 Never underestimate the need

Never underestimate the need

50 million adults cant read as well as a 4th or 5th grader. 42 million cant read at all.

Prose Literacy Levels in the U.S.

Sources: Grim illiteracy statistics indicate Americans have a reading problem. (2007). Retrieved July 23, 2008, from the Education Portal Web site: http://education-portal.com/articles/Grim_Illiteracy_Statistics_Indicate_Americans_Have_a_Reading_Problem.html National Assessment of Adult Literacy, U.S. Department of Education.

31 Literacy

Literacy

Reading grade levels are helpful, but not an absolute. Fry and/or SMOG Readability formulas do not measure: Cultural appeal. Audience response to layout and graphics. Concept density. Familiarity of medical and scientific information. Clarity of writing. Readers motivation or readiness to learn.

32 NIDA low-literacy website

NIDA low-literacy website

33 Preference for homepage that showed a human face; mixed reactions to

Preference for homepage that showed a human face; mixed reactions to

this image

Strong engagement with images of people

Misinterpretation of arrows

Misinterpretation of numbers

34 Sample design guidelines

Sample design guidelines

Sample writing guidelines

Select a large default font size.

Avoid charts and tables. They are often difficult for people to understand.

Create a very simple, clean design. Nothing that distracts.

Use plain language.

Use black text on a white background.

Employ subheads and bullets wherever possible.

Avoid pictures that could serve as triggers to someone in recovery.

Place the most important information at the top of the page.

Choose images that communicate concepts literally rather than figuratively.

Avoid long pages that require scrolling.

NIDA low-literacy website on neuroscience, drug abuse prevention, and treatment

35 Plain language, scannable text

Plain language, scannable text

Definitions of medical terms

Illustrations that literally depict the content

Guided path

NIDA low-literacy website on neuroscience, drug abuse prevention, and treatment

36 Inspire Action

Inspire Action

37 The power of words

The power of words

38 Focus on behavior

Focus on behavior

What do you want your audience to do? Use action statements. Use interactive formats where appropriate.

39 Reaching Your Audience Through Effective Health Communications
40 Create motivation

Create motivation

Make the content meaningful and appealing to the reader. Suggest clear, specific behaviors that are doable by the target audience. Ask readers to ask questions, take action steps, or write down action they will try to do. Use testimonials and short stories.

41 Behavior theory

Behavior theory

Many people base their decisions on emotion rather than logic. Most health risk messages are based on fear appeals Afraid of getting hurt, getting a disease, or dying Use of theory saves time and money because there is less trial and error. Theoretically based campaigns are more likely to succeed than those developed from inspiration alone.

42 Does fear work

Does fear work

Fear appeals: Have been used since antiquity. Tend to be more effective with copers and sensation seekers. Seem to be persuasive when accompanied by high-efficacy messages.

Source: A meta-analysis of fear appeals: Implications for effective public health campaigns. Health Education & Behavior, Vol. 27 (5): 59615, October 2000.

43 Positive emotional appeals

Positive emotional appeals

The use of positive emotions including humor and joy are effective in gaining attention and, in particular, the attention of individuals who may have considered themselves overly familiar with a campaign. Positive emotions including empathy and compassion may help individuals to reframe and reconsider issues that they may have considered not particularly relevant to their lives.

Source: Lewis, IM. and Watson, BC, White, KM, and Tay, RST. Promoting public health messages: Should we move beyond fear-evoking appeals in road safety? Qualitative Health Research 17(1):pp. 6174, 2007.

44 What about humor

What about humor

45 What makes messages go viral

What makes messages go viral

Positive content is more viral than negativebut its more complex than that. Strong emotions such as awe, anger, and anxiety lead to viral content. Content that is weaker emotionally or even deactivating, such as sadness, is less viral. This holds true regardless of how surprising, interesting, or useful content is.

Source: Berger, J, Milkman, K, What makes online content viral? Journal of Marketing Research, 2011.

46 Test Your Materials

Test Your Materials

47 Ask for input

Ask for input

Can you understand everything easily? Can you find what you are looking for? Does it provide the information you need? Do you find it so interesting and informative that you want to learn more? How could it be improved?

48 Reach Your Audience

Reach Your Audience

49 Consider your dissemination strategy

Consider your dissemination strategy

Meet your audience where they are. For example, sample dissemination strategies by age: 1834: Digital, social media 3549: Worksite campaigns 5064: Reach spouses as influencers 65+: Doctors offices, faith-based campaigns Match your message to the mediumand vice versa. Consider how to best use your resources.

50 The ever-evolving web

The ever-evolving web

Push, not pull. Craft your message so that its portable. See knowledge sharing as part of an ongoing conversation. Reach the right peoplenot the most people.

51 Considering social media

Considering social media

Does your audience use it? Does it align with the rest of your communications plan? Who will maintain it?

52 Why Twitter

Why Twitter

Growth. More than 300 million users, and there are now more than million Tweets per day. Trends. Facilitates viral information sharing, especially about emerging news and trends. Reach. Has a high percentage of use among young people and various demographic groups.

Source: Twitter, August 2011

53 Social media is more than Facebook and Twitter

Social media is more than Facebook and Twitter

Blogs Chatrooms, forums, or online discussions Poll and survey mechanisms Communities of practice RSS feedsmake it easy for others to pick up our news without lifting a finger Web analytics

54 The Digital Divide still exists

The Digital Divide still exists

Not everyone uses the web. Factors include age, income, education, ethnicity, and access. Household income is the greatest predictor of Internet use for Americans.

55 But mobile is closing the gap

But mobile is closing the gap

mobile is playing a key role in bridging those gaps between people who have that broadband connection at home and people that dont. It really gives people an economically viable opportunity to tap into the online world that they wouldnt normally have. Aaron Smith, PEW Internet and American Life Project

Source: Mobile access helps agencies break past digital divide | Interview with Aaron Smith. (2010, July 8). Retrieved January 13, 2011, from the Pew Internet & American Life Project Web site: http://www.pewinternet.org/Media-Mentions/2010/Mobile-access-helps-agencies-break-past-digital-divide.aspx

56 The rise of texting

The rise of texting

Some 83% of American adults own cell phones and three-quarters of them (73%) send and receive text messages. Young adults are the most avid texters by a wide margin. Cell owners between the ages of 18 and 24 exchange an average of 109.5 messages on a normal day. African American and Hispanic cell users are more intense and frequent users of all of the phones capabilities than whites. Minorities send more text messages and make more calls on average than their white counterparts.

Source: Pew Research Centers Internet & American Life Project

57 NCI Smokefree TXT

NCI Smokefree TXT

Teens and texting: 75% of teens between 12 and 17 own a mobile phone 1 in 3 teens send 3,000 texts per month Text messaging program designed as a smoking cessation intervention for teens ready to quit smoking Messages sent for up to 4 weeks pre?quit and up to 6 weeks post-quit date Free with unlimited texting plan Information collected from user at sign?up: mobile #, age, gender, quit date, and smoking frequency

Data: PEW Teens and Mobile Phones; Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010

58 Text4Baby

Text4Baby

Free cell phone text messaging service for pregnant women and new moms from National Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition Text messages sent 3 times per week; available in English and Spanish Negotiated free messages with CTIA, the Wireless Foundation, so that all messages are freeeven without a text messaging plan or with limited texting plan (participating carriers) Messages are timed to the pregnant womans due date or the babys date of birth Launched in February 2010 More than 281,000 enrollees by January 2012

59 Find dissemination partners

Find dissemination partners

Users are more likely to receive and use information that comes from a source they trust or see as credible. Hard-to-reach audiences are exactly that: hard to reach. Your dissemination source can help you tailor your message so that it resonates with recipients. Your message is carried into the networks of others, not just your own.

60 In Closing

In Closing

61 3 more tips for getting creative with limited resources

3 more tips for getting creative with limited resources

Curate Crowdsource Consider new partners

62 Thank you

Thank you

Heather Pierce hpierce@palladianpartners.com

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