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Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
Purpose of this Presentation:
Purpose of this Presentation:
The Pattern of Needlestick Injuries
The Pattern of Needlestick Injuries
800,000 Needlestick Injuries Occur Each Year in the United States
800,000 Needlestick Injuries Occur Each Year in the United States
Needlestick Injuries Are Costly:
Needlestick Injuries Are Costly:
Who Is Injured Most Frequently
Who Is Injured Most Frequently
Needlestick Injuries Among Health Care Workers
Needlestick Injuries Among Health Care Workers
Needlestick Injuries Are Underreported by Health Care Workers
Needlestick Injuries Are Underreported by Health Care Workers
Underreporting Reasons
Underreporting Reasons
What Types of Devices Are Most Commonly Involved in Needlestick
What Types of Devices Are Most Commonly Involved in Needlestick
Hollow-bore needles are the cause of injury in 68
Hollow-bore needles are the cause of injury in 68
Items Most Frequently Causing Sharp-Object Injuries, 1995
Items Most Frequently Causing Sharp-Object Injuries, 1995
Where Do Most Needlestick Injuries Occur
Where Do Most Needlestick Injuries Occur
Location Where Puncture Injuries and Other Blood Exposures Occurred,
Location Where Puncture Injuries and Other Blood Exposures Occurred,
Which Tasks Involve the Most Injuries
Which Tasks Involve the Most Injuries
The majority of needlesticks occur when health care workers: Dispose
The majority of needlesticks occur when health care workers: Dispose
When Do Needlesticks Happen
When Do Needlesticks Happen
How Serious a Threat Are Needlestick Injuries to Health Care Workers
How Serious a Threat Are Needlestick Injuries to Health Care Workers
800,000 Needlestick Injuries Occur Each Year in the United States
800,000 Needlestick Injuries Occur Each Year in the United States
16,000 of These Are Likely to Be Contaminated by HIV
16,000 of These Are Likely to Be Contaminated by HIV
Up to 80% of All Accident Exposures to Blood Are Caused by Needlestick
Up to 80% of All Accident Exposures to Blood Are Caused by Needlestick
Source: Chiarello, 1992
Source: Chiarello, 1992
HBV and HCV Pose an Even Greater Risk Then HIV
HBV and HCV Pose an Even Greater Risk Then HIV
Prevalence in the Patient Population
Prevalence in the Patient Population
Occupational Risk of Hepatitis B:
Occupational Risk of Hepatitis B:
Estimated Incidence of Acute Hepatitis B United States, 1978-1995
Estimated Incidence of Acute Hepatitis B United States, 1978-1995
Occupational Risk of Hepatitis C:
Occupational Risk of Hepatitis C:
Occupational Risk of HIV:
Occupational Risk of HIV:
HCWs with Occupationally Acquired HIV/AIDS Infection
HCWs with Occupationally Acquired HIV/AIDS Infection
Health Care Workers with Occupationally Acquired AIDS/HIV Infection
Health Care Workers with Occupationally Acquired AIDS/HIV Infection
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Alone Usually Does Not Adequately
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Alone Usually Does Not Adequately
UNSAFE NEEDLE DEVICES
UNSAFE NEEDLE DEVICES
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
Do Safer Needle Devices Prevent Injury
Do Safer Needle Devices Prevent Injury
Reduction in Needlestick Injuries
Reduction in Needlestick Injuries
Source: Chiarello, 1995
Source: Chiarello, 1995
Source: Chiarello, 1995
Source: Chiarello, 1995
Evaluating and Selecting Safer Needle Devices
Evaluating and Selecting Safer Needle Devices
Source: FDA, 1992, 1995
Source: FDA, 1992, 1995
Types of Safety Features
Types of Safety Features
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
OSHA’s Position on Safer Needle Devices:
OSHA’s Position on Safer Needle Devices:
Safer Needle Devices
Safer Needle Devices
Safer Needle Devices protect workers from exposure to life-threatening
Safer Needle Devices protect workers from exposure to life-threatening
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers

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Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers

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1 Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
2 Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers

Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers

3 Purpose of this Presentation:

Purpose of this Presentation:

Update statistics Define and discuss safer needle devices Examine OSHA’s position on the use of safer needle devices

4 The Pattern of Needlestick Injuries

The Pattern of Needlestick Injuries

Who? What? Where? When?

5 800,000 Needlestick Injuries Occur Each Year in the United States

800,000 Needlestick Injuries Occur Each Year in the United States

6 Needlestick Injuries Are Costly:

Needlestick Injuries Are Costly:

Time and money to investigated the source Post-exposure care Lost work time and productivity Treatment of resulting illnesses Workers’ lives

7 Who Is Injured Most Frequently

Who Is Injured Most Frequently

8 Needlestick Injuries Among Health Care Workers

Needlestick Injuries Among Health Care Workers

Source: EPINet data, University of Virginia

9 Needlestick Injuries Are Underreported by Health Care Workers

Needlestick Injuries Are Underreported by Health Care Workers

Source: Harmony, 1983; Chiarello, 1992

10 Underreporting Reasons

Underreporting Reasons

Lack of time Employer response Concern about HIV status

11 What Types of Devices Are Most Commonly Involved in Needlestick

What Types of Devices Are Most Commonly Involved in Needlestick

Injuries?

12 Hollow-bore needles are the cause of injury in 68

Hollow-bore needles are the cause of injury in 68

5% of cases

Source: Ippolito, et al, 1997

13 Items Most Frequently Causing Sharp-Object Injuries, 1995

Items Most Frequently Causing Sharp-Object Injuries, 1995

Adapted from Ippolito et al, 1997

14 Where Do Most Needlestick Injuries Occur

Where Do Most Needlestick Injuries Occur

15 Location Where Puncture Injuries and Other Blood Exposures Occurred,

Location Where Puncture Injuries and Other Blood Exposures Occurred,

1995

Source: Adapted from Ippolito et al., 1997.

16 Which Tasks Involve the Most Injuries

Which Tasks Involve the Most Injuries

17 The majority of needlesticks occur when health care workers: Dispose

The majority of needlesticks occur when health care workers: Dispose

of needles Administer injections Draw blood Recap needles Handle trash and dirty linens

Source: Chiarello, 1992

18 When Do Needlesticks Happen

When Do Needlesticks Happen

19 How Serious a Threat Are Needlestick Injuries to Health Care Workers

How Serious a Threat Are Needlestick Injuries to Health Care Workers

20 800,000 Needlestick Injuries Occur Each Year in the United States

800,000 Needlestick Injuries Occur Each Year in the United States

21 16,000 of These Are Likely to Be Contaminated by HIV

16,000 of These Are Likely to Be Contaminated by HIV

Source: American Hospital Association, 1992

22 Up to 80% of All Accident Exposures to Blood Are Caused by Needlestick

Up to 80% of All Accident Exposures to Blood Are Caused by Needlestick

Injuries

Source: Jagger, J., 1988

23 Source: Chiarello, 1992

Source: Chiarello, 1992

24 HBV and HCV Pose an Even Greater Risk Then HIV

HBV and HCV Pose an Even Greater Risk Then HIV

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1991

25 Prevalence in the Patient Population

Prevalence in the Patient Population

Source: Kalen, et. al, 1997

26 Occupational Risk of Hepatitis B:

Occupational Risk of Hepatitis B:

Much more transmissible than HIV Risk after needlestick: 2% - 40% 1994 - 1000 health care workers developed HBV infection Approximately 200 HCWs die each year

Source: CDC, 1991; 1997

27 Estimated Incidence of Acute Hepatitis B United States, 1978-1995

Estimated Incidence of Acute Hepatitis B United States, 1978-1995

28 Occupational Risk of Hepatitis C:

Occupational Risk of Hepatitis C:

HCV - major cause of chronic liver disease No vaccine No effective post-exposure prophylaxis 85% of HCV infected people develop chronic infection

Source: CDC, 1997; NIH, 1997

29 Occupational Risk of HIV:

Occupational Risk of HIV:

Risk after needlestick - 1 in 300 Exposures from needlesticks or cuts cause most infections

Source: CDC, 1991; 1996

30 HCWs with Occupationally Acquired HIV/AIDS Infection

HCWs with Occupationally Acquired HIV/AIDS Infection

Source: CDC, 1997

31 Health Care Workers with Occupationally Acquired AIDS/HIV Infection

Health Care Workers with Occupationally Acquired AIDS/HIV Infection

Source: MMWR, 1987-1989; CDC, 1992-1996

32 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Alone Usually Does Not Adequately

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Alone Usually Does Not Adequately

Protect the Health Care Worker from Needlesticks

PPE, such as gloves provide a barrier, but… Most personal protective equipment is easily penetrated by needles

33 UNSAFE NEEDLE DEVICES

UNSAFE NEEDLE DEVICES

NEEDLESTICK INJURIES

34 Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
35 Do Safer Needle Devices Prevent Injury

Do Safer Needle Devices Prevent Injury

Can’t eliminate all, but… 83% can be prevented

Source: Ippolito, et. al., 1997

36 Reduction in Needlestick Injuries

Reduction in Needlestick Injuries

Source: MMWR, 1997

37 Source: Chiarello, 1995

Source: Chiarello, 1995

38 Source: Chiarello, 1995

Source: Chiarello, 1995

39 Evaluating and Selecting Safer Needle Devices

Evaluating and Selecting Safer Needle Devices

40 Source: FDA, 1992, 1995

Source: FDA, 1992, 1995

41 Types of Safety Features

Types of Safety Features

Source: Chiarello, 1995

42 Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
43 OSHA’s Position on Safer Needle Devices:

OSHA’s Position on Safer Needle Devices:

Bloodborne Pathogens Standard requires use of engineering and work practice controls Failure to use engineering/work practice controls could result in a citation Devices which offer alternatives to needles are preferable

44 Safer Needle Devices

Safer Needle Devices

45 Safer Needle Devices protect workers from exposure to life-threatening

Safer Needle Devices protect workers from exposure to life-threatening

diseases by preventing needlestick injuries

46 Safer Needle Devices: Protecting Health Care Workers
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