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The Birth and Death of Stars
The Birth and Death of Stars
What are Stars
What are Stars
How are stars made
How are stars made
Watching stars being born
Watching stars being born
What happens next
What happens next
The life of a star During its “life” a star will not change very much
The life of a star During its “life” a star will not change very much
How does a star “die”
How does a star “die”
The second Red Giant stage As the centre collapses, it becomes very
The second Red Giant stage As the centre collapses, it becomes very
The end of a Sun-like star For a star like the Sun, no more nuclear
The end of a Sun-like star For a star like the Sun, no more nuclear
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
What is left after a Supernova
What is left after a Supernova
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
Birth and Death of Stars - Summary
Birth and Death of Stars - Summary
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

Презентация на тему: «The Birth and Death of Stars». Автор: Andy Newsam. Файл: «The Birth and Death of Stars.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 1624 КБ.

The Birth and Death of Stars

содержание презентации «The Birth and Death of Stars.ppt»
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1 The Birth and Death of Stars

The Birth and Death of Stars

On-line Lesson

2 What are Stars

What are Stars

Stars are large balls of hot gas. They look small because they are a long way away, but in fact many are bigger and brighter than the Sun. The heat of the star is made in the centre by nuclear fusion reactions. There are lots of different colours and sizes of star.

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

3 How are stars made

How are stars made

Stars are made (or “born”) in giant clouds of dust and gas. Sometimes part of the cloud shrinks because of gravity. As it shrinks it becomes hotter and when it is hot enough, nuclear reactions can start in the centre….. … and A Star is Born!

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

4 Watching stars being born

Watching stars being born

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

The Bubble Nebula Here you can see the old dust and gas being blown away by the heat of the new star. Image from the Liverpool Telescope

5 What happens next

What happens next

Once nuclear fusion is producing heat in the centre of the new star, this heats stops the rest of the star collapsing. The star then stays almost exactly the same for a long time (about 10 billion years for a star like the Sun). The balance between gravity trying to make the star shrink and heat holding it up is called Thermodynamic Equilibrium.

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

6 The life of a star During its “life” a star will not change very much

The life of a star During its “life” a star will not change very much

However, different stars are different colour, size and brightness. The bigger a star, the hotter and brighter it is. Hot stars are Blue. Smaller stars are less bright, cooler and Red. Because they are so hot, the bigger stars actually have shorter lives than the small, cool ones.

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

7 How does a star “die”

How does a star “die”

Eventually, the hydrogen (the “fuel” for the nuclear fusion) in the centre of the star will run out.

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

No new heat is made and gravity will take over and the centre of the star will shrink. This makes the very outside of the star “float up” and cool down, making the star look much bigger and redder - a Red Giant star.

Antares – a Red Giant

8 The second Red Giant stage As the centre collapses, it becomes very

The second Red Giant stage As the centre collapses, it becomes very

hot again, eventually getting hot enough to start a new kind of nuclear fusion with Helium as the fuel. Then the Red Giant shrinks and the star looks “normal” again. This does not last very long, though, as the Helium runs out very quickly and again the star forms a Red Giant.

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

9 The end of a Sun-like star For a star like the Sun, no more nuclear

The end of a Sun-like star For a star like the Sun, no more nuclear

fusion can take place, so the centre of the star will then keep collapsing.

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

Eventually it can become almost as small as the Earth, but with the same mass as a whole star! This very dense object is called a White Dwarf. A piece of White Dwarf the size of a mobile phone would weigh as much as an elephant on the Earth!

Simulation of the Death of the Sun

10 On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

The end of a Sun-like star The outer parts of the star (that formed the Red Giant) then drift off into space and cool down making a Planetary Nebula. Planetary nebulae have nothing to do with planets, of course, they just look a bit like them in small telescopes! Here you can see a planetary nebula called M57 with its White Dwarf in the middle.

Image from the Liverpool Telescope

11 On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

The end of a massive star For more massive (bigger) stars than the Sun, many more types of nuclear fusion can take place. This means several more Red Giant stages.

Finally, there are

However, eventually even the biggest stars run out of fuel and finally collapse. For the biggest stars, this collapse causes a huge explosion called a Supernova! A Supernova can be brighter than an entire galaxy of 100,000,000,000 stars!

Simulation of the Death of the massive Star

12 What is left after a Supernova

What is left after a Supernova

Because the star was so big, the collapse does not stop even with a White Dwarf, but an even more dense object called a Neutron Star is made. The density of a Neutron star is about 1x1018 kg/m3 (that is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000!) Sometimes the collapse cannot stop at all and a Black Hole is made, from which not even light can escape! The debris of the explosion is blown away and forms a glowing cloud called a Supernova Remnant.

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

13 On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

The Crab Supernova Remnant Image from the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope

14 Birth and Death of Stars - Summary

Birth and Death of Stars - Summary

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

Stars form in clouds of gas. Heat from nuclear fusion, and gravity balance. When the hydrogen fuel runs out, a Red Giant is formed. For Sun-like stars, a White Dwarf and Planetary Nebula are left. For massive stars, a Supernova explosion leaves behind a Supernova Remnant and a Neutron Star or perhaps even a Black Hole.

15 On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars

Birth and Death of Stars - Summary

White Dwarf and Planetary Nebula

Collapsing cloud

Sun-like stars

A new star

Supernova Remnant and Neutron Star

Red Giant

Massive stars

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