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Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
What is Literacy
What is Literacy
A Marsden Giberter
A Marsden Giberter
Reading is the key to success in all content areas
Reading is the key to success in all content areas
Reading is used to gather ideas Learning happens when the new
Reading is used to gather ideas Learning happens when the new
Components of the Reading Process
Components of the Reading Process
What about kids who cant read
What about kids who cant read
Kids who cant read Non-readers would prefer to get into trouble for
Kids who cant read Non-readers would prefer to get into trouble for
ANYONE can struggle given the right text
ANYONE can struggle given the right text
HUH???
HUH???
Aliterate
Aliterate
We need to discover how a students unique brain is wired for reading
We need to discover how a students unique brain is wired for reading
FORGOTTEN
FORGOTTEN
Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task
Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task
The Ability Factor
The Ability Factor
1050 1000 900
1050 1000 900
GRADE
GRADE
Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task
Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task
Students often know how to read, they just dont use (or know how to
Students often know how to read, they just dont use (or know how to
1) Content-specific vocabulary
1) Content-specific vocabulary
Independent Strategic Readers
Independent Strategic Readers
READING NEXT: 15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Programs
READING NEXT: 15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Programs
1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction
1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction
1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction (continued)
1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction (continued)
Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement
Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement
Know how to approach new words and increase vocabulary
Know how to approach new words and increase vocabulary
The Importance of Vocabulary Skills
The Importance of Vocabulary Skills
Vocabulary Research
Vocabulary Research
Develop a Vision of Vocabulary Instruction
Develop a Vision of Vocabulary Instruction
A Few Comments on Vocabulary
A Few Comments on Vocabulary
Fill in the Blanks
Fill in the Blanks
98
98
Indirect vs
Indirect vs
Intensive Instruction  Which Words
Intensive Instruction Which Words
Word Play  The Research to Support It
Word Play The Research to Support It
Game: Categories
Game: Categories
Prefixes, Suffixes and Roots
Prefixes, Suffixes and Roots
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Vocabulary Cheat Sheet
Vocabulary Cheat Sheet
Reflecting on Vocabulary Opportunities
Reflecting on Vocabulary Opportunities
1) Have strategies to use when encountering new words
1) Have strategies to use when encountering new words
1) Have strategies to use when encountering new words
1) Have strategies to use when encountering new words
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Know how to approach new words and increase vocabulary
Know how to approach new words and increase vocabulary
Are students prepared
Are students prepared
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension
8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension
Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement
Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement
Readers construct meaning from the information the author provides in
Readers construct meaning from the information the author provides in
Prior Knowledge and Schemata
Prior Knowledge and Schemata
The brain searches for familiar patterns in new information
The brain searches for familiar patterns in new information
ATTENTION
ATTENTION
How do we help students connect
How do we help students connect
2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal
2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal
2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal
2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Have strategies to use when encountering new words
Have strategies to use when encountering new words
Why do we want students to think ahead to what might be coming
Why do we want students to think ahead to what might be coming
3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading
3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading
3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading
3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
8 Strategies for Reading
8 Strategies for Reading
Metacognition is important
Metacognition is important
How Did I Do When I Was Reading
How Did I Do When I Was Reading
What inferences can you make from this passage
What inferences can you make from this passage
Even students who exhibit all the overt signs of success typically do
Even students who exhibit all the overt signs of success typically do
Fragile Knowledge is knowledge that students either dont remember
Fragile Knowledge is knowledge that students either dont remember
To help students focus their attention on the learning:
To help students focus their attention on the learning:
4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of what theyve read
4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of what theyve read
4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of what theyve read
4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of what theyve read
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words
Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words
Verbal + Nonverbal = Creation of images when we hear words or to
Verbal + Nonverbal = Creation of images when we hear words or to
hot dog
hot dog
Students who lack ability
Students who lack ability
And the research says
And the research says
Students may need
Students may need
When text and pictures dont match, the illustrations can interfere
When text and pictures dont match, the illustrations can interfere
Types of Images
Types of Images
The Continent Song
The Continent Song
Whats the Intended Learning
Whats the Intended Learning
Planning Tool for Graphic Organizers
Planning Tool for Graphic Organizers
5) Create images of what is being read
5) Create images of what is being read
Create images of what is being read
Create images of what is being read
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words
Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words
6) Periodically summarize what is read and learned
6) Periodically summarize what is read and learned
6) Periodically summarize what is read and learned
6) Periodically summarize what is read and learned
Reading Tools:
Reading Tools:
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension
8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension
Students often read vastly different kinds of texts the same way and
Students often read vastly different kinds of texts the same way and
Text / Text Features:
Text / Text Features:
Pre-Reading with Text
Pre-Reading with Text
Pre-Reading with Text
Pre-Reading with Text
Pre-Reading with Text
Pre-Reading with Text
7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text organization
7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text organization
7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text organization
7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text organization
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas

: Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas. : Sue Beers. : Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas.ppt. zip-: 545 .

Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas

Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas.ppt
1 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas

Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas

by Sue Z. Beers suebeers@netins.net

2 What is Literacy

What is Literacy

Reading Writing Speaking Listening Viewing Nonverbal Communication All have the same purpose: COMMUNICATE KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING.

3 A Marsden Giberter

A Marsden Giberter

Glis was very fraper. She had dernarpen Farfles marsden. She did not talp a giberter for him. So, she conlanted to plimp a marsden binky for him. She had just sparved the binky when he jibbed in the gorger. Clorsty marsden! she boffed. That s a crouistish marsden binky, boffed Farfle, but my marsden is on Stansan. Agsan is Kelsan. In that ruspen, boffed Glis, I wont wank you your giberter until Stansan.

Why was Glis fraper? What did Glis plimp? Who jibbed the gorger when Glis sparved the blinky? Why didnt Glis wank Farfle his giberter?

4 Reading is the key to success in all content areas

Reading is the key to success in all content areas

5 Reading is used to gather ideas Learning happens when the new

Reading is used to gather ideas Learning happens when the new

information is connected to the learners own experience and background.

READING

6 Components of the Reading Process

Components of the Reading Process

Classroom Environment: Comfort, Order, Safety

The Learner: Attitudes, Ability and Perceptions

Research-Based Classroom Instruction

Reading Task: Clarity Purpose Background Knowledge

Processing Strategies: Pre-reading During-reading Post-Reading

Text Features: Text Cues Organizational Patterns Text Selection

7 What about kids who cant read

What about kids who cant read

Students who struggle with reading KNOW they struggle with reading; they know they lack the single most important tool for success in school and they know that not having that skill opens them to ridicule from peers and from teachers. They do anything they can to distance themselves from the place and the people who will remind them that they cant read.

8 Kids who cant read Non-readers would prefer to get into trouble for

Kids who cant read Non-readers would prefer to get into trouble for

not doing their work rather than be embarrassed in front of their peers for doing it wrong. They KNOW they cant read; theyve known it for years. Not all struggling readers sit at the back of the room, head down, bored lookgive the gifted student the right text and s/he can stumble over ideas, worry over words, get lost, and be confused about meaning.

9 ANYONE can struggle given the right text

ANYONE can struggle given the right text

The struggle isnt the issue; the issue is what the reader does when the text gets tough.

10 HUH???

HUH???

The amount of distributions from net investment income and net realized capital gains are determined in accordance with federal income tax regulations, which may differ from generally accepted accounting principles. These book/tax differences are either considered temporary or permanent in nature. Key differences are the treatment of short-term capital gains, foreign currency transactions, organization costs and other temporary differences. To the extent that these differences are permanent in nature, such amounts are reclassified within the capital accounts based on their federal tax-basis treatment; temporary differences do not require reclassifications. To the extent distributions exceed net investment income and/or net realized capital gains for tax purposes, they are reported as distributions of paid-in capital. Semi-Annual Report for ING Mutual Funds

11 Aliterate

Aliterate

Those who CAN read, but who choose not to read.

12 We need to discover how a students unique brain is wired for reading

We need to discover how a students unique brain is wired for reading

and writing and then use a range of approaches that matches his or her literacy style. - Thomas Armstrong

13 FORGOTTEN

FORGOTTEN

Long Term Memory

Rehearsal

Elaboration Organization

Short Term Memory

Sensory Input

Pay Attention

Retrieval

Working Memory

Taste Touch Sight Sound Smell

14 Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task

Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task

15 The Ability Factor

The Ability Factor

Flow Zone

Groan Zone

Difficulty of Text

Drone Zone

Student Ability

16 1050 1000 900

1050 1000 900

+ 50 -100

Instructional Reading Level

75% Comp 90% Comp

17 GRADE

GRADE

Reader Measures

Text Measures

1

Up to 300L

200L-400L

2

140L-500L

300L-500L

3

330L-700L

500L-700L

4

445L-810L

650L-850L

5

565L-910L

750L-950L

6

665L-1000L

850L-1050L

7

735L-1065L

950L-1075L

8

805L-1100L

1000L-1100L

9

855L-1165L

1050L-1150L

10

905L-1195L

1100L-1200L

11-12

940L-1210L

1100L-1300L

Typical Reader and Text Measures by Grade

18 Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task

Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task

19 Students often know how to read, they just dont use (or know how to

Students often know how to read, they just dont use (or know how to

use) effective strategies to get the full meaning from the text they read.

20 1) Content-specific vocabulary

1) Content-specific vocabulary

2) Prior knowledge about the content area subject.

3) Understanding of text features and organization of the text.

3 Main Barriers to Content Area Reading

21 Independent Strategic Readers

Independent Strategic Readers

Know how to make text make sense Have strategies to use Know how to struggle with text Develop the patience and stamina to stick with a text Know what is separating them from success with the text Know what they should do to fix the problem

22 READING NEXT: 15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Programs

READING NEXT: 15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Programs

Instructional

Infrastructure

Direct, explicit comprehension instruction Embedded in content Motivation and self-directed learning Text-based collaborative learning Strategic tutoring Diverse texts Intensive writing Technology component

Extended time for literacy 13. Teacher Teams 14. Leadership 15. Comprehensive and coordinated literacy program

Ongoing formative assessment of students Professional development Ongoing summative assessment

Ongoing formative assessment of students Professional development Ongoing summative assessment

23 1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction

1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction

Explicit strategies presented New tools / strategies modeled Many independent practices of tools and strategies Students use tools and strategies independently Multiple contexts for apply tools and strategies

24 1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction (continued)

1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction (continued)

Student discussions about what is read Asking students to explain their thinking Wide variety of text available Teachers model their own thinking Lets look at how this might look in the classroom

25 Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement

Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement

Category

1.61

45

31

1.00

34

179

.80

29

21

.77

28

134

.75

27

246

.73

27

122

.61

23

408

.61

23

63

.59

22

1251

Effect Size

%ile Gain

# Studies

Identifying similarities and differences

Summarizing and Note Taking

Reinforcing effort and providing recognition

Homework and practice

Nonlinguistic representations

Cooperative learning

Setting objectives and providing feedback

Generating and testing hypotheses

Questions, cues and advance organizers

26 Know how to approach new words and increase vocabulary

Know how to approach new words and increase vocabulary

Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning. Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading. Continually evaluate ones own understanding of what is read. Create images of what is read. Periodically summarize what is read. Use text features, cues and organizational patterns. Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

INDEPENDENT STRATEGIC READERS:

27 The Importance of Vocabulary Skills

The Importance of Vocabulary Skills

Vocabulary knowledge affects comprehension.

* Methods that encourage students to actively construct meanings help students learn and retain word meanings longer.

* The less cognitive energy students must spend figuring out the words on the page, the more energy they can spend figuring out what the text means.

28 Vocabulary Research

Vocabulary Research

Effective vocabulary instruction requires active and positive student participation. (Carr & Wixson, 1986) Personal engagement with a new word can lead to deep processing of meaning. (Dole, Sloan & Trathen, 1995) Researchers have named vocabulary knowledge as the most important factor in reading comprehension. (White, Sowell & Yanagihara, 1989)

29 Develop a Vision of Vocabulary Instruction

Develop a Vision of Vocabulary Instruction

Engage students in wide reading about your subject matter content and content of their choice. Provide direct instruction in terms that are critical to their understanding of your content. Assure both a verbal and nonlinguistic representation in learning the vocabulary terms Encourage elaboration and refinement of understanding the terms.

30 A Few Comments on Vocabulary

A Few Comments on Vocabulary

Teach your content-specific vocabulary Effect Size = .97 Translates to 33 percentile points higher in comprehension when vocabulary instruction focuses on specific words important to the content they are reading Improves students background knowledge and comprehension of academic content

31 Fill in the Blanks

Fill in the Blanks

The questions that p________ face as they raise ch_______ from in________ to adult life are not easy to an________. Both fa________ and m_________ can become concerned when health problems such as co_________ arise any time after the e_______ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young ch________ should have plenty of s_________ and nutritious feed for healthy growth. B________ and g________ should not share the same b________ or even sleep in the same r________. They may be afraid of the d_______. - from the work of Rachel Billmeyer

32 98

98

90.7

4,733,000

90

40.4

2,357,000

70

21.7

1,168,000

50

12.9

601,000

20

3.1

134,000

10

1.6

51,000

The Relationship Among Time Spent Reading, Reading Achievement, and Vocabulary Acquisition of Fifth Graders

Percentile Rank on Standardized Test

Minutes of Indepen-dent Reading Outside of School Per Day

Estimated Exposure to the Number of Words Per Year

Anderson, R., Wilson, P. and Fielding, L (1988) Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their Time Outside of School. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 23: pp. 285-303.

33 Indirect vs

Indirect vs

Direct Instruction of Vocabulary Words

7-14 meaningful exposures to a word before it become part of your working vocabulary Best to explicitly teach the key vocabulary of the content area

34 Intensive Instruction  Which Words

Intensive Instruction Which Words

For words that are conceptually difficult For words that relate to a single topic For words that are important Important to understanding the assigned reading Important to general utility in the language

35 Word Play  The Research to Support It

Word Play The Research to Support It

Word play is motivating and an important component of the word-rich classroom. Word play calls on students to reflect metacognitively on words, word parts, and context. Word play requires students to be active learners and capitalizes on possibilities for the social construction of meaning. Word play develops domains of word meaning relatedness as it engages students in practice and rehearsal of words.

36 Game: Categories

Game: Categories

A

R

M

I

E

S

Specific Confederacy Words

Rebel

Specific Union Words

Sherman

Military Words

Rifle

Infantry

Sniper

Battle and Places

Atlanta

37 Prefixes, Suffixes and Roots

Prefixes, Suffixes and Roots

Each curricular area should address their own roots so kids can make connections with them. Each area should also teach the specific prefixes and suffixes that are critical to the language of the content area.

38 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
39 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
40 Vocabulary Cheat Sheet

Vocabulary Cheat Sheet

TYPE words in ALPHABETICAL order on one half of page (folded vertically) Write a quick description of the word in as few a words as possible (one line only) Use word recognition chart to front-load the words prior to students reading the assignment

41 Reflecting on Vocabulary Opportunities

Reflecting on Vocabulary Opportunities

What activities do I ask students to do to learn the vocabulary terms? Generate own explanations/descriptions Create nonlinguistic/visual representations Ask questions to help generate information Other What opportunities to I provide to ensure periodic review? How do I monitor how well they know the terms? How do I help those struggling with terms/phrases?

42 1) Have strategies to use when encountering new words

1) Have strategies to use when encountering new words

What READERS can do: Use clues to help define the word Try to connect the unknown word to words/ideas/concepts they know Use available resources (e.g. glossary, thesaurus, dictionary) Know they must use the new word about 7 times in the next few days Create a definition in their own words Create a mental or visual image of the word Identify key characteristics of the word Identify examples and non-examples Periodically review their understanding of the word

43 1) Have strategies to use when encountering new words

1) Have strategies to use when encountering new words

What TEACHERS can do:

Provide a consistent structure for attacking the new word. Make connections with students prior knowledge by telling stories or creating descriptions that explain the definition. Identify key characteristics of the word. Front load the vocabulary by sharing the words at the beginning of the new unit. Insist that students learn the meanings of prefixes, suffixes, and roots that are used often in their content area. Talk about how this strategy can help the students become independent strategic readers.

44 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
45 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
46 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
47 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
48 Know how to approach new words and increase vocabulary

Know how to approach new words and increase vocabulary

Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning. Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading. Continually evaluate ones own understanding of what is read. Create images of what is read. Periodically summarize what is read. Use text features, cues and organizational patterns. Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

INDEPENDENT STRATEGIC READERS:

49 Are students prepared

Are students prepared

WHAT do they BRING TO the reading?

The Reading Assignment:

Do students know WHAT to read?

Do students know WHY theyre reading (purpose)?

50 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
51 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
52 8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension

8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension

Have strategies to use when encountering new words. Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning. Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading. Continually evaluate own understanding of what is read. Create images of what is read. Periodically summarize what is read. Use text cues and features and text organization to aid understanding. Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

53 Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement

Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement

Category

Effect Size

%ile Gain

# Studies

1.61

45

31

1.00

34

179

.80

29

21

.77

28

134

.75

27

246

.73

27

122

.61

23

408

.61

23

63

.59

22

1251

Identifying similarities and differences

Summarizing and Note Taking

Reinforcing effort and providing recognition

Homework and practice

Nonlinguistic representations

Cooperative learning

Setting objectives and providing feedback

Generating and testing hypotheses

Questions, cues and advance organizers

54 Readers construct meaning from the information the author provides in

Readers construct meaning from the information the author provides in

the text and the information they bring to the text.

Text Meaning

External Text (Author)

Internal Text (Reader)

55 Prior Knowledge and Schemata

Prior Knowledge and Schemata

In the early 1860s, A____________ issued the Emancipation _________. This order freed millions of s_______. The C_________ had the authority to enforce this order. Emancipation alone did not give the former s_________ a new life. Decades of economic hardship and unequal rights continued. A____________ plan was supported by many R_____________.

56 The brain searches for familiar patterns in new information

The brain searches for familiar patterns in new information

The brain only pays attention to meaningless information for a short time; if it cannot make sense out of it, it will not process the information further.

57 ATTENTION

ATTENTION

!!

To what do your students pay attention?

Anything that captures students attention and gets their minds engaged, has the potential to produce learning. No attention / engagement = NO LEARNING.

58 How do we help students connect

How do we help students connect

Pre-Reading: What do I already know or think I know about the topic? During Reading: How does what I am learning make sense with what I already know? After Reading: What new learning did I gain from the text? What did I read about that I didnt know before?

59 2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal

2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal

meaning.

What READERS can do: Be aware that their prior knowledge is important to understanding the text Seek new ways to connect new knowledge to what they already know Read widely from multiple sources Constantly increase background knowledge experiences Take a few seconds before reading to review what is already known Demonstrate interest in multiple topics Read and discuss often to deepen their understanding Share ideas with another person about what is known about the topic prior to reading

60 2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal

2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal

meaning.

What TEACHERS can do: Provide multiple opportunities for students to read Encourage students to share their experiences Use graphic organizers to help students make connections Use brainstorming to identify prior knowledge and interests or experiences Plant seeds in early units to create prior knowledge Share content-specific vocabulary at the beginning of the unit Give opportunities for students to see how things are alike and different Encourage students to re-read when they dont understand, stopping to think about how the reading relates to their own life and experience Provide reflective journals with prompts or questions to help student connect their learning with their prior knowledge

61 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
62 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
63 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
64 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
65 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
66 Have strategies to use when encountering new words

Have strategies to use when encountering new words

Connect new knowledge to make meaning. Think ahead to what might be coming in the text. Continually evaluate my own understanding. Create images of what is read. Periodically summarize what is read. Use text cues, features and organization. Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

INDEPENDENT STRATEGIC READERS:

67 Why do we want students to think ahead to what might be coming

Why do we want students to think ahead to what might be coming

Review facts Motivation / Investment of self Higher order thinking Combine prior knowledge Make inferences Pay attention to the text Others?

68 3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading

3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading

What READERS can do: Summarize often what has happened and predict what might come next. Use clues in the reading as well as the structure of the text to help make the predictions. Make use of cues like pictures, graphs, and charts to help identify whats next in their reading. Turn subheadings into questions to predict what will be coming. Do a 60- to 90-second scan of the reading material before reading to determine the big ideas that will be included. Think about how their own biases and ideas might affect how they read the text.

69 3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading

3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading

What TEACHERS can do: Use reading tools at the beginning of the unit to help focus new learning Create a purpose for their reading Help students create questions about the topic Ask questions after student read a section in order to shape their thinking for the remainder of the reading Help the students generate a hypothesis about the topic so they can test it as they read Ask students to construct support for their predictions Point out text features that will help students predict what they might be reading

70 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
71 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
72 8 Strategies for Reading

8 Strategies for Reading

Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning. Think ahead to what might be coming in the text. Evaluate ones own understanding of what is read. Create images of what is read. Periodically summarize what has been read. Use text features and organizational patterns. Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

73 Metacognition is important

Metacognition is important

Do students know WHY they are using the tools? Much ado about nothing Action without understanding = no learning /retention

74 How Did I Do When I Was Reading

How Did I Do When I Was Reading

As I read . . .

* I made predictions.

* I was able to form a picture in my head.

* I made connections.

* I knew when I was having problems.

* I did something to fix my problems

Reflection:

Often

Sometimes

Never

75 What inferences can you make from this passage

What inferences can you make from this passage

He put down $10.00 at the window. The woman behind the window gave him $4.00. The person next to him gave him $3.00, but he gave it back to her. So, when they went inside, she bought him a large bag of popcorn.

76 Even students who exhibit all the overt signs of success typically do

Even students who exhibit all the overt signs of success typically do

not display an adequate understanding of the materials and concepts with which they have been working. (Cannot use in a new or unanticipated situation). -- Howard Gardner

77 Fragile Knowledge is knowledge that students either dont remember

Fragile Knowledge is knowledge that students either dont remember

after the test or dont know how to use.

78 To help students focus their attention on the learning:

To help students focus their attention on the learning:

Provide advance organizers Post outcomes or results expected Use bracketing Eliminate distractors in the room Generate previous experiences that relate to the topic Provide students with tools for periodically processing information / learning

79 4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of what theyve read

4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of what theyve read

What READERS can do: Connect what they just read to their prior knowledge Support their point of view as well as the points of view of others Find and describe errors in their own thinking as well as in the information they read Stop and think often in order to test their own understanding Recognize when the text does not make sense and use various strategies to increase their understanding Question their understanding of the material on a frequent basis Use tools to help them remember to reflect frequently on how well they understand the text

80 4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of what theyve read

4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of what theyve read

What TEACHERS can do: Give students multiple opportunities to classify and categorize new information, justifying their reasons Provide opportunities for students to summarize key learnings Encourage students to re-read if they are having trouble understanding text Provide alternative note-taking, including the creation of visuals Question students often throughout the reading, prompting them to evaluate their own understanding and support it with details and information Allow students to talk and to write about their learning Help students develop the ability to create good questions about the information in the text

81 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
82 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
83 Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words

Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words

Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning. Think ahead to what might be coming in the text. Evaluate ones own understanding of what is read. Create images of what is read. Periodically summarize what has been read. Use text features and organizational patterns. Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

8 Strategies for Reading

84 Verbal + Nonverbal = Creation of images when we hear words or to

Verbal + Nonverbal = Creation of images when we hear words or to

generate names or descriptions when we see pictures.

Dual-Coding

85 hot dog

hot dog

VERBAL

NONVERBAL

Made of ground animal parts Preservatives Something you eat In a bun Ketchup, mustard, pickle relish

Visual picture Smell Context of where eaten Emotional connection (birthday party) Sounds of the hot dog vendor

86 Students who lack ability

Students who lack ability

. .

to create visual images when reading often experience comprehension difficulties. They cannot describe the pictures in their minds as they read.

87 And the research says

And the research says

. .

Learners who were instructed to create mental images of events learned two to three times as much as learners who read aloud the sentences repeatedly. (Anderson, 1971) When taught to generate mental images as they read, [students] experience greater recall and enhanced abilities to draw inferences and make predictions. (Gambrell, 1981; Gambrell & Bales, 1986; Pressly, 1976; Sadoski, 1983, 1985_

88 Students may need

Students may need

. .

. . . to be prompted repeatedly to focus on their mental images or television in the mind, as a way to monitor comprehension. Teachers also need to teach and model fix-up strategies for student to use.

89 When text and pictures dont match, the illustrations can interfere

When text and pictures dont match, the illustrations can interfere

with comprehension and reduce learning.

The pictures and words must match!

90 Types of Images

Types of Images

Concept Web Venn Diagram Collage Cartoon Diorama Game Map Chart / Graph Mobile Poster Drawing

Tape Recording Demonstration Interview Multimedia Presentation Puppetry Role Play Skit Speech Slide Show/Power Point Video Banner Commercial

91 The Continent Song

The Continent Song

North America (hold up left hand) Europe (point to nose) Asia (hold up right hand) Africa, Africa (hands around waist) South America (point to left knee) Australia (point to right knee) Antarctica, Antarctica (stomp feet)

92 Whats the Intended Learning

Whats the Intended Learning

. . . Now what is the graphic organizer that would help my students get to that intended learning?

93 Planning Tool for Graphic Organizers

Planning Tool for Graphic Organizers

What knowledge will my students be learning?

Will I provide a graphic organizer for them or ask them to create their own?

Do I need to set aside time to teach students to use the graphic organizer?

How will I monitor my students creation and/or use of the graphic organizer?

What will I do to help students who are not using them effectively?

94 5) Create images of what is being read

5) Create images of what is being read

What the READER can do: Know that a picture is truly worth a thousand words! Create images in their minds or on their papers Create pictures to summarize their learning Select appropriate graphic organizers to summarize the details and information in their reading Use visual organizers to connect their new learning to their background knowledge

95 Create images of what is being read

Create images of what is being read

What TEACHERS can do: Become familiar with various graphic organizers in order to offer the appropriate one(s) to help students achieve the intended learning Provide models of graphic organizer and guided practice in how to use them Model the use of visuals and graphic organizers Provide various graphic organizers that allow for choice but also assist the students in organizing the new learning Use models and charts in the classroom Use clips from videos that emphasize or demonstrate key learnings Share students work by displaying it

96 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
97 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
98 Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words

Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of unknown words

Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning. Think ahead to what might be coming in the text. Evaluate ones own understanding of what is read. Create images of what is read. Periodically summarize what has been read. Use text features and organizational patterns. Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

8 Strategies for Reading

99 6) Periodically summarize what is read and learned

6) Periodically summarize what is read and learned

What READERS can do: Identify key issues and main ideas in the content area When looking at a lot of information, determine the important ideas and then summarize those ideas in their own words Identify most important concepts, facts, or ideas and delete those that have little or no importance or connection Identify or create topic sentences about their reading Draw conclusions and make generalizations Provide supporting details Gather new learning from clues provided by text structure Practice alternative styles of note-taking

100 6) Periodically summarize what is read and learned

6) Periodically summarize what is read and learned

What TEACHERS can do: Demonstrate and discuss text structure and how it can be used to guide the intended learning Provide chunks of reading from which the students can delete the unimportant, identify the important, summarize the key learning, and add details for support Use graphic organizers that will lead students to the intended learning Provide prompts or questions that will help students focus on the summary of their assigned reading Remind students to stop and think often through their reading Provide students with alternative styles of note-taking

101 Reading Tools:

Reading Tools:

Chain Reaction - p. 206 Alphabet Soup - 186 Comparison Matrix Chart - p. 226 Give Me a Hand - Volume 2 One Step at a Time Toss Em in the Sack My Week of Reading in a Phrase Supporting the Main Idea Just for Chem Lab Summary Pyramid Shed Some Light on It

102 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
103 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
104 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
105 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
106 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
107 8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension

8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension

Have strategies to use when encountering new words. Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning. Think ahead to what might be coming in the reading. Continually evaluate own understanding of what is read. Create images of what is read. Periodically summarize what is read. Use text cues and features and text organization to aid understanding. Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

108 Students often read vastly different kinds of texts the same way and

Students often read vastly different kinds of texts the same way and

ignore the textual cues that would help them develop a clearer understanding.

109 Text / Text Features:

Text / Text Features:

Reading level

Structure / Organization of the text

Text cues and features

110 Pre-Reading with Text

Pre-Reading with Text

Read title and picture captions: What do you think you will read about? Look for bold-faced vocabulary words: Give your best-guess definition for each. Make an outline from the text using headings and subheadings. Fill in details as you read. List the visual aids used in the text: What new ideas or questions do you have after studying them?

111 Pre-Reading with Text

Pre-Reading with Text

Write three questions you hope / think will be answered as you read. Make three predictions about what the text is about based on the title. Determine the focus (purpose) for the reading. Read the summary paragraph. Then look for supporting information as you read.

112 Pre-Reading with Text

Pre-Reading with Text

Using clues from the text, list what you already know or think you know about the topic before you start to read. Make predictions about the new learning you will have from reading the text.

113 7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text organization

7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text organization

What READERS can do: Look for clues in the text to help their understanding, including headings, subheadings, bold-faced and italicized words Identify the organizational pattern and predict how it is tied to the intended learning Look for key words that predict the organizational pattern Recognize that pictures in the text are there to help provide clues to the reading Use tools (e.g. glossary, bibliography, index, etc.) in their text to increase their understanding of the reading Turn the heading and subheadings into questions to focus their reading Become familiar with the text cues provided by the author

114 7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text organization

7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text organization

What TEACHERS can do: Introduce students to the text for the class by providing a talk aloud that introduces the structure and clues provided by text features Introduce activities to become familiar with the various parts of the book Look carefully at graphs and charts to identify key information Assist students in turning headings and subheadings into questions that can focus their reading Practice using text features, such as the glossary and index Use organizers at the beginning of the unit to focus students on the big picture Consider the use of highlighting text to indicate main ideas

115 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
116 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
117 Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas
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