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The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
Notes and explanations
Notes and explanations
Two important aspects of English
Two important aspects of English
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
Countires with English as a first language
Countires with English as a first language
They are called varieties or dialects
They are called varieties or dialects
Most famous varieties
Most famous varieties
Common language
Common language
Dialects of English
Dialects of English
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
English in India
English in India
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
Language or dialect
Language or dialect
English in Northern America
English in Northern America
US History: early settlement
US History: early settlement
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
War of Independence: or Revolutionary War 1775-83
War of Independence: or Revolutionary War 1775-83
Differences between British and American varieties of English
Differences between British and American varieties of English
Football vs
Football vs
Pronunciation differences 1
Pronunciation differences 1
Pronunciation 2
Pronunciation 2
Pronunciation: r
Pronunciation: r
Spelling
Spelling
Spelling – or / our
Spelling – or / our
spelling – ise / ize
spelling – ise / ize
-station / -zation
-station / -zation
-re / -er
-re / -er
double consonant
double consonant
-ce / -se
-ce / -se
Some other differences in spelling
Some other differences in spelling
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
vocabulary 2
vocabulary 2
vocabulary 3
vocabulary 3
some other differences
some other differences
BrE
BrE
BrE
BrE

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The English Language and Its Varieties

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1 The English Language and Its Varieties

The English Language and Its Varieties

2 Notes and explanations

Notes and explanations

English belongs to the family of Germanic languages. Other major language families in Europe: Slavonic and Romance languages. variety – kind, type (Polish: odmiania) Abbreviations: BrE – British English AmE – American English

3 Two important aspects of English

Two important aspects of English

Important language – an official language in many countries on all continents with large number of „native speakers”. Important language in international communication – modern lingua franca. Also called international English.

4 The English Language and Its Varieties
5 Countires with English as a first language

Countires with English as a first language

USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand. English is spoken on all continents. It is natural that there should be differences between kinds of English spoken in different parts of the world.

6 They are called varieties or dialects

They are called varieties or dialects

In Polish we also have a number of dialects and local accents (Silesian dialect, Kaszubski etc.)

How do we call the differences within a language?

7 Most famous varieties

Most famous varieties

British English American English Australian English There are differences in vocabulary (words), pronunciation (way of speaking) and grammar.

8 Common language

Common language

George Bernard Shaw: “two countries divided by a common language“. Oscar Wilde: “We have really everything in common with America nowadays, except, of course, the language“.

9 Dialects of English

Dialects of English

Dialect a regional variation In British English: Received Pronunciation (Queen’s English, BBC English – only about 2% of the population are speakers), Estuary English (London area), Liverpool and Manchester, Scottish English. In American English: difference between the Northern accent and Southern accent (Boston vs. Huston).

10 The English Language and Its Varieties
11 English in India

English in India

About 4% of the Indian population use English regularly That is around 30 million people!

12 The English Language and Its Varieties
13 Language or dialect

Language or dialect

AmE is not a separate language. There are many differences between BrE and AmE but they are not enough to call the two varieties of English separate languages. Usually a person from America has no problems with communicating with a person from Britain.

14 English in Northern America

English in Northern America

1607 – the first group of colonists from Britain settle in Northern America. The first group had 120 people. The pace where they settled was called Virginia 1620 the Mayflower voyage – the Puritans from England establish their settlements around the modern area of Boston.

15 US History: early settlement

US History: early settlement

The first permanent English colony in America at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607 In 1620 a ship named Mayflower brings 102 Englishmen. They call themselves “Pilgrim Fathers”. They settle in Massachusetts. They are puritans. In October 1621 they celebrate good harvest: Thanksgiving.

16 The English Language and Its Varieties
17 War of Independence: or Revolutionary War 1775-83

War of Independence: or Revolutionary War 1775-83

1773 - Boston Tea Party, American patriots dressed as Indians throw tea to the sea. 1775 – the war begins. 1776 – Declaration of Independence 1783 – USA is recognized by Britain. They sign a peace treaty in Paris. 1787 – the American Constitution.

18 Differences between British and American varieties of English

Differences between British and American varieties of English

distance and separation influences of local, native culture (Indians). influences of the immigrants. specific local conditions (plants and animals)

19 Football vs

Football vs

soccer

20 Pronunciation differences 1

Pronunciation differences 1

box stop spot God top a lot shot

21 Pronunciation 2

Pronunciation 2

city better new sue

22 Pronunciation: r

Pronunciation: r

car star hard

23 Spelling

Spelling

Americans simplified some of the spelling conventions of English.

24 Spelling – or / our

Spelling – or / our

honour colour labour behaviour neighbour odour

honor color labor behavior neighbor odor

BrE

AmE

25 spelling – ise / ize

spelling – ise / ize

BrE

AmE

organise analyse criticise paralyse idealyse

organize analyze criticize paralyze idealyze

26 -station / -zation

-station / -zation

BrE

AmE

organisation civilisation generalisation

organization civilization generalization

27 -re / -er

-re / -er

BrE

AmE

theatre centre calibre metre fibre litre

theater center caliber meter fiber liter

28 double consonant

double consonant

BrE

AmE

traveller kidnapper wollen councillor

traveler kidnaper wolen councilor

29 -ce / -se

-ce / -se

BrE

AmE

defence licence offence practice

defense license offense practise

30 Some other differences in spelling

Some other differences in spelling

BrE

AmE

cheque cosy disc programme tyre whisky

check cozy disk program tire whiskey

31 Vocabulary

Vocabulary

BrE

AmE

flat dustbin luggage bank note bill (in a restaurant) coach shop assistant

apartment trash / garbabe can baggage bill check bus clerk

32 vocabulary 2

vocabulary 2

BrE

AmE

lift autumn chips petrol off-licence shop post film

elevator fall French fries gasoline / gas liquor store mail (post) movie

33 vocabulary 3

vocabulary 3

BrE

AmE

cinema toilet (public convenience) time-table sidewalk motorway lorry holidays

movie theater restroom schedule pavement highway truck vacation

34 some other differences

some other differences

BrE

AmE

in top gear football American football ground floor

in high gear soccer football first floor

35 BrE

BrE

AmE

36 BrE

BrE

AmE

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