Без темы <<  Sedat Kadioglu Seeking God in Einsteins Universe  >>
 Seeing 3D from 2D Images How to make a 2D image appear as 3D Visual Depth Cues Monoscopic Depth Cues Stereoscopic Display Issues Stereopsis Retinal Disparity Disparity Convergence Angles Miscellaneous Eye Facts Horopters Stereoscopic Display Stereoscopic Displays Time Parallel Stereoscopic Display Passive Polarized Projection Issues Problem with Linear Polarization Time Multiplexed Display Stereographics Shutter Glasses Screen Parallax Screen Parallax (cont Screen Parallax Stereoscopic Voxels Screen Parallax and Convergence Angles How to create correct left- and right-eye views Basic Perspective Projection Set Up from Viewing Paramenters What doesn’t work What Does Work Setting Up Projection Geometry Screen Size Visual Angle Subtended Accommodation/ Convergence Position Dependence (without head-tracking) Interocular Dependance Obvious Things to Do Another Problem Two View Points with Head-Tracking Maximum Depth Plane Can we fix this Point of fixation Position and Eyepoint Dependence Ghosting Ghosting (cont Ghosting (cont Time-parallel stereoscopic images Motion Depth Cues Pulfrich Effect Physiological Depth Cues Summary

Презентация: «Seeing 3D from 2D Images». Автор: CISE DEPT. Файл: «Seeing 3D from 2D Images.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 773 КБ.

## Seeing 3D from 2D Images

содержание презентации «Seeing 3D from 2D Images.ppt»
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1

### Seeing 3D from 2D Images

William and Craig 115 - 164

2

### How to make a 2D image appear as 3D

Output is typically 2D Images Yet we want to show a 3D world! How can we do this? We can include ‘cues’ in the image that give our brain 3D information about the scene These cues are visual depth cues

3

### Visual Depth Cues

Monoscopic Depth Cues (single 2D image) Stereoscopic Depth Cues (two 2D images) Motion Depth Cues (series of 2D images) Physiological Depth Cues (body cues)

4

### Monoscopic Depth Cues

Interposition An object that occludes another is closer Shading Shape info. Shadows are included here Size Usually, the larger object is closer Linear Perspective parallel lines converge at a single point Surface Texture Gradient more detail for closer objects Height in the visual field Higher the object is (vertically), the further it is Atmospheric effects further away objects are blurrier Brightness further away objects are dimmer

5

### Stereoscopic Display Issues

Stereopsis Stereoscopic Display Technology Computing Stereoscopic Images Stereoscopic Display and HTDs. Works for objects < 5m. Why?

6

### Stereopsis

The result of the two slightly different views of the external world that our laterally-displaced eyes receive.

7

### Retinal Disparity

If both eyes are fixated on a point, f1, in space, then an image of f1 if focused at corresponding points in the center of the fovea of each eye. Another point, f2, at a different spatial location would be imaged at points in each eye that may not be the same distance from the fovea. This difference in distance is the retinal disparity.

8

### Disparity

If an object is closer than the fixation point, the retinal disparity will be a negative value. This is known as crossed disparity because the two eyes must cross to fixate the closer object. If an object is farther than the fixation point, the retinal disparity will be a positive value. This is known as uncrossed disparity because the two eyes must uncross to fixate the farther object. An object located at the fixation point or whose image falls on corresponding points in the two retinae has a zero disparity.

9

### Convergence Angles

?+a+c+b+d = 180 ?+c+d = 180 ?-? = a+(-b) = ?1+?2 = Retinal Disparity

?2

?1

f1

a

D1

f2

b

a

D2

b

c

d

i

10

### Miscellaneous Eye Facts

Stereoacuity - the smallest depth that can be detected based on retinal disparity. Visual Direction - Perceived spatial location of an object relative to an observer.

11

### Horopters

Corresponding points on the two retinae are defined as being the same vertical and horizontal distance from the center of the fovea in each eye. Horopter - the locus of points in space that fall on corresponding points in the two retinae when the two eyes binocularly fixate on a given point in space (zero disparity). Points on the horopter appear at the same depth as the fixation point.

Vieth-Mueller Circle

12

### Stereoscopic Display

Stereoscopic images are easy to do badly, hard to do well, and impossible to do correctly.

13

### Stereoscopic Displays

Stereoscopic display systems create a three-dimensional image (versus a perspective image) by presenting each eye with a slightly different view of a scene. Time-parallel Time-multiplexed

14

### Time Parallel Stereoscopic Display

Two Screens Each eye sees a different screen Optical system directs each eye to the correct view. HMD stereo is done this way.

Single Screen Two different images projected on the same screen Images are polarized at right angles to each other. User wears polarized glasses (passive glasses).

15

### Passive Polarized Projection Issues

Linear Polarization Ghosting increases when you tilt head Reduces brightness of image by about ? Potential Problems with Multiple Screens (next slide) Circular Polarization Reduces ghosting but also reduces brightness and crispness of image even more

16

### Problem with Linear Polarization

With linear polarization, the separation of the left and right eye images is dependent on the orientation of the glasses with respect to the projected image. The floor image cannot be aligned with both the side screens and the front screens at the same time.

17

### Time Multiplexed Display

Left and right-eye views of an image are computed and alternately displayed on the screen. A shuttering system occludes the right eye when the left-eye image is being displayed and occludes the left-eye when the right-eye image is being displayed.

18

19

### Screen Parallax

The screen parallax is the distance between the projected location of P on the screen, Pleft, seen by the left eye and the projected location, Pright, seen by the right eye (different from retinal disparity).

20

### Screen Parallax (cont

p = i(D-d)/D where p is the amount of screen parallax for a point, f1, when projected onto a plane a distance d from the plane containing two eyepoints. i is the interocular distance between eyepoints and D is the distance from f1 to the nearest point on the plane containing the two eyepoints d is the distance from the eyepoint to the nearest point on the screen

21

### Screen Parallax

Zero parallax at screen, max positive parallax is i, negative parallax is equal to I halfway between eye and screen

22

23

### Screen Parallax and Convergence Angles

Screen parallax depends on closest distance to screen. Different convergence angles can all have the same screen parallax. Also depends on assumed eye separation.

24

### How to create correct left- and right-eye views

To specific a single view in almost all graphics software or hardware you must specify: Eyepoint Look-at Point Field-of-View or location of Projection Plane View Up Direction

25

### Basic Perspective Projection Set Up from Viewing Paramenters

Y

Z

X

Projection Plane is orthogonal to one of the major axes (usually Z). That axis is along the vector defined by the eyepoint and the look-at point.

26

### What doesn’t work

Each view has a different projection plane Each view will be presented (usually) on the same plane

27

28

No

Look at point

Eye Locations

Yes

Eye Locations

Look at points

29

### Screen Size

The size of the window does not affect the retinal disparity for a real window.

Once computed, the screen parallax is affected by the size of the display screen

30

### Visual Angle Subtended

Screen parallax is measured in terms of visual angle. This is a screen independent measure. Studies have shown that the maximum angle that a non-trained person can usually fuse into a 3D image is about 1.6 degrees. This is about 1/2 the maximum amount of retinal disparity you would get for a real scene.

31

Display Screen

32

33

True Eyes

Modeled Eyes

Projection Plane

Perceived Point

Modeled Point

F

34

### Obvious Things to Do

Head tracking Measure User’s Interocular Distance

35

### Another Problem

Many people can not fuse stereoscopic images if you compute the images with proper eye separation! Rule of Thumb: Compute with about ? the real eye separation. Works fine with HMDs but causes image stability problems with HTDs (why?)

36

True Eyes

Modeled Eyes

Projection Plane

Perceived Points

Modeled Point

37

38

### Can we fix this

Zachary Wartell, "Stereoscopic Head-Tracked Displays: Analysis and Development of Display Algorithms," Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, August 2001. Zachary Wartell, Larry F. Hodges, William Ribarsky. "An Analytic Comparison of Alpha-False Eye Separation, Image Scaling and Image Shifting in Stereoscopic Displays," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, April-June 2002, Volume 8, Number 2, pp. 129-143. (related tech report is GVU Tech Report 00-09 ( Abstract , PDF , Postscript .) Zachary Wartell, Larry F. Hodges, William Ribarsky. "Balancing Fusion, Image Depth, and Distortion in Stereoscopic Head-Tracked Displays." SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings, Annual Conference Series. ACM SIGGRAPH, Addison Wesley, August 1999, p351-357. (Paper: Abstract , PDF , Postscript ; SIGGRAPH CD-ROM Supplement, supplement.zip, supplement.tar.Z ).

39

### Point of fixation

Change in eyepoint separation with change in point of fixation. Centers of rotation of the eyes are assumed to be 6.4 centimeters apart.

40

### Position and Eyepoint Dependence

If you use an eye separation distance that is not exactly the eye separation of the user then, with head-tracking, the image is going to be unstable. BUT, if you use the real eye separation in computing the screen parallax most users will not be able to fuse the stereoscopic image.

41

### Ghosting

Affected by the amount of light transmitted by the LC shutter in its off state. Phosphor persistence Vertical screen position of the image.

42

### Ghosting (cont

Extinction Ratio =

Image Position Red White Top 61.3/1 17/1 Middle 50.8/1 14.4/1 Bottom 41.1/1 11/1

Luminance of the correct eye image ------------------------------------------------------------ Luminance of the opposite eye ghost image

43

### Ghosting (cont

Factors affecting perception of ghosting Image brightness Contrast Horizontal parallax Textural complexity

44

### Time-parallel stereoscopic images

Image quality may also be affected by Right and left-eye images do not match in color, size, vertical alignment. Distortion caused by the optical system Resolution HMDs interocular settings Computational model does not match viewing geometry.

45

### Motion Depth Cues

Parallax created by relative head position and object being viewed. Objects nearer to the eye move a greater distance

46

### Pulfrich Effect

Neat trick Different levels of illumination require additional time (your frame rates differ base of amount of light) What if we darken one image, and brighten another? http://dogfeathers.com/java/pulfrich.html www.cise.ufl.edu/~lok/multimedia/videos/pulfrich.avi

47

### Physiological Depth Cues

Accommodation – focusing adjustment made by the eye to change the shape of the lens. (up to 3 m) Convergence – movement of the eyes to bring in the an object into the same location on the retina of each eye.

48

### Summary

Monoscopic – Interposition is strongest. Stereopsis is very strong. Relative Motion is also very strong (or stronger). Physiological is weakest (we don’t even use them in VR!) Add as needed ex. shadows and cartoons

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