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Site, Situation and the Industrial City
Site, Situation and the Industrial City
Definitions
Definitions
Defensive Sites
Defensive Sites
Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
Would this be a good type of place for urban growth in the 21st
Would this be a good type of place for urban growth in the 21st
Carcassonne, France
Carcassonne, France
Sites favoring commerce
Sites favoring commerce
Ascent to Regional Primacy in the Industrial Era (summary)
Ascent to Regional Primacy in the Industrial Era (summary)
Pittsburgh, the point
Pittsburgh, the point
Chicagos site
Chicagos site
Chicagos situation
Chicagos situation
Different interpretations of Manhattans site
Different interpretations of Manhattans site
Chicagos Site, Situation & Infrastructure
Chicagos Site, Situation & Infrastructure
Print from Don Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven &
Print from Don Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven &
First and second nature
First and second nature
Chicago represents the industrial city in the American imagination
Chicago represents the industrial city in the American imagination
A CHICAGO POEM
A CHICAGO POEM
CHICAGO IMAGES
CHICAGO IMAGES
CHICAGO IMAGES
CHICAGO IMAGES
CHICAGO IMAGES
CHICAGO IMAGES
Rise to regional dominance
Rise to regional dominance
In the mid 19th century Chicago vied with St
In the mid 19th century Chicago vied with St
The rail lines created a pattern west of Chicago they formed radial
The rail lines created a pattern west of Chicago they formed radial
Dizzying time-space compression
Dizzying time-space compression
Shipping rates were held in check by competition between water and
Shipping rates were held in check by competition between water and
Chicagos role was as coordinator of north-south and east-west flows
Chicagos role was as coordinator of north-south and east-west flows
Chicago as a case study of spatial linkages in the industrial era
Chicago as a case study of spatial linkages in the industrial era
Logging & Lumber
Logging & Lumber
Transformation of nature
Transformation of nature
Grain Shipping
Grain Shipping
The crucial shift: treating grain as a fluid element rather than
The crucial shift: treating grain as a fluid element rather than
Meat Slaughtering & Packing
Meat Slaughtering & Packing
The first assembly line was a disassembly line
The first assembly line was a disassembly line
Meat Slaughtering & Packing
Meat Slaughtering & Packing
How beef was shipped long distance
How beef was shipped long distance
Debt
Debt
Chicagos dominance was indicated by its debts in the recession of
Chicagos dominance was indicated by its debts in the recession of
Fate of the American small town
Fate of the American small town
Fate of the American small town
Fate of the American small town
Caldwell County Courthouse Lockhart, TX
Caldwell County Courthouse Lockhart, TX
SUMMARY
SUMMARY

: Site, Situation and the Industrial City. : Paul Adams. : Site, Situation and the Industrial City.ppt. zip-: 2448 .

Site, Situation and the Industrial City

Site, Situation and the Industrial City.ppt
1 Site, Situation and the Industrial City

Site, Situation and the Industrial City

or how technology created a second nature

The information and graphics in this presentation are drawn from William Cronon, Natures Metropolis (New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991)

2 Definitions

Definitions

Site: the relationship between a city and the physical environment and landscape in which it is located Situation: the relationship between a city and the rest of the urban system in which it is located

3 Defensive Sites

Defensive Sites

4 Mont Saint-Michel

Mont Saint-Michel

5 Mont Saint-Michel

Mont Saint-Michel

6 Would this be a good type of place for urban growth in the 21st

Would this be a good type of place for urban growth in the 21st

century?

No, there is no longer a need for this kind of protection, so isolation becomes a disadvantage Yes, 21st century cities depend (among other things) on tourism money, and Mont Saint-Michel is a prime tourist destination Isolation has gone from being essential to being an inconvenience to being an amenity, Site characteristics are evaluated differently in different periods of a cultures evolution

7 Carcassonne, France

Carcassonne, France

This defensive city is invaded by some 3,000,000 tourists annually!

8 Sites favoring commerce

Sites favoring commerce

9 Ascent to Regional Primacy in the Industrial Era (summary)

Ascent to Regional Primacy in the Industrial Era (summary)

By stimulating the production of basic commodities By then handling these commodities (as a break-in-bulk point) By assuming the risks of investing in these commodities then reaping the profits (when investment paid off) and by using economies of scale Industrial cities dominated their hinterlands during the industrial era First created then helped destroy rural towns

10 Pittsburgh, the point

Pittsburgh, the point

Allegheny River

Monongahela River

Ohio River

Originally a defensive site, but perfect for river-based commerce and later for industry

11 Chicagos site

Chicagos site

In the mid 19th century Chicago vied with St. Louis for the role of the leading city in the West Why Chicago? Why St. Louis?

Print from Don Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1993)

12 Chicagos situation

Chicagos situation

Given a certain technological system (a culture complex consisting of artifacts, sociofacts & mentifacts) And given a certain landscape Chicagos site predisposed it to be dominant within the urban system Entrepreneurs and investors took advantage of its site (some made money and some lost it) to turn this city into the leading city of the Midwest

13 Different interpretations of Manhattans site

Different interpretations of Manhattans site

? 1764 1807 ?

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~blkyn/Map/NY.1807.html

http://www.carto.com/chighlights/us_east.html

14 Chicagos Site, Situation & Infrastructure

Chicagos Site, Situation & Infrastructure

What was seen as a wild onion field by the Native Americans was seen as a point of least distance between two inland waterways by the European settlers. Different perception of the resources inherent in a site Water access spurred initial investment frenzy in the 1830s Barge shipping provided competition that kept down the cost of rail shipping in the summer Rail shipping (main lines to NY) took over for water in the winter

15 Print from Don Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven &

Print from Don Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven &

London: Yale University Press, 1993)

16 First and second nature

First and second nature

FIRST NATURE

SECOND NATURE

animals & plants in an area reflect climate, soil, topography, etc.

animals & plants in an area reflect shipping, investing, and human diet

the most important flows are energy flows

the most important flows are cash flows

natural complexity makes prediction difficult

social complexity makes prediction difficult

17 Chicago represents the industrial city in the American imagination

Chicago represents the industrial city in the American imagination

dirty rough uncivilized dynamic creative corrupt

18 A CHICAGO POEM

A CHICAGO POEM

Hog butcher for the World Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat, Player with Railroads and the Nations Freight Handler; Stormy, husky, brawling, City of the big shoulders. Carl Sandburg

19 CHICAGO IMAGES

CHICAGO IMAGES

Chicago is a city of Working people, who came to earn their daily bread in heavy industries--steel, packing, railroads, farm equipment. They came seeking more than bread though. There has always been in this city, this cockeyed wonder of a town, a quest for beauty. Studs Terkel

20 CHICAGO IMAGES

CHICAGO IMAGES

Chicago the jazz baby--the reeking, cinder-ridden, joyous Baptist stronghold, Chicago the chewing gum center of the world, the bleating slant-headed rendez-vous of sociopaths and pants makers--in the name of the seven Holy Imperishable Arts, Chicago salutes you. Ben Hecht

21 CHICAGO IMAGES

CHICAGO IMAGES

I have struck a city--a real city--and they call it Chicago. The other places do not count. Having seen it, I urgently desire never to see it again. It is inhabited by savages and its air is dirt. Also it says that it is the boss town of America. Rudyard Kipling

22 Rise to regional dominance

Rise to regional dominance

Chicago rose to the position of the dominant western city in the U.S. by 1870 population of 1 million by 1890, up to from only 4,500 people in 1840 the city grew by 19,000 people each year for 50 years passed up St. Louis during the Civil War but urban dominance involves more than just population size

23 In the mid 19th century Chicago vied with St

In the mid 19th century Chicago vied with St

Louis for the role of the leading city in the West Why? Why St. Louis?

Print from Don Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1993)

24 The rail lines created a pattern west of Chicago they formed radial

The rail lines created a pattern west of Chicago they formed radial

lines, like a funnel (W. to E.) or a sprinkler (E. to W.) east of Chicago they formed a trunk to New York

25 Dizzying time-space compression

Dizzying time-space compression

26 Shipping rates were held in check by competition between water and

Shipping rates were held in check by competition between water and

rails

27 Chicagos role was as coordinator of north-south and east-west flows

Chicagos role was as coordinator of north-south and east-west flows

lumber traveled from north to south

hardware had to be directed from east to west

28 Chicago as a case study of spatial linkages in the industrial era

Chicago as a case study of spatial linkages in the industrial era

logging & lumber grain shipping meat slaughtering and packing debt

29 Logging & Lumber

Logging & Lumber

north-south axis summer-winter seasonality economically marginal totally depended on Chicago: lumber market labor market land market credit market

30 Transformation of nature

Transformation of nature

31 Grain Shipping

Grain Shipping

best soil in the U.S. lay under the tallgrass prairie steel plow (1822) was able to cut heavy sod the impetus for rapid land conversion lay in Chicagos monetary instruments and grain-handling technologies Chicago Board of Trade introduced grading system for grain (1848) grain elevators required graded grain, drastically reduced per-bushel overhead costs due to waste and labor

32 The crucial shift: treating grain as a fluid element rather than

The crucial shift: treating grain as a fluid element rather than

discrete items

new way (Chicago Board of Trade) old way (selling by the bag)

33 Meat Slaughtering & Packing

Meat Slaughtering & Packing

20-40 million bison eliminated in 25 years about 2000 per day grain farms and cow pastures replaced the open prairie as European peoples replaced Native Americans Union Stockyard: 10 miles of feed troughs, 500,000 gallons of water/day, 2,300 pens economies of scale allowed Chicago meat packers to undercut the prices of local butcher shops throughout the Midwest

34 The first assembly line was a disassembly line

The first assembly line was a disassembly line

35 Meat Slaughtering & Packing

Meat Slaughtering & Packing

Any city creates a market that encourages both settlement and land conversion Industrial era infrastructure (i.e. the train and refrigeration combined) made it possible for the city to exert this influence over a wider area The stockyards, originally at the south end of the city, became a focus of activity and a nucleus of new urban growth The stockyards even became a popular tourist destination and people could watch the animals being slaughtered

36 How beef was shipped long distance

How beef was shipped long distance

37 Debt

Debt

Credit flows are normally hidden & private Bankruptcy filings bring them into the public record Q: Were 19th c. Chicago debtors different from debtors in Peoria? Study of 1873 financial panic shows invisible economic links Peorias hinterland is local while Chicagos stretched from the Gulf coast to Lake Superior and from the Mississippi to Cape Cod!

38 Chicagos dominance was indicated by its debts in the recession of

Chicagos dominance was indicated by its debts in the recession of

1873-74

Compare to Peoria

39 Fate of the American small town

Fate of the American small town

The American small town (Optimo City) evolved from a fort, struggled for the county seat, is laid out in a grid, bears evidence of dependency on the railroad, is racially and economically segregated, is still tied to its rural hinterlands, is focused on a courthouse square, and is both threatened and enchanted by the promise of growth. J. B. Jackson (1952)

40 Fate of the American small town

Fate of the American small town

Small town founded in the 19th c. is now in retreat Architecture from 19th c. remains but the purpose for the town has been undermined and the buildings are often empty Automobile and freeway formed the basis of a different type of spatial organization Long-distance travelers pass through, dont stay the night Residents no longer gravitate toward the center of town for routine shopping Residents go to distant cities for major shopping at regional shopping centers Witold Rybczynski (1995)

41 Caldwell County Courthouse Lockhart, TX

Caldwell County Courthouse Lockhart, TX

Mike Flanery: http://courthouses.flanery.net/index.html

42 SUMMARY

SUMMARY

Site and situation work together At a given point in history, within a particular culture, a certain site may be perceived as advantageous or disadvantageous It may present a threat or an opportunity Much of the judgment rests on technology, especially transportation and storage technology Part of this judgment relates to the potential of a city to interact with other cities (its situation)

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