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Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology
• Founded 1929 by Professor C.F. Taylor, with a grant from A. P. Sloan
• Founded 1929 by Professor C.F. Taylor, with a grant from A. P. Sloan
Sloan Automotive Laboratory Faculty and Staff
Sloan Automotive Laboratory Faculty and Staff
12 Test Cells: Single cylinder Spark-Ignition engines Single cylinder
12 Test Cells: Single cylinder Spark-Ignition engines Single cylinder
Sloan Automotive Laboratory Facilities: Special Equipment
Sloan Automotive Laboratory Facilities: Special Equipment
Current/Recent Research Projects
Current/Recent Research Projects
Industrial Consortium Operation
Industrial Consortium Operation
Current Research Program Strategies to reduce engine start up
Current Research Program Strategies to reduce engine start up
Current Research Program Characterization of lubricant behavior
Current Research Program Characterization of lubricant behavior
Research High Lights
Research High Lights
Drivers for Emissions Research
Drivers for Emissions Research
Engine start up behavior 2.4 L, 4-cylinder engine Engine starts with
Engine start up behavior 2.4 L, 4-cylinder engine Engine starts with
First cycle in-cylinder f results (SAE 2002-01-2805)
First cycle in-cylinder f results (SAE 2002-01-2805)
First cycle fuel delivery efficiency results (SAE 2002-01-2805)
First cycle fuel delivery efficiency results (SAE 2002-01-2805)
Effect of delaying IVO on 1st cycle fuel delivery (SAE 2004-01-1852)
Effect of delaying IVO on 1st cycle fuel delivery (SAE 2004-01-1852)
Exhaust port/runner oxidation with retard spark timing
Exhaust port/runner oxidation with retard spark timing
Secondary air injection
Secondary air injection
Catalyst performance (SAE 2003-01-1874)
Catalyst performance (SAE 2003-01-1874)
Time-resolved NO profiles along catalyst (SAE 2003-01-1874) Aged
Time-resolved NO profiles along catalyst (SAE 2003-01-1874) Aged
Fuel Sulfur Effect on Oxygen Storage Capacity: Age effect and fuel S
Fuel Sulfur Effect on Oxygen Storage Capacity: Age effect and fuel S
Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Developed at the MIT Plasma Science and
Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Developed at the MIT Plasma Science and
Effect of Plasmatron gas on lean operation (1500 rpm, 3.5 bar NIMEP,
Effect of Plasmatron gas on lean operation (1500 rpm, 3.5 bar NIMEP,
ONR Decrease with Plasmatron Reformate (1500 rpm, 8.5 bar NIMEP, MBT
ONR Decrease with Plasmatron Reformate (1500 rpm, 8.5 bar NIMEP, MBT
Geometric compression ratio = 8 to16
Geometric compression ratio = 8 to16
Mode Transition Considerations: Drive Cycle
Mode Transition Considerations: Drive Cycle
Details of mode transition
Details of mode transition
Details of transition
Details of transition
A non-robust SI-HCCI transition
A non-robust SI-HCCI transition
A Knocking transition
A Knocking transition
A Robust SI-HCCI Transition
A Robust SI-HCCI Transition
First HCCI cycle and 10 following ones
First HCCI cycle and 10 following ones
100 cycles after first HCCI cycle
100 cycles after first HCCI cycle
Controlling transition using valve timing
Controlling transition using valve timing
Relationship between IMEP and CA-50
Relationship between IMEP and CA-50
Valve timing scheduling in mode transition
Valve timing scheduling in mode transition
SI/HCCI/SI Transitions
SI/HCCI/SI Transitions
Open loop control: Modulation period at 30 cycles
Open loop control: Modulation period at 30 cycles
Open loop control: Modulation period at 14 cycles
Open loop control: Modulation period at 14 cycles
Open-loop step response
Open-loop step response
Closed-loop load controller
Closed-loop load controller
Open-loop behavior
Open-loop behavior
Closed-loop behavior
Closed-loop behavior
LIF Oil Distribution Image
LIF Oil Distribution Image
Top Ring Up-Scraping Effect (1)
Top Ring Up-Scraping Effect (1)
Transport on the land: INERTIA
Transport on the land: INERTIA
Circumferential Oil Flow
Circumferential Oil Flow
Oil Transport through the Ring Gaps and Mist generation
Oil Transport through the Ring Gaps and Mist generation
Ring Pack simulation code structure
Ring Pack simulation code structure
Major Elements of the Existing Ring Pack Models
Major Elements of the Existing Ring Pack Models
Oil Consumption Analysis Package
Oil Consumption Analysis Package
Transient oil consumption and Mechanism
Transient oil consumption and Mechanism

Презентация: «Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, USA». Автор: Wai Cheng. Файл: «Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, USA.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 2139 КБ.

Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, USA

содержание презентации «Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, USA.ppt»
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1 Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cambridge, MA, USA

Sloan Automotive Laboratory 31-153 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 Phone: (617) 253-4529 Fax: (617) 253-9453 http://engine.mit.edu December, 2004

2 • Founded 1929 by Professor C.F. Taylor, with a grant from A. P. Sloan

• Founded 1929 by Professor C.F. Taylor, with a grant from A. P. Sloan

• Established as a major laboratory for automotive research • Extensive industrial and government funding • Research areas: - Internal combustion engine - Fundamental combustion studies - Engine/fuel interactions - Engine and fuels technology assessment

Objective: Contribute to future developments in automotive technology through fundamental and applied research on propulsion technology and fuels

Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, USA

3 Sloan Automotive Laboratory Faculty and Staff

Sloan Automotive Laboratory Faculty and Staff

Professor Wai K. Cheng, Associate Director Combustion, diagnostics, engine design Professor William H. Green, Jr. (Chem. Eng.) Combustion chemistry, fuels Professor John B. Heywood, Director Engine combustion, performance and emissions; engine design Professor James C. Keck (Emeritus) Combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics Dr. Tian Tian Analysis, lubrication, engine dynamics Dr. Victor W. Wong, Manager Lubrication, engine design and operating characteristics About 25 graduate students are involved in the research projects

4 12 Test Cells: Single cylinder Spark-Ignition engines Single cylinder

12 Test Cells: Single cylinder Spark-Ignition engines Single cylinder

HCCI engine with VVT Multi-cylinder Spark-Ignition engines Heavy Duty Multi-cylinder Diesel engine Optical-access engines with transparent cylinders for combustion and lubrication measurements Rapid compression machine

Sloan Automotive Laboratory Facilities

5 Sloan Automotive Laboratory Facilities: Special Equipment

Sloan Automotive Laboratory Facilities: Special Equipment

LIF imaging systems Fluorescence-based lubricant film diagnostic High-speed digital video camera (1000 frames/s) Particulate Spectrometer Gas chromatograph Fourier transform infrared analyzer Laser Phase Doppler anemometer Fast-response FID Hydrocarbon and NOx analyzers

6 Current/Recent Research Projects

Current/Recent Research Projects

Engine and Fuels Research Consortium (DaimlerChrysler, Delphi, Ford, GM, Saudi Aramco) Lubrication Consortium (Dana, Mahle, PSA, Renault, Volvo Truck)

Homogeneous-Charge-Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engine (DOE) Control-Auto-Ignition (CAI) Engine (Ford) Plasmatron Enabled SI Engine Concepts (Ford, Arvin Meritor) Engine starting strategies (DaimlerChrysler) Robust Retarded Combustion (Nissan) Clean Diesel Fuels (DOE) Oil Aeration Study (Ford) Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine Friction Reduction (DOE) Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Wear Reduction (DOD) High Speed Engine Lubrication (Ferrari) Assessment of Future Powertrain, Vehicle, and Fuels Technology (V. Kann Rasmussen Foundation, Energy Choices Consortium)

7 Industrial Consortium Operation

Industrial Consortium Operation

Multi-sponsor, multi-year program Pre-competitive research agenda Regular meetings (every 4 months) to set program agenda and discuss research findings Periodic visits to sponsor companies for discussion with staff Direct technology transfer through exchange of personal and use of facilities and computer codes

8 Current Research Program Strategies to reduce engine start up

Current Research Program Strategies to reduce engine start up

emissions Fast catalyst light-off strategies Fundamental study of particulate matters formation Catalyst behavior: effects of sulfur and age on effectiveness

Engine and Fuels Research Consortium

1982 - present Current Focus: SI Engines Members: DaimlerChrysler Corp.,Delphi Corp., Ford Motor Co., General Motors Corp., Saudi Aramco

9 Current Research Program Characterization of lubricant behavior

Current Research Program Characterization of lubricant behavior

between piston and liner and its impacts on engine wear, friction and lubricant requirements Quantitative 2D LIF visualization of oil film dynamics in the piston/liner interface Modeling of oil transport/consumption and ring friction Application to ring designs (geometry and tension)

Industrial Consortium on Lubrication in IC Engines

1989 - present Current Focus: Piston/liner tribology Members: Dana Corp., Mahle Corp., Peugeot SA, Renault, Volvo Truck

10 Research High Lights

Research High Lights

11 Drivers for Emissions Research

Drivers for Emissions Research

Least square fit: Factor of 10 reduction in both HC and NOx every 15 years

12 Engine start up behavior 2.4 L, 4-cylinder engine Engine starts with

Engine start up behavior 2.4 L, 4-cylinder engine Engine starts with

Cyl#2 piston in mid stroke of compression Firing order 1-3-4-2 First fuel pulse ~90 mg/cylinder First firing: Cyl#2

(SULEV: FTP total is < 110 mg)

Total: 71 mg

Integrated HC emissions:

13 First cycle in-cylinder f results (SAE 2002-01-2805)

First cycle in-cylinder f results (SAE 2002-01-2805)

Lean Limit of consistent firing

14 First cycle fuel delivery efficiency results (SAE 2002-01-2805)

First cycle fuel delivery efficiency results (SAE 2002-01-2805)

15 Effect of delaying IVO on 1st cycle fuel delivery (SAE 2004-01-1852)

Effect of delaying IVO on 1st cycle fuel delivery (SAE 2004-01-1852)

1.2

1.1

1.0

0.9

Fuel equivalence Ratio ( F)

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

-20

-10

0

10

20

Intake Valve Opening (CAD from TDC Exhaust)

16 Exhaust port/runner oxidation with retard spark timing

Exhaust port/runner oxidation with retard spark timing

17 Secondary air injection

Secondary air injection

HC/HCref

lexhaust = 0.85

lExhaust=1.4

3.0 bar NIMEP, 1500 RPM, 20° C

Ref value: at condition of 15oBTDC spark and l = 1

Sp = -15°BTDC

1.4

Sp = 15° BTDC

1.2

1.0

0.8

Sp = 0° BTDC

0.6

l

= 0.85

l

= 1.0

0.4

l

= 1.1

0.2

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

18 Catalyst performance (SAE 2003-01-1874)

Catalyst performance (SAE 2003-01-1874)

7 ppm fuel S 1600 rpm 0.5 bar Pintake Space vel. - 4.4x104/hr modulation - 2 Hz - Dl=± 0.025

19 Time-resolved NO profiles along catalyst (SAE 2003-01-1874) Aged

Time-resolved NO profiles along catalyst (SAE 2003-01-1874) Aged

4k-miles; 4.4x104/hr space vel.; l modulation: 1Hz, Dl=± 0.03

0% cumulative catalyst vol.

17%

33%

50%

67%

82%

100%

20 Fuel Sulfur Effect on Oxygen Storage Capacity: Age effect and fuel S

Fuel Sulfur Effect on Oxygen Storage Capacity: Age effect and fuel S

effect are separable

Slope: 10% decrease in O2 storage capacity with every 150 ppm increase in fuel S

2

1

storage capacity (g)

7ppmS

33ppmS

266ppmS

2

O

500ppmS

Power law: O2 storageµ age- 0.84

10

100

Catalyst age (k-miles)

21 Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Developed at the MIT Plasma Science and

Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Developed at the MIT Plasma Science and

Fusion Center

Ideal Partial Oxidation Reaction:

H2

25%

CO

26%

N2

49%

Products of the Ideal Reaction

Species

Mole Fraction

22 Effect of Plasmatron gas on lean operation (1500 rpm, 3.5 bar NIMEP,

Effect of Plasmatron gas on lean operation (1500 rpm, 3.5 bar NIMEP,

SAE2003-01-0630)

Synth. Plas. gas = 10%

Overall Net Indicated Efficiency (%)

Synth. Plas. gas = 20%

(Assume ideal Plasmatron efficiency of 86%)

Synth. Plas. gas = 30%

Indolene Only

Lambda

33%

32%

31%

30%

29%

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

2.2

23 ONR Decrease with Plasmatron Reformate (1500 rpm, 8.5 bar NIMEP, MBT

ONR Decrease with Plasmatron Reformate (1500 rpm, 8.5 bar NIMEP, MBT

spark timing; SAE 2004-01-0975)

24 Geometric compression ratio = 8 to16

Geometric compression ratio = 8 to16

VVT Engine for HCCI operation

Spacer to change geometric compression ratio

25 Mode Transition Considerations: Drive Cycle

Mode Transition Considerations: Drive Cycle

26 Details of mode transition

Details of mode transition

27 Details of transition

Details of transition

HCCI region

8

8

7

7

6

6

5

5

4

4

(bar)

(bar)

3

3

Bmep

Bmep

2

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

500

500

1000

1000

1500

1500

2000

2000

2500

2500

-

-

1

1

-

-

2

2

Speed (rpm)

Speed (rpm)

e

d

g

g

h

f

f

c

c

h2

a

a

v

v

u

u

t

t

r

r

s

s

p

p

b

m

m

k

k

n

n

o

o

i

i

j

j

l

l

q

q

28 A non-robust SI-HCCI transition

A non-robust SI-HCCI transition

(1500 rpm, 15oBTDC spark)

29 A Knocking transition

A Knocking transition

30 A Robust SI-HCCI Transition

A Robust SI-HCCI Transition

(1500 rpm, 15oBTDC spark)

31 First HCCI cycle and 10 following ones

First HCCI cycle and 10 following ones

32 100 cycles after first HCCI cycle

100 cycles after first HCCI cycle

33 Controlling transition using valve timing

Controlling transition using valve timing

GIMEP

NIMEP

IMEP(bar)

56

58

60

62

64

66

68

70

Valve timing(o atdc exhaust) Cycle IVC EVO EVC IVO 58 278 492 731 26 59 278 495 658 30 60 236 496 641 54 61 215 494 639 75 62,… 219 493 644 78

SI cycles with late IVC and late EVC

First HCCI cycle(60); early IVC

Last SI cycle(59); early EVC

Cycle number

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

34 Relationship between IMEP and CA-50

Relationship between IMEP and CA-50

35 Valve timing scheduling in mode transition

Valve timing scheduling in mode transition

36 SI/HCCI/SI Transitions

SI/HCCI/SI Transitions

Start with SI mode Transition into CAI mode in cycle# 60 Transition back to SI mode in cycle# 136 Transition into CAI mode in cycle# 177

37 Open loop control: Modulation period at 30 cycles

Open loop control: Modulation period at 30 cycles

1500 rpm; modulation period of 30 cycles=2.4 sec

38 Open loop control: Modulation period at 14 cycles

Open loop control: Modulation period at 14 cycles

1500 rpm; modulation period of 14 cycles=1.12 sec

39 Open-loop step response

Open-loop step response

40 Closed-loop load controller

Closed-loop load controller

41 Open-loop behavior

Open-loop behavior

42 Closed-loop behavior

Closed-loop behavior

43 LIF Oil Distribution Image

LIF Oil Distribution Image

Expansion stroke

No load (1 N.m) - Coolant 50 °C - Oil 50 °C

20 mm

7 mm

Fluorescence intensity profile

Ring Pack Geometry

44 Top Ring Up-Scraping Effect (1)

Top Ring Up-Scraping Effect (1)

Compression stroke

1700 rpm - No load (1 N.m), Coolant 50 °C - Oil 50 °C

Ring Twist + Piston Tilt

Late compression stroke

Anti-Thrust Side

45 Transport on the land: INERTIA

Transport on the land: INERTIA

Exhaust stroke

Compression stroke

INERTIA

Early Upward Stroke Exhaust & Compression Stroke

INERTIA

1200 rpm - No load (1 N.m) - Coolant 50 °C - Oil 50 °C

46 Circumferential Oil Flow

Circumferential Oil Flow

Transport on the land in CIRCUMFERENTIAL DIRECTION

6 mm

Compression stroke

t = 0 s

t = 1 s (10 cycles)

t = 2 s (20 cycles)

1200 rpm - No load (1 N.m) - Coolant 50 °C - Oil 50 °C

47 Oil Transport through the Ring Gaps and Mist generation

Oil Transport through the Ring Gaps and Mist generation

B. Thirouard

Oil dragged from the piston may be entrained into mist. Oil mist is carried by gas flow going to crankcase or back to the combustion Chamber.

Break up into mist by high velocity gas flow (liquid entrainment)

Liquid oil

48 Ring Pack simulation code structure

Ring Pack simulation code structure

GAS FLOW

and

RING DYNAMICS

PISTON SECONDARY

RING - LINER

MOTION

LUBRICATION

OIL TRANSPORT

and

OIL CONSUMPTION

49 Major Elements of the Existing Ring Pack Models

Major Elements of the Existing Ring Pack Models

50 Oil Consumption Analysis Package

Oil Consumption Analysis Package

Zone Analysis

Ring/Liner Scraping Redistribution

RINGPACK-OC FRICTION-OFT TLOCR TPOCR PISTON2nd

Ring/groove Pumping out Gas flow dragging

Piston lands Gas flow driven Inertia driven

Fundamental Models

Individual Oil Transport Processes and models

Vaporization On liner On piston

Gap Gap position Mist

51 Transient oil consumption and Mechanism

Transient oil consumption and Mechanism

Modeling

Measurements from the Production Engine

Research highlights: Integration of modeling and the Experiments on production and single-cylinder engines

4200 rpm; 0 % - WOT

Blow-By [l/min],

Air Flow[l/s]

Oil Cons. [mg/cyc]

Time [s]

1000

900

60

800

Oil Cons.

700

Blow-By

600

Air flow

40

500

400

300

20

200

100

0

0

40

80

120

160

200

240

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