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Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity
Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity
Announcements
Announcements
Review: Cultural Globalization
Review: Cultural Globalization
Cultural Globalization
Cultural Globalization
Globalization and Culture
Globalization and Culture
Perspectives: Globalization & Culture
Perspectives: Globalization & Culture
Perspectives: Globalization & Culture
Perspectives: Globalization & Culture
Perspectives: Globalization & Culture
Perspectives: Globalization & Culture
Perspectives: Globalization & Culture
Perspectives: Globalization & Culture
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Homogenization vs
Culture, Identity, & Conflict
Culture, Identity, & Conflict
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Culture and Conflict
Culture and Conflict
Culture and Conflict
Culture and Conflict
Culture and Conflict
Culture and Conflict
Culture and Conflict
Culture and Conflict
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Perspectives on identity/culture
Local Reactions to Globalization
Local Reactions to Globalization
Local Responses to Globalization
Local Responses to Globalization
Local Responses to Globalization
Local Responses to Globalization
Local Responses to Globalization
Local Responses to Globalization
Local Responses to Globalization
Local Responses to Globalization
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements
Reactionary Movements

: Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity. : Home Computer. : Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity.ppt. zip-: 450 .

Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity

Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity.ppt
1 Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity

Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity

Copyright 2011 by Evan Schofer Do not copy or distribute without permission

2 Announcements

Announcements

Midterm exams available for review during office hours (NOTE LOCATION!!!): Office hours locations for Feb 28-March 4: Beth Gardner, Erin Evans, & Natasha Miric: SST603 Rachael Chatterson: SST 682; Drew Duncan: SST 619 After this week, email your TA to see your exam Final exam coming up Review sheet will be out soon Section next week: Final exam review Todays Class: Globalization & Culture What is culture, and how does globalization affect it? Is culture/identity a source of conflict?

3 Review: Cultural Globalization

Review: Cultural Globalization

Culture refers to many things: 1. Popular culture: movies, music, clothing 2. World Society Theory: Culture = common norms, cognitive models, scripts. 3. Group culture/identity: Shared beliefs, traditions, world-views, way of life Example: An indigenous that shares a particular religion, language, cuisine, etc. Example: National groups (e.g., the French)

4 Cultural Globalization

Cultural Globalization

Question: Is there such a Orange County culture? If so, what are some of its distinctive features? Food? Language? Accent? Worldview?

5 Globalization and Culture

Globalization and Culture

One obvious trend: Western (often American) culture is increasingly dominant around the globe Ex: English is arguably the primary global language And, many local languages are dying out Ex: Western music, clothing are popular everywhere Other examples from readings? Personal experiences?

6 Perspectives: Globalization & Culture

Perspectives: Globalization & Culture

1. Modernization theory Dominant view in 1950s and 1960s, now criticized Prediction: Traditional cultures would die out, as everyone became modern and rational Modernization theorists thought this was a good thing Primitive cultures were replaced by advanced ones Local identities were replaced by modern social & political identities Superstition replaced by rationality, science, enlightenment.

7 Perspectives: Globalization & Culture

Perspectives: Globalization & Culture

2. Marxism / World-System Theory Argues that power & culture are intertwined Marx: Ideas of a society are the ideas of the ruling class Western economic domination is accompanied by cultural domination Often called Cultural Imperialism Westerners can effectively spread their culture via colonialism (and later via media, advertising) This helps maintain economic dominance Non-Western people may reject their own culture, prefer to wear Western clothes, listen to Lady Gaga, and eat at McDonalds.

8 Perspectives: Globalization & Culture

Perspectives: Globalization & Culture

3. World Society Theory Argues that a key facet of globalization is the emergence of a world culture Embodied, in part, in international associations Global culture provides norms, scripts, and models that shape the behavior of governments Consequence: Governments, laws, societies are becoming increasingly isomorphic Contrast w/ World System Theory: World culture may relate to historical dominance of West. But, culture is not principally a mechanism of furthering the dominance of the West Rather, it now evolves somewhat independently of the interests of powerful countries Ex: Environmentalism, human rights

9 Perspectives: Globalization & Culture

Perspectives: Globalization & Culture

4. Homogenization vs. Hybridization: A view from anthropology Reading: Martell: Is Globalization Homogenous or Hybrid? Homogenization: Becoming similar or uniform throughout Latin: Homo = same; gen = make Homogenized milk = mixed up really well so that the fat doesnt separate out from the liquid Hybrid: A new breed created by joining two or more varieties (e.g., of plant) Refers to the mixing or blending of cultures.

10 Homogenization vs

Homogenization vs

Hybridization

Martell: Is Globalization Homogenous or Hybrid? Issue: The homogenization thesis Also called the McDonaldization Thesis (Ritzer) The idea that global information flows and capitalism will result in cultural uniformity We all eat at McDonalds, watch the same TV shows Ex: 1.1 billion viewers of Baywatch in 1990s (p. 91) Fits with theories we discussed: Modernization: Everyone modernizes Marx / World-system Theory: Everyone dominated by global capitalists, Western media World Society Theory: Spread of global norms/models.

11 Homogenization vs

Homogenization vs

Hybridization

Criticisms of the Homogenization view 1. Observed exceptions to a single dominant culture Example: India has a vibrant film industry Bollywood Hasnt been wiped out by American films 2. Media & consumption are only a part of culture Watching similar TV or movies doesnt erase many other cultural differences (beliefs, religious views, etc) 3. Global culture can be seen as increasingly fragmented More and more cable TV stations Shift from mass consumerism to niche consumption.

12 Homogenization vs

Homogenization vs

Hybridization

Criticisms of the Homogenization view 4. Homogenization view treats receivers of culture as very passive Argument: People dont just passive absorb culture Instead: they play an active role Accepting some ideas and rejecting others Example: Even McDonalds, supposedly the source of uniformity, has to adapt to local demands/customs 5. The dominant culture isnt pure it reflects influences from other cultures Asian, Latin American, African cultures influence Western music, media, food, etc.

13 Homogenization vs

Homogenization vs

Hybridization

Hybridization. Culture & consumption reflect hybridization mixing and recombining Also called creolization a new language created by mixing others. Issue studied by Anthropologists Locals are influenced by global culture, but also re-interpret it and adapt it to their lives. Local cultural entrepreneurs have gradually mastered the alien forms which reach them through the transnational commodity flows and in other ways, taking them apart, tampering and tinkering with them in such a way that the resulting new forms are more responsive to, and at the same time in part outgrowths of, local everyday life (Ulf Hannerz). Examples???

14 McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid

McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid

McDonalds in Japan & Taiwan Fried shrimp burger; Chicken rice-cake burger

15 McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid

McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid

McArabia!

The idea of hybridization was originally about how local people transformed global culture But, examples from the West also illustrate the process.

16 Homogenization vs

Homogenization vs

Hybridization

Example: Indian film industry Bollywood Mumbai Tamil film industry Chennai Clearly reflects local tradition Video\Bollywood_Trailer.mp4 But also absorption of Western ideas but is it homogenization or hybridization? Video\Endhiran_-_Official_Trailer_-_HQ.flv Video\Best_action_scene_ever._ever._ever._--_Endhiran_Robot.flv

17 Homogenization vs

Homogenization vs

Hybridization

Martells conclusion: Homogenization thesis is too simple but it needs to be revised rather than rejected (p. 90) Hybridization is an important cultural process But, global homogenizing forces (like cultural imperialism) do exist It isnt either/or, but both

18 Culture, Identity, & Conflict

Culture, Identity, & Conflict

Issue: Is conflict inevitable when globalization brings cultures into contact with each other? Does globalization of Western/American culture generate conflict? Huntington: Clash of Civilizations And, more generally: Can ideas like culture, ethnicity, and identity explain conflict Ex: Genocide in Balkans, Rwanda Ex: Conflict between radical Islamic groups and Western/Christian/capitalist societies Answer: It depend on what you think ethnicity / identity is

19 Perspectives on identity/culture

Perspectives on identity/culture

Two views of identity/ethnicity/culture: 1. Primordial view Culture/ethnicity/identity is primordial. It is deeply rooted, fundamental, and enduring Consequently, cultural differences are difficult to overcome Conflict often results This view is common in media, popular culture.

20 Perspectives on identity/culture

Perspectives on identity/culture

2. The social constructionist view: Culture/ethnicity/identity are malleable: They change over time and with social context People exhibit different identities in different contexts Identities disappear and return (or are re-invented) Ex: Quebecois in Canada Political processes and social circumstances shape and alter identities.

21 Perspectives on identity/culture

Perspectives on identity/culture

Empirical evidence: Strongly supports the social constructionist perspective 1. Culture/identity is not innate and unchanging Example: Balkan conflict between Serbs and Croats Primordialist claim: Hatred is centuries old: There will always be blood on the Balkan soil Evidence: Surveys suggest that trust and intermarriage were very high in 1980s, before political conflict began.

22 Perspectives on identity/culture

Perspectives on identity/culture

2. Culture/identity is often the product (not cause) of political struggle Example: Balkan political leaders strategically invoked ethnicity, stoked hatreds to gain support Inflammatory speech about external threat = a powerful frame to garner social/political support Elites & social movement groups frame selectively, thereby constructing the conflict along certain lines Is fight against Al Qaeda a fight against an Islamic group? A bunch of Saudis? A bunch of oil-rich bourgeoisie?

23 Culture and Conflict

Culture and Conflict

Samuel Huntington: Clash of Civilizations A. There are distinct civilizations in the world, with different histories, beliefs, and cultures Ex: Western, Confucian, Islamic, Hindu, Latin American B. These will become the main fault lines of conflict in the future Replacing the Cold War battles over ideologies.

24 Culture and Conflict

Culture and Conflict

Why will there be conflict among civilizations? 1. Differences in civilizations are fundamental Different language, history, religion, beliefs about individuals, families, and groups These differences are more fundamental than beliefs about political ideologies and political regimes. (Reader, p. 28) 2. Globalization: The world gets smaller Globalization increases and intensifies interactions among civilizations.

25 Culture and Conflict

Culture and Conflict

3. Economic modernization is separating people from local identities (p. 28) Local identities are dying out, allowing groups to organize under broad civilizations For him, civilizations are primordial more so than local identities Example: There are many Islamic sects (often in conflict with each other); If those sects unite under Islam, the potential for conflict increases Result: There is greater civilization consciousness in non-West.

26 Culture and Conflict

Culture and Conflict

Huntingtons prediction: These cultural differences will lead to greater global conflict: A clash of civilizations Either among civilizations or the West versus the rest Issue: Sociologists have been very critical of this view: The general idea of coherent civilizations And, the primordial view of culture

27 Perspectives on identity/culture

Perspectives on identity/culture

Bowen: The Myth of Global Ethnic Conflict Argues against Huntington (But focuses on civil war, not global conflict) Also: Optional reading: Hironaka: Ethnic Conflict in Weak States Issue: There are many bloody conflicts raging in developing countries Westerners often attribute them to enduring ethnic hatreds Treat them as sad but inevitable And, many fear Huntington-like conflict of West vs. the Rest

28 Perspectives on identity/culture

Perspectives on identity/culture

Question: Do ethnic hatreds explain civil wars? Bowen: No Civil wars are a product of political struggle made worse by weak governments, poverty Emphasis on ethnic identity/conflict = a Western stereotype not at all describing what is happening on the ground.

29 Perspectives on identity/culture

Perspectives on identity/culture

Example: Katangan revolt in the Congo From Hironaka 2005 Typical account: war is result of tribalism and ethnicity (p. 131, citing Young) Actually, Katangans arent an ethnic group! Katanga a province (like a US state) filled with many different ethnic groups which fought on both sides Rather, the war was rooted in economics and politics For instance: Katanga was wealthy; they wanted to stop people from migrating, taking jobs.

30 Perspectives on identity/culture

Perspectives on identity/culture

Issue: Katangan war did help solidify the Katangan cultural identity People began to be willing to die for Katanga But, it would be a mistake to assume that conflict was caused by strong cultural identities Example: Cold War: I knew people in high school that wanted to Nuke those commie Russian bastards Even strong identities can dissolve; Or, be replaced by others (e.g., desire to fight radical Islamic fundamentalists).

31 Local Reactions to Globalization

Local Reactions to Globalization

So, if globalization doesnt inevitably lead to ethnic conflict whats up with Al Qaeda? The general issue: How can we understand reactions against the West?

32 Local Responses to Globalization

Local Responses to Globalization

Local reactions against Western culture, imperialism: 1. Opt out. Ignore or shun the external culture Examples: Many indigenous groups, the Amish Historically most common. Arguably the most authentically traditional response to outsiders Typical outcome: children abandon traditional culture; traditional groups shrink or disintegrate Many traditional societies do not have strong institutions of social control cant compete with Western education, media, labor market.

33 Local Responses to Globalization

Local Responses to Globalization

Reactions against Western culture, imperialism: 2. Reactionary movements: Social movements that attack the system, offer an alternative Examples: French social movement against American food, popular culture; Some Islamic fundamentalists. Note: Some movements attack a specific (or symbolic) part of the dominant culture. Others are total rejections of it. Examples from readings, personal experience?

34 Local Responses to Globalization

Local Responses to Globalization

Kurzman reading: Bin Laden and other Thoroughly Modern Muslims Argument: There are two kinds of reactionary movements: Traditional and Modern Traditional Reactionary Movements: Ex: The Taliban in Afghanistan Mostly fight to get outsiders to leave Usually organized by actual indigenous people Participants are usually local Not very common

35 Local Responses to Globalization

Local Responses to Globalization

Kurzman reading: Bin Laden and other Thoroughly Modern Muslims Modern Reactionary Movements: Ex: Bin Laden & Al Qaeda Typically organized by highly educated people More like a social movement Sophisticated use of media, etc Not really a very local response at all Argument: These are modern social movements.

36 Reactionary Movements

Reactionary Movements

Reactionary movements are just like other social movements. They rely on: Resource mobilization: resources, organizational capacity Political opportunity structure: allies, lapses in repression Framing: Use of symbols, imagery (often religious).

37 Reactionary Movements

Reactionary Movements

Example: Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups Resource mobilization: Leaders are highly educated Some even have degrees from American universities Oil rich countries have tremendous resources It is easy to find donors for any pro-Islamic cause.

38 Reactionary Movements

Reactionary Movements

Example: Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups Political opportunity structure Radical groups clearly took advantage of friendly regimes (e.g., the Taliban) to train, build capacity Relative lack of repression in US is an opportunity Note: Increased security after 9/11 means fewer opportunities for protest/attacks Note: These groups also attack pro-US regimes like Egypt but repression is much greater.

39 Reactionary Movements

Reactionary Movements

Ex: Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups Framing: Use of symbols, imagery Religion provides a powerful set of images Enemy isnt just bad, but evil & satanic Another frame: attacking imperialism, the system Standing up for the little guy, fighting the bully Reactionary movements always claim to authentically represent locals; that they arent part of the system Ex: Leaders dont emphasize educational degrees or wealth; They emphasize the small village they came from.

40 Reactionary Movements

Reactionary Movements

Issue for future discussion: How would strategies for dealing with Al Qaeda differ if we think of it as a modern social movement? Rather than a traditional reactionary movement

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