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Sport as Global Entertainment Chris Gratton Sport Industry Research
Sport as Global Entertainment Chris Gratton Sport Industry Research
History: Sport Predominantly Local Activity
History: Sport Predominantly Local Activity
1960s, 1970s: Rise of National Sports Markets
1960s, 1970s: Rise of National Sports Markets
Post 1980s: Globalisation of the Sport Market
Post 1980s: Globalisation of the Sport Market
Characteristics of Global Sports Market
Characteristics of Global Sports Market
Olympic Games
Olympic Games
London 2012
London 2012
TV
TV
New Media
New Media
Countries broadcasting the Olympics
Countries broadcasting the Olympics
Olympic TV rights fees (US$-million)
Olympic TV rights fees (US$-million)
Distribution of revenues from broadcasting rights
Distribution of revenues from broadcasting rights
IOC Broadcast Rights Revenue
IOC Broadcast Rights Revenue
Listed Events 2009 Independent Review Panel
Listed Events 2009 Independent Review Panel
IOC Evidence
IOC Evidence
FIFA Evidence
FIFA Evidence
FIFA Evidence
FIFA Evidence
English Premier League
English Premier League
Football League attendances 1947 - 1985
Football League attendances 1947 - 1985
The Future of Football 1985
The Future of Football 1985
Football League attendances 1986 - 2000
Football League attendances 1986 - 2000
The cost of the rights to live league matches from the top division in
The cost of the rights to live league matches from the top division in
Broadcast Rights Fees for Sport
Broadcast Rights Fees for Sport
Premier League TV Rights 2007-10
Premier League TV Rights 2007-10
Premier League TV Rights 2010-13
Premier League TV Rights 2010-13
Premier League TV rights 2013-16
Premier League TV rights 2013-16
British Sky Broadcasting
British Sky Broadcasting
Football World Cup
Football World Cup
World Cup 2006 in Germany
World Cup 2006 in Germany
Economic impact of Overseas Visitors
Economic impact of Overseas Visitors
Conclusions
Conclusions

Презентация: «Sport as Global Entertainment». Автор: Sch Leisure & Food Management. Файл: «Sport as Global Entertainment.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 116 КБ.

Sport as Global Entertainment

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1 Sport as Global Entertainment Chris Gratton Sport Industry Research

Sport as Global Entertainment Chris Gratton Sport Industry Research

Centre (SIRC) Sheffield Hallam University UK

2 History: Sport Predominantly Local Activity

History: Sport Predominantly Local Activity

Prior to 1960s sport was predominantly local activity Broadcasting rights income, government funding of elite sport, and sponsorship income were negligible Sport market dominated by mass participation sport with the voluntary sector the main supplier Elite sport mainly amateur with exception of professional team sports (where rewards were modest)

3 1960s, 1970s: Rise of National Sports Markets

1960s, 1970s: Rise of National Sports Markets

Increasing importance of international sporting competitions creating need for national policies and strategies for elite sport Increasing visibility of these competitions through television Sport for all movement recognising health and social benefits of sport for all creating need for national policy for mass participation sport National agencies for sport policy created Increasing importance of government in sport

4 Post 1980s: Globalisation of the Sport Market

Post 1980s: Globalisation of the Sport Market

Globalising Forces: Increasing globalisation of media coverage of major sports events (e.g. Olympics, Soccer World Cup) Global recognition of top athletes Association of these athletes with global sports brands (e.g. Nike, Adidas)

5 Characteristics of Global Sports Market

Characteristics of Global Sports Market

Escalation in price of broadcasting rights for global sports events. Global marketing of major sports products by using images (not words) recognisable worldwide Global sports celebrities most important part of these images Escalation in price of sponsorship deals for both events and athletes by both sport (e.g. Nike, Adidas) and non-sport (e.g. Coca-Cola, McDonalds) sponsors

6 Olympic Games

Olympic Games

7 London 2012

London 2012

8 TV

TV

London had a Global TV audience of 4.8 million compared to: - Beijing 4.7 million - Athens 3.9 million - Sydney 3.7 million

9 New Media

New Media

London2012.com became the world’s most popular sport website with 431 million visits IOC’s website attracted 16 million visits up from 10.6 million for Beijing London 2012’s social media sites (Facebook, Twitter and Google +) attracted 4.7 million followers

10 Countries broadcasting the Olympics

Countries broadcasting the Olympics

Olympic Summer Games

Olympic Summer Games

1936 Berlin

1

1948 London

1

1952 Helsinki

2

1956 Melbourne

1

1960 Rome

21

1964 Tokyo

40

1968 Mexico City

n/a

1972 M?nich

98

1976 Montreal

124

1980 Moscow

111

1984 Los Angeles

156

1988 Seoul

160

1992 Barcelona

193

1996 Atlanta

214

2000 Sydney

220

2004 Athens

220

2008 Beijing

220

11 Olympic TV rights fees (US$-million)

Olympic TV rights fees (US$-million)

1960 Rome

1

1964 Tokyo

2

1968 Mexico City

10

1972 M?nich

18

1976 Montreal

35

1980 Moscow

88

1984 Los Angeles

286

1988 Seoul

402

1992 Barcelona

636

1996 Atlanta

898

2000 Sydney

1,332

2004 Athens

1,494

2008 Beijing

1,739

2012 London

2,569

12 Distribution of revenues from broadcasting rights

Distribution of revenues from broadcasting rights

IOC

LOOC

1948 – 1968

1-4%

99-96%

1972 – 1980

10%

90%

1984 – 1992

33%

67%

1996 – 2004

40%

60%

2006 – 2010

51%

49%

2010 --------

LOOC receives a guaranteed amount

LOOC receives a guaranteed amount

13 IOC Broadcast Rights Revenue

IOC Broadcast Rights Revenue

The total money income the IOC received from its share of the Beijing 2008 Games broadcasting rights income ($0.89 billion) was 500 times more than its share of the broadcasting rights income for the Munich 1972 Games ($1.28 million) Beijing received $0.85 billion, just over 50 times more than Munich

14 Listed Events 2009 Independent Review Panel

Listed Events 2009 Independent Review Panel

15 IOC Evidence

IOC Evidence

Olympic Charter: which requires that the IOC take 'all necessary steps in order to ensure the fullest coverage by the different media and the widest possible audience in the world for the Olympic Games.' At the Beijing Olympics live Olympic Games in the UK content amounted to 5,000 hours covering 28 sports. The BBC broadcast 240 hours of live content from Beijing or just 4.8% of the total. That is, 95% of the Olympic Games content was not broadcast to the UK viewing public.

16 FIFA Evidence

FIFA Evidence

FIFA's argument in relation to the World Cup was that they were happy for part of the tournament to be listed (eg opening match, matches of home nations, semi finals and final) but they preferred a model operated in some other European countries (eg France) where a partnership between free-to-air and Pay-TV broadcasters shared the tournament.

17 FIFA Evidence

FIFA Evidence

Loss of broadcast revenue was FIFA's main concern (unlike IOC's argument relating to lack of coverage) 2007: event income accounted for 89% of FIFA revenue with the bulk of this coming from the sale of broadcasting rights to the 2010 World Cup

18 English Premier League

English Premier League

19 Football League attendances 1947 - 1985

Football League attendances 1947 - 1985

20 The Future of Football 1985

The Future of Football 1985

“Football will no doubt survive in British culture in one form or another. It will remain a strength in regions where traditional male working-class culture persists....... Perhaps football belonged to an earlier phase of industrialisation and has only a tenuous place in post-industrial society” Chas Critcher

21 Football League attendances 1986 - 2000

Football League attendances 1986 - 2000

22 The cost of the rights to live league matches from the top division in

The cost of the rights to live league matches from the top division in

England, 1983 to 1997

23 Broadcast Rights Fees for Sport

Broadcast Rights Fees for Sport

The single biggest influence on the economic position of English Premier League football is the increase in income from the sale of domestic broadcasting rights: 1985 annual income from TV, ?3 million 1997 annual income from TV, ?170 million 2001 annual income from TV, ?540 million 2008 annual income from TV, ?791 million 2010 annual income from TV, ?823 million

24 Premier League TV Rights 2007-10

Premier League TV Rights 2007-10

BSkyB 92 matches ?4.76 m per game (?2.47m in 2004-7) Setanta 46 matches ?2.8 m per game Total UK rights ?1.7 billion Overseas rights ?625 million

25 Premier League TV Rights 2010-13

Premier League TV Rights 2010-13

Total UK rights ?1.8 billion Overseas rights ? 1.4 billion

26 Premier League TV rights 2013-16

Premier League TV rights 2013-16

UK Rights (BSkyB/BT) ?3.4 billion Overseas Rights ?2.5 billion (212 countries)

27 British Sky Broadcasting

British Sky Broadcasting

Satellite Broadcasting Company set up in late 1980s Massive losses in early years, and by 1992 still making a loss with only 1.5 million subscribers In 1992 bid ?304 million for Premier League Football TV rights 1997 - Europe’s most profitable broadcaster with profits made at ?8 per second - Market capitalisation of ?10 billion - 7 million subscribers; in 2013, 10.4 million subscribers Over 50% subscribers say sport is main reason for subscription Over 50% operating costs are sport-related

28 Football World Cup

Football World Cup

29 World Cup 2006 in Germany

World Cup 2006 in Germany

30 Economic impact of Overseas Visitors

Economic impact of Overseas Visitors

Stadium Visitors: 1.47 billion Euros Public Viewing Visitors: 1.09 billion Euros Total: 2.56 billion Euros Average per match: 40 million Euros

31 Conclusions

Conclusions

There is no doubt that sport is global entertainment Within a fragmented television landscape where much is recorded, safe and predictable only sport offers uncertainty, risk and ‘liveness’ Most of all live sport even on television has the ability to generate powerful emotions and this drives the global demand for sport

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