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Sydney Boys High School
Sydney Boys High School
LBOTE population 1997-2002
LBOTE population 1997-2002
French and English class
French and English class
English class (Walles)
English class (Walles)
The English lessons
The English lessons
Something was happening
Something was happening
That is what we set out to discover
That is what we set out to discover
More formally we were interested in:
More formally we were interested in:
To explore this we
To explore this we
Come into Ms Rosss class
Come into Ms Rosss class
Could this narrative structure
Could this narrative structure
Your job today
Your job today
Students talk: using metalanguage
Students talk: using metalanguage
Students talk
Students talk
Teacher-student talk
Teacher-student talk
Resolution/Coda
Resolution/Coda
Observations on Ms Rosss lesson
Observations on Ms Rosss lesson
Observations on Ms Rosss lesson
Observations on Ms Rosss lesson
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
What we found
Sydney Boys High School
Sydney Boys High School
The ESL teacher
The ESL teacher
The final result
The final result
Find more on the SBHS ESL site
Find more on the SBHS ESL site

: Sydney Boys High School. : neil. : Sydney Boys High School.ppt. zip-: 773 .

Sydney Boys High School

Sydney Boys High School.ppt
1 Sydney Boys High School

Sydney Boys High School

About 1100 students 80% NESB Selective 1 in 3 Chinese 20% ESL Year 7 2002: 180, 156 NESB, 33 3-7 yrs; 3 1-3 yrs

2 LBOTE population 1997-2002

LBOTE population 1997-2002

3 French and English class

French and English class

On selective schools test English performance, felt to be needy Chinese: 20 Korean: 3 Vietnamese: 3 Tamil and other: 4 Native speakers: 0 Speaking English or in Australia less than 5 years: 6

4 English class (Walles)

English class (Walles)

Considered a high flier group Chinese: 14 Korean: 3 Vietnamese: 3 Hindi and other: 6 Native speakers: 3 Speaking English or in Australia less than 5 years: 5

5 The English lessons

The English lessons

Both classes were working on Narrative Both used the cut-up Fire Spirit story to explore the structure of narrative Both were required to master metalanguage for talking about narrative Both were working towards writing a major narrative In Ms Walless class the concept of narrative voice was explored a little more deeply Ms Rosss class is early in the lesson sequence, Ms Walless a little later

6 Something was happening

Something was happening

They were clearly good lessons. Handover was occurring, metalanguage being used, meta-awareness evidenced. But exactly what was going on in these classes?

7 That is what we set out to discover

That is what we set out to discover

How can the competent adult lend consciousness to a child who does not have it on his own? What is it that makes possible this implanting of vicarious consciousness in the child by his adult tutor? It is as if there were kind of scaffolding erected for the learner by the tutor. But how? -- Jerome Bruner (1986)

8 More formally we were interested in:

More formally we were interested in:

Meta-awareness of learning how to learn and role of meta-language in learning; interaction between ESL and mainstream teachers in supporting meta-awareness

9 To explore this we

To explore this we

Videoed lessons Looked at transcripts Looked at work samples Examined the texts from which students were working

10 Come into Ms Rosss class

Come into Ms Rosss class

Reducing 50 minutes to about five reveals a narrative structure in the lesson Orientation including a recapitulation of previous work The task itself provides the complications When the target text is revealed there is a climax In the final minutes Ms Ross and the ESL teacher provide a resolution and coda.

11 Could this narrative structure

Could this narrative structure

itself be a form of scaffolding? Note how metalanguage is foregrounded in the opening stage

12 Your job today

Your job today

...is to try to put the story back together again. Concern for clear instructions

13 Students talk: using metalanguage

Students talk: using metalanguage

A: Orientation, right? Youve got a complication complication is in the middle. This is in the middle. This should be in the middle Where in the middle? Lets just read it

14 Students talk

Students talk

B: Ill give you a clue. Match the cuts! A: They dont match! Only engagement with the text will lead to an answer

15 Teacher-student talk

Teacher-student talk

ESL: Youre happy with those? Student reads to support his choices. ESL: You disagree with him? Negotiating differences. Notice the body language and the student on the right has been in Australia only 2 years!

16 Resolution/Coda

Resolution/Coda

ESL: if you actually turn that round the other way it still works Student: yeah! ESL: That could be something you talk about tomorrow I reckon youve got a good argument for the way youve done it Ms Ross: and you could talk about then how long the orientation for your own stories should be

17 Observations on Ms Rosss lesson

Observations on Ms Rosss lesson

Designed-in scaffolding from the opening recapitulation and eliciting metalanguage through task (cut-up) involving a number of modalities.

Centrality of text. Text united the whole exercise. Note how often students examined, argued from text to realise the metalinguistic through the concrete example before them

18 Observations on Ms Rosss lesson

Observations on Ms Rosss lesson

Scope for contingent scaffolding, student-to-student, teacher-to-student Possibility of independent exercise of judgment in group situation

This made more so by the fact there was more than one possible story structure That fact emerged authentically in the course of the task: not foreseen!

19 What we found

What we found

Of necessity, Sydney Boys High has mainstreamed its ESL learners. Language teaching methodologies have generally accepted the notion that language teaching is more effective when learners are presented with meaningful language in context, and the integration of ESL learning with curriculum content is now broadly accepted as supportive of second language learning. (Gibbons 2002)

20 What we found

What we found

We can think of each teacher as a discourse guide and each classroom as a discourse village, a small language outpost from which roads lead to larger communities of educated discourse teachers have to start from where the learners are, to use what they already know, and help them go back and forth across the bridge from everyday discourse into educated discourse. -- N Mercer The Guided Construction of Knowledge, Clevedon, Multilingual Matters 1995

21 What we found

What we found

L Van Lier (1996): Recall that there are two sides to [contingency]: a contextual anchoring which relates that which is said to that which is known, including that which has been said before, and an expectancy which encourages students to reach higher levels of functioning

22 What we found

What we found

Contingent utterances, then, do a number of valuable things, among them: They relate new material to known material They set up expectancies for what may come next They validate (value, respect) both preceding and next utterance They are never entirely predictable, nor entirely unpredictable They promote intersubjectivity They ensure continued attention

23 What we found

What we found

L Van Lier (1996): careful reflection on and monitoring of how we interact with our students should assist us in developing ways of tactful teaching (van Manen 1991), that is, the ability to act quickly, surely, confidently and appropriately in complex or delicate circumstances [Tact] cannot be planned, rather it is a mindfulness that permits us to act thoughtfully with children and young people. This is not something you can just learn and apply It has to become part of our way of working.

24 What we found

What we found

The greatest benefit of the project for us was the opportunity it gave for careful reflection on and monitoring of how we interact with our students

25 Sydney Boys High School
26 The ESL teacher

The ESL teacher

Assists mainstream teacher with input on unit of work & needs of students linguistic, cultural Is watching and listening & can act contingently with whole class, groups or individuals

27 The final result

The final result

Independent learners ready for whatever challenges lie ahead Thanks to quality pedagogy including artfully designed scaffolding at every stage

28 Find more on the SBHS ESL site

Find more on the SBHS ESL site

You can find a page on the scaffolding project at neilwhitfield.tripod.com/scaffolding.html

Sydney Boys High School
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