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Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
About the Centre
About the Centre
Outline
Outline
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Background – Games as Economic Development Catalysts
Background – Games as Economic Development Catalysts
Although most people are familiar with the ‘Barcelona effect,’ there
Although most people are familiar with the ‘Barcelona effect,’ there
1992 Barcelona Large-scale public investment; put on the map 1996
1992 Barcelona Large-scale public investment; put on the map 1996
Difficulties assessing the impact of the Games
Difficulties assessing the impact of the Games
Key impacts the Games can have on economic development
Key impacts the Games can have on economic development
Short-term economic stimulus
Short-term economic stimulus
Employment schematic
Employment schematic
Employment continued…
Employment continued…
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Example: Barcelona
Example: Barcelona
Political cohesion
Political cohesion
Social Impacts
Social Impacts
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Example: Atlanta
Example: Atlanta
Image impacts
Image impacts
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Sydney
Sydney
London 2012
London 2012
Source: London2012
Source: London2012
London 2012
London 2012
Promoted benefits
Promoted benefits
Setting the Bar: Lessons for London
Setting the Bar: Lessons for London
Closing Thoughts
Closing Thoughts
Questions for Discussion
Questions for Discussion
questions/comments
questions/comments

Презентация на тему: «Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics Tracy Kornblatt Centre for Cities at ippr». Автор: M.Nathan. Файл: «Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics Tracy Kornblatt Centre for Cities at ippr.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 504 КБ.

Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics Tracy Kornblatt Centre for Cities at ippr

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1 Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics

Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics

Tracy Kornblatt Centre for Cities at ippr 22 January 2007

2 About the Centre

About the Centre

Economic focus: not enough research on the economics of urban regeneration – we aim to fill this knowledge gap Comparative context: using lessons and sharing best practises from the U.S., Canada, and Europe Inform, connect: feedback our findings to local officials, Whitehall, private sector stakeholders. Convene together and further the dialogue.

3 Outline

Outline

Why am I here? Background behind the Games as economic development catalysts Framework for thinking about the impacts London 2012 Questions for discussion

4 Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
5 Background – Games as Economic Development Catalysts

Background – Games as Economic Development Catalysts

Games are growing in bid popularity Since 1984, steady increase in the number of bids, the cost involved, and the profile of cities bidding Common theme of ‘economic development’ Bidding cities operating under an “unquestioned assumption that the Games will bring economic and social benefits to those who host them” (Burstyn, 2000). But the evidence is mixed

6 Although most people are familiar with the ‘Barcelona effect,’ there

Although most people are familiar with the ‘Barcelona effect,’ there

are other important host stories

1960: Rome First ‘big’ Games: airport, roads, street lighting 1972: Munich Public debt; negative image, infrastructure 1976: Montreal Serious public debt: finally paid off in 2006 1984: Los Angeles Landmark profit, little infrastructure

7 1992 Barcelona Large-scale public investment; put on the map 1996

1992 Barcelona Large-scale public investment; put on the map 1996

Atlanta ‘Coca-cola Games’, temporary venues 2000 Sydney Image success, development disappointment 2004 Athens Early to tell, but some image issues

8 Difficulties assessing the impact of the Games

Difficulties assessing the impact of the Games

Infrequent, unique – attempting different things International contexts Most reporting is ‘official’ Counterfactual is difficult to assess ‘Soft’ impacts that are difficult to quantify

9 Key impacts the Games can have on economic development

Key impacts the Games can have on economic development

Short term economic stimulus Infrastructure Political cohesion Social impacts Image impacts

10 Short-term economic stimulus

Short-term economic stimulus

Year

Games Site

Estimated Employment

Source

Geography

1992

Barcelona

296,640 jobs

Brunet, in Blake, 2005

Spain

1996

Atlanta

24,742 FT/PT jobs 77,026 jobs

Baade and Matheson Humphreys and Plummer

Atlanta

2000

Sydney

5,300 jobs each year in 12-year Games period

Madden

New South Wales

11 Employment schematic

Employment schematic

Source: Preuss, 1978 in Preuss 1998

12 Employment continued…

Employment continued…

Most employment is in the construction and hospitality/services sectors Most jobs are short-term, some entry-level Very different depending on the level of secondary infrastructure Consider where the investment is coming from – public/private? Areas where longer-term benefits can accrue: Expansion in tourism and construction sectors ‘Alien industry’

13 Infrastructure

Infrastructure

The ideal is to pull-forward investment that matches with post-Games demand This can be a substantial benefit, but also risky Minimise investment in Games-only structures Temporary venues Use of dedicated roads and busses

14 Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
15 Example: Barcelona

Example: Barcelona

Unique context: decades of under-investment in urban infrastructure Had an existing GMP plan (1976) of investments they wanted to make Used the Games to pull forward large-scale infrastructure projects: Ring road, new city centre roads, traffic management system, airport expansion, telecommunications facilities, waterfront redevelopment, housing, renewal of parks and squares all over the city

16 Political cohesion

Political cohesion

Sudden, unique pressure from the Games has an impact on the way political agents work with each other and the community Can unite, or divide, and have lasting impacts Political red tape on projects is often averted – which can be a good or bad thing Political leaders become a part of the image of the Games

17 Social Impacts

Social Impacts

The Games have had the power to uproot, unite, improve, and destroy neighbourhoods in the host city Often efforts to hide ‘blemishes’ Enhancing civic pride – both locally and nationally – Atkinson et al 2006 Health/sport impact?

18 Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
19 Example: Atlanta

Example: Atlanta

Political cohesion: already racially-charge politics became even more polarised Politicians were seen to be working more with the business community and not enough with residents Social impacts: low-income housing decreased – displacement impacts While upper-income neighbourhoods were able to successfully move a venue out of their community, lower income neighbourhoods were unable to do the same

20 Image impacts

Image impacts

The Olympics attract larger television audiences than anything else except “unscheduled accidents” (Tomlinson, 2000) Image carries great risk and reward possibilities Smaller cities may have more to gain, more prominent cities may have more to risk Business investment gains, tourism gains – but not always

21 Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
22 Sydney

Sydney

Put Sydney – and Australia -- on the map Particular investment in image: worldwide ad campaigns, time with media Increase in convention bookings and tourism (actual impact is difficult to estimate with Sept. 11 impact) (Chalip, 2002) Increase in international businesses opening an office in Sydney Low US viewership

23 London 2012

London 2012

Source: BBC

24 Source: London2012

Source: London2012

com

25 London 2012

London 2012

London 2012 Games coordinated with the Lower Lea Valley redevelopment 4 of London’s most deprived boroughs: Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, and Newham Costs: ?2bn operating costs; ?3.3bn in infrastructure Employment impact: (2005-2016): 8,000 jobs NE London, 39,000 Greater London, 8,000 jobs UK (Blake 2005)

26 Promoted benefits

Promoted benefits

London 2012 predicts impacts (UK-wide): in business, tourism, culture, volunteering, sport Additional London benefits: local employment?, boost to Lower Lea Valley Regeneration, housing, athletic facilities, public park, transport improvements, long-term employment Each Regional Development Agency has been working on strategies to capitalise on Olympic impacts

27 Setting the Bar: Lessons for London

Setting the Bar: Lessons for London

Keep expectations, pressures reasonable Jobs will be mostly in greater London, but maybe not so local Benefits of the Games will be mostly in greater London Soft benefits – civic pride, social impacts should not be overlooked Costs should be updated and clarified

28 Closing Thoughts

Closing Thoughts

Although perceived as a development dream, the Games are risky and the impacts are not clear-cut Difficult to compare – evidence base is thin Many studies on impacts are not reliable A broader range of impacts needs consideration There are benefits, but it’s not a windfall, so host cities have to match investments with post-games priorities, manage risk, and think carefully before bidding

29 Questions for Discussion

Questions for Discussion

Are cities bidding for economic development reasons, or political reasons. Or something else? Are the Games worth the risks? For what cities might bidding be best? Have the Games become too big? What now? What more can London/the UK do to maximise the benefits of the Games?

30 questions/comments

questions/comments

t.kornblatt@ippr.org www.ippr.org/centreforcities

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