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Satellite Oceanography
Satellite Oceanography
Ocean Satellites
Ocean Satellites
Satellite Oceanography
Satellite Oceanography
Satellite Oceanography Applications
Satellite Oceanography Applications
Problem 1 How do you get a satellite into orbit
Problem 1 How do you get a satellite into orbit
What keeps an object in orbit
What keeps an object in orbit
Two basic satellite orbits
Two basic satellite orbits
http://www
http://www
For more detailed studies, we use polar-orbiting satellites
For more detailed studies, we use polar-orbiting satellites
Problem 2 How do you measure from a satellite
Problem 2 How do you measure from a satellite
Sea surface temperatures (SST) and thermal properties
Sea surface temperatures (SST) and thermal properties
SST Images [link through DStreme Ocean]
SST Images [link through DStreme Ocean]
Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (SSTA)
Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (SSTA)
SSTA images
SSTA images
Ocean Color  Biological Productivity
Ocean Color Biological Productivity
SeaWIFS has allowed us to monitor the links between physical and
SeaWIFS has allowed us to monitor the links between physical and
Sea Surface Topography
Sea Surface Topography
TOPEX-Poseidon is
TOPEX-Poseidon is
TOPEX has been especially useful in understanding
TOPEX has been especially useful in understanding
Jason 1 is a follow-on mission to TOPEX- Poseidon Monitors global
Jason 1 is a follow-on mission to TOPEX- Poseidon Monitors global
Sea Ice Extent
Sea Ice Extent
http://polar
http://polar
Precipitation Patterns
Precipitation Patterns
TRMM Precipitation Patterns
TRMM Precipitation Patterns
Precipitation Anomaly Patterns
Precipitation Anomaly Patterns
Hurricane and Lightning Images
Hurricane and Lightning Images
Activities Based on TRMM Data
Activities Based on TRMM Data
Canadian Satellite Imagery
Canadian Satellite Imagery
http://www
http://www
Canadian Sea Ice Imagery
Canadian Sea Ice Imagery
Examples of Teacher-Training and Classroom-Ready Activities
Examples of Teacher-Training and Classroom-Ready Activities
This slide show is available in the Resources Section of
This slide show is available in the Resources Section of

: Satellite Oceanography. : . : Satellite Oceanography.ppt. zip-: 520 .

Satellite Oceanography

Satellite Oceanography.ppt
1 Satellite Oceanography

Satellite Oceanography

Presented at STAO 2003 Dr. Michael J. Passow White Plains Middle School, White Plains, NY, Science Teachers Association of New York State (STANYS), and Amer. Meteorological Society Education Resource Agent

2 Ocean Satellites

Ocean Satellites

Permit observations globally, especially useful where no ships or buoys Developed later than meteorological and other environmental sensing because electromagnetic radiation penetrates ocean water only to limited depths Improved sensors permit inferences about ocean at greater depths

3 Satellite Oceanography

Satellite Oceanography

quot;"

Sensors aboard satellites provide global views and allow temporal (time) studies not possible from surface vessels. Surface topography, El Nino, and ocean winds are some of the areas being investi-gated from space.

http://winds.jpl.nasa.gov/

4 Satellite Oceanography Applications

Satellite Oceanography Applications

Sea surface temperatures Air-sea interactions Sea Ice patterns Monitoring ocean waves Determining sea level variations Analysis of ocean currents and eddies Biological productivity Precipitation patterns

5 Problem 1 How do you get a satellite into orbit

Problem 1 How do you get a satellite into orbit

Basically, a rocket is a chamber with an opening containing gas under pressure. A balloon can serve as a simple model. As the gas escapes, its thrust in one direction propels the rocket in the opposite direction.

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/rockets/principles.html

6 What keeps an object in orbit

What keeps an object in orbit

Satellites can only stay in orbit when the gravitational pull exactly balances the forward motion (inertia). These ideas were first explained by Newton in the 1680s!

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/rockets/principles.html

7 Two basic satellite orbits

Two basic satellite orbits

Geostationary (Geosynchronous) (GOES) Remains over same portion of planet by revolving with same period as Earths rotation Can provide full disk or smaller views Useful for weather and communication

Polar Orbiting (POES) Takes about 90 minutes to make one revolution Covers different areas each orbit as Earth rotates Provides detailed images Can produce time sequence

8 http://www

http://www

iitap.iastate.edu/gcp/satellite/images/image7.gif

9 For more detailed studies, we use polar-orbiting satellites

For more detailed studies, we use polar-orbiting satellites

Polar-orbiting satellites are much closer to the surface (700 800 km) and make about 14 passes each day. They can provide good time sequence studies.

http://www.earth.nasa.gov/history/landsat/landsat4.html

10 Problem 2 How do you measure from a satellite

Problem 2 How do you measure from a satellite

Satellites can detect whats on Earth in two ways: passive observation of energy reflected or radiated from the surface active collection of signals beamed down from the satellite and reflected back

http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

11 Sea surface temperatures (SST) and thermal properties

Sea surface temperatures (SST) and thermal properties

Visible satellites can monitor difference between incoming solar radiation and reflected light Infrared satellites can monitor IR energy emitted from surfaces AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) measure SSTs Also monitored with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)

12 SST Images [link through DStreme Ocean]

SST Images [link through DStreme Ocean]

http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/images/sst/sst.gif

13 Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (SSTA)

Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (SSTA)

Images constructed by measuring difference between observed and expected values anomalies Better approach to recognizing what is unusual, not just what is Especially useful for El Nino/La Nina studiesexample: http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/orad/sub/sst_anomaly_2m.html

14 SSTA images

SSTA images

http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/PSB/EPS/SST/climo.html

15 Ocean Color  Biological Productivity

Ocean Color Biological Productivity

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) and MODIS have measured chlorophyll in phytoplankton to enable useful inferences about productivity

http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi/seawifs_browse.pl

http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi/seawifs_browse.pl

16 SeaWIFS has allowed us to monitor the links between physical and

SeaWIFS has allowed us to monitor the links between physical and

chemical conditions and marine biology Short-term spatial and temporal variabilities Biological response to climate changes

http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEAWIFS.html

17 Sea Surface Topography

Sea Surface Topography

Variations in sea surface heights caused by gravity variations (sea floor topography and geology) Also seasonal changes in atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns Radar altimeters aboard TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellites AMS Measuring Sea Level from Space

18 TOPEX-Poseidon is

TOPEX-Poseidon is

a partnership between the U.S. and France to monitor global ocean circulation, discover the tie between the oceans and atmosphere, and improve global climate predictions. Every 10 days, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures global sea level with unparalleled accuracy.

http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/mission.html

19 TOPEX has been especially useful in understanding

TOPEX has been especially useful in understanding

Variations in sea surface temperatures. This has been the most important instrument for observing El Nino/ La Nina changes in the Pacific Ocean, and all the effects on climate

http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino/elnino.html

20 Jason 1 is a follow-on mission to TOPEX- Poseidon Monitors global

Jason 1 is a follow-on mission to TOPEX- Poseidon Monitors global

ocean circulation, studies ties between the oceans and atmosphere, improves global climate forecasts and predictions, and monitors events such as El Ni?o conditions and ocean eddies.

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/current/jason1.html

21 Sea Ice Extent

Sea Ice Extent

Areal extent, amount, and thickness important for oceanographers and operationally Visible images not feasible during winter POES microwave sensors provide operational ice analyses The next slide shows an example of sea ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere

22 http://polar

http://polar

wwb.noaa.gov/seaice/Analyses.html

23 Precipitation Patterns

Precipitation Patterns

Preponderance of precipitation falls in tropical regions Previously difficult to measure because few observation stations TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) began as experimental, now operational

24 TRMM Precipitation Patterns

TRMM Precipitation Patterns

This shows average rainfall in the Tropics last month. Monthly records go back to 1998.

http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/

25 Precipitation Anomaly Patterns

Precipitation Anomaly Patterns

Anomaly images show regions of that are unusually higher or lower than normal.

http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/3B43_anom_oct03.gif

26 Hurricane and Lightning Images

Hurricane and Lightning Images

TRMM images have permitted amazing new views of storms and related weather in the Tropics.

http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/images_dir/images.html

27 Activities Based on TRMM Data

Activities Based on TRMM Data

Institute for Global Environmental Studies (IGES) http://www.strategies.org/TRMM.html Classroom-oriented activities based on TRMM concerning ENERGY, CLOUDS, WIND, PRECIPITATION, AND WEATHER

28 Canadian Satellite Imagery

Canadian Satellite Imagery

Meteorological Service of Canada (Service m?t?orologique du Canada) provides many satellite images at http://www.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/satellite/index_e.html These utilize NOAA GOES and POES images.

29 http://www

http://www

weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/satellite/index_e.html#hrpt

30 Canadian Sea Ice Imagery

Canadian Sea Ice Imagery

Ice conditions monitored by satellite and ships are available at http://ice-glaces.ec.gc.ca/App/WsvPageDsp.cfm?ID=1&Lang=eng

31 Examples of Teacher-Training and Classroom-Ready Activities

Examples of Teacher-Training and Classroom-Ready Activities

AMS Measuring Sea Level from Space DataStreme Ocean investigations modified from the Fall 2003 pilot testing

32 This slide show is available in the Resources Section of

This slide show is available in the Resources Section of

Earth2Class michael@earth2class.org

Satellite Oceanography
http://900igr.net/prezentacija/anglijskij-jazyk/satellite-oceanography-121242.html
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