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The Game Development Process
The Game Development Process
Outline
Outline
Nurturing the Creative Process
Nurturing the Creative Process
Nurturing the Creative Process - Read
Nurturing the Creative Process - Read
Nurturing the Creative Process  Play Games
Nurturing the Creative Process Play Games
Nurturing the Creative Process  Sources of Inspiration
Nurturing the Creative Process Sources of Inspiration
Nurturing the Creative Process - Brainstorm
Nurturing the Creative Process - Brainstorm
Having the Idea
Having the Idea
Nurturing the Creative Process  Growing the Idea
Nurturing the Creative Process Growing the Idea
The Creative Process  The Beginning
The Creative Process The Beginning
The Creative Process  Define the Product
The Creative Process Define the Product
The Creative Process  Involving Others
The Creative Process Involving Others
Outline
Outline
Core Design
Core Design
What is a Game
What is a Game
What is a Game (2 of 3)
What is a Game (2 of 3)
What is a Game (3 of 3)
What is a Game (3 of 3)
What a Game is Not (1 of 2)
What a Game is Not (1 of 2)
What a Game is Not (2 of 2)
What a Game is Not (2 of 2)
Games are Not Everything
Games are Not Everything
Core Design
Core Design
Approaching Game Design
Approaching Game Design
Game Theory
Game Theory
Gameplay
Gameplay
Gameplay Example (1 of 2)
Gameplay Example (1 of 2)
Gameplay Example (2 of 2)
Gameplay Example (2 of 2)
Implementing Gameplay (1 of 4)
Implementing Gameplay (1 of 4)
Implementing Gameplay (2 of 4)
Implementing Gameplay (2 of 4)
Implementing Gameplay (3 of 4)
Implementing Gameplay (3 of 4)
Implementing Gameplay (4 of 4)
Implementing Gameplay (4 of 4)
The Dominant Strategy Problem
The Dominant Strategy Problem
Near Dominance
Near Dominance
Avoid Trivial Choices (1 of 2)
Avoid Trivial Choices (1 of 2)
Avoid Trivial Choices (2 of 2)
Avoid Trivial Choices (2 of 2)
Environment + Rules = Gameplay
Environment + Rules = Gameplay
Ensuring Interesting Choices (1 of 3)
Ensuring Interesting Choices (1 of 3)
Ensuring Interesting Choices (2 of 3)
Ensuring Interesting Choices (2 of 3)
Ensuring Interesting Choices (3 of 3)
Ensuring Interesting Choices (3 of 3)
Toolbox of Interesting Choices
Toolbox of Interesting Choices
Strategic versus Tactical (1 of 3)
Strategic versus Tactical (1 of 3)
Strategic versus Tactical (2 of 3)
Strategic versus Tactical (2 of 3)
Strategic versus Tactical (3 of 3)
Strategic versus Tactical (3 of 3)
Supporting Investments
Supporting Investments
Versatility (1 of 2)
Versatility (1 of 2)
Versatility (2 of 2)
Versatility (2 of 2)
Compensating Factors
Compensating Factors
Impermanence (1 of 2)
Impermanence (1 of 2)
Impermanence (2 of 2)
Impermanence (2 of 2)
Shadow Costs (1 of 2)
Shadow Costs (1 of 2)
Shadow Costs (2 of 2)
Shadow Costs (2 of 2)
Review: Use Tools from Toolbox of Interesting Choices
Review: Use Tools from Toolbox of Interesting Choices
Synergies (1 of 2)
Synergies (1 of 2)
Synergies (2 of 2)
Synergies (2 of 2)
Final Word on Gameplay
Final Word on Gameplay
Interactivity versus Gameplay
Interactivity versus Gameplay
Kinds of Interactivity (1 of 2)
Kinds of Interactivity (1 of 2)
Kinds of Interactivity (2 of 2)
Kinds of Interactivity (2 of 2)
Concentrate on Why not just What
Concentrate on Why not just What
Core Design
Core Design
Game Balance - Introduction
Game Balance - Introduction
Mini-Outline
Mini-Outline
Player/Player Balance (1 of 2)
Player/Player Balance (1 of 2)
Player/Player Balance (2 of 2)
Player/Player Balance (2 of 2)
Symmetry - Example
Symmetry - Example
Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry in Level Design
Symmetry in Level Design
Symmetry in Game Design (1 of 2)
Symmetry in Game Design (1 of 2)
Symmetry in Game Design (2 of 2)
Symmetry in Game Design (2 of 2)
Mini-Outline
Mini-Outline
Player/Gameplay Balance  Introduction (1 of 2)
Player/Gameplay Balance Introduction (1 of 2)
Player/Gameplay Balance  Introduction (2 of 2)
Player/Gameplay Balance Introduction (2 of 2)
Reward the Player
Reward the Player
Let the Machine do the Work
Let the Machine do the Work
Make a Game that you Play With, Not Against
Make a Game that you Play With, Not Against
Specific Example - The Save Game Problem (1 of 2)
Specific Example - The Save Game Problem (1 of 2)
Specific Example - The Save Game Problem (1 of 2)
Specific Example - The Save Game Problem (1 of 2)
Mini-Outline
Mini-Outline
Gameplay/Gameplay Balance
Gameplay/Gameplay Balance
Component Balance
Component Balance
What if Not Easily Reducible
What if Not Easily Reducible
Attribute Balance
Attribute Balance
Component versus Attribute Balance
Component versus Attribute Balance
Intransitive Game Mechanics (1 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (1 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (2 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (2 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (3 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (3 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (4 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (4 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (5 of 5)
Intransitive Game Mechanics (5 of 5)
Other Intransitive Relationships
Other Intransitive Relationships
Combinatorial Explosions
Combinatorial Explosions
Design Scalability
Design Scalability
A Game Balance Checklist (1 of 3)
A Game Balance Checklist (1 of 3)
A Game Balance Checklist (2 of 3)
A Game Balance Checklist (2 of 3)
A Game Balance Checklist (3 of 3)
A Game Balance Checklist (3 of 3)
Look and Feel
Look and Feel
Ambience
Ambience
Sound
Sound
Vision
Vision
Vision Example
Vision Example
Touch
Touch
Interface
Interface
Storytelling
Storytelling
Toolbox of Storytelling Techniques
Toolbox of Storytelling Techniques
Obstacles
Obstacles
Foreshadowing
Foreshadowing
Personalization
Personalization
Resistance
Resistance
Plot Points (1 of 2)
Plot Points (1 of 2)
Plot Points (2 of 2)
Plot Points (2 of 2)
Suspense
Suspense
Dialog
Dialog
Resolution
Resolution
Change
Change
Whats Next
Whats Next

: The Game Development Process. : Claypool. : The Game Development Process.ppt. zip-: 1639 .

The Game Development Process

The Game Development Process.ppt
1 The Game Development Process

The Game Development Process

Game Design

2 Outline

Outline

The Creative Process Core Design Postmortems

3 Nurturing the Creative Process

Nurturing the Creative Process

Creativity is not intellectual anarchy Thoughts are associative generate new ideas by combining others (picture of lattice of association) Trick is to notice patterns in association Say, similarity between post office delivery and network traffic routing Facilitate creative process Stuff head with concepts and associations Cant notice association between Post Office and Network Routing if dont know anything about either How? Read (All great game designers?)

Based on Ch 7, On Game Design, by Chris Crawford and Ch 2.2, The Game Development Process

4 Nurturing the Creative Process - Read

Nurturing the Creative Process - Read

Make reading a lifelong process Broaden your reading More than SciFi and Fantasy books History, Religion, Politics, Culture Game Design books Wonder as you read (Why is the sky blue? Why do some coins have serrations on their edges?) Tightens up Web of associations Find answers to wonders Once you find why sky is blue, will tell you why sunset is red (tightens associations further) Help build overall creative foundation

Based on Ch 7, On Game Design, by Chris Crawford and Ch 2.2, The Game Development Process

5 Nurturing the Creative Process  Play Games

Nurturing the Creative Process Play Games

More than computer games board games Columbia Games, Avalon Hill, RPGs Example: LOTR Confrontation, Reiner Knizia Even computer games, broaden Pick titles you would not otherwise play Like FPS games? Fine. But try different genres Become a student of games. Learn from them. Bargain bin, even, maybe not great games but maybe great ideas

Based on Ch 7, On Game Design, by Chris Crawford and Ch 2.2, The Game Development Process

6 Nurturing the Creative Process  Sources of Inspiration

Nurturing the Creative Process Sources of Inspiration

Perhaps games not as broad as film Shoot em ups like Alien RPGs like D&D Safe: Its like Medal of Honor but in Desert Storm how creative is that? Draw upon wide range of sources for inspiration Opera, Movies with subtitles, Random lectures, scuba diving anything to remove stale thinking Originality in gameplay, story, setting, interface Freshness to one, great game Freshness to all, new genre! Stephen King originality when put familiar together in unexpected ways Ex: vampire in pirate setting (turns to shark)

Based on Ch 1, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

7 Nurturing the Creative Process - Brainstorm

Nurturing the Creative Process - Brainstorm

Brainstorming has been much studied, and there have been found some common elements Intense emotional involvement Care about problem Creator struggles, mightily, but fails Quiescent period, creator is distracted Finally, brainstorm itself and solution leaps to forefront It may even seem obvious at that time

Based on Ch 7, On Game Design, by Chris Crawford and Ch 2.2, The Game Development Process

8 Having the Idea

Having the Idea

How many industries can claim to deal in daydreams? Dreams are where every game begins With an idea, dont implement or tie down to technology Genius is 1% inspiration, 99% perspiration Edison Enjoy the 1% because everything else is hard work Think of many raw ideas to throw into game May come up with hybrid Look at what can contribute to others so get emergent game

Based on Ch 1, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

9 Nurturing the Creative Process  Growing the Idea

Nurturing the Creative Process Growing the Idea

Most ideas shouldnt grow further Just because it is a creative idea, does not mean it is a good one Be aggressive at this point in your own mind in ripping into your own idea Others soon will, so you should first Then, when pushing the idea (to, say, a publisher) through to a concept, make sure can protect, perhaps with partner politically skilled

Based on Ch 7, On Game Design, by Chris Crawford

10 The Creative Process  The Beginning

The Creative Process The Beginning

Once you have an idea Is it really good? Worth spending time and money on? Even if rehash should bring improvement to original and new challenges Discuss with someone that can appreciate the idea

Based on pages 233+, Gameplay and Design, by Kevin Oxland

11 The Creative Process  Define the Product

The Creative Process Define the Product

Consider target audience Gather feedback from colleagues Think about core objectives List the challenges Will help determine genre Determine how player will interface Define unique features, essential to gameplay Has features been done before? If not, is there a reason why not? Consider theme (not graphical theme) Solidify in two- to three-page document

Based on pages 233+, Gameplay and Design, by Kevin Oxland

12 The Creative Process  Involving Others

The Creative Process Involving Others

Never design by committee The only useful document ever designed by a committee is the constitution But blend of like-minded people can be very effective Meet with team with one-pager Keep early meetings focused on design and not on technical Write all ideas down, may come in handy later Incorporate changes into 2-3 page document Move on to Concept Document

Based on pages 233+, Gameplay and Design, by Kevin Oxland

13 Outline

Outline

The Creative Process Core Design (next) Postmortems

14 Core Design

Core Design

Topics What is a Game Gameplay Interactivity Game Balance Look and Feel

Based on Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

15 What is a Game

What is a Game

(1 of 3)

Movie? (ask: why not?) ? no interaction, outcome fixed Toy? (has interaction ask: why not?) ? no goal, but still fun (players can develop own goals) Puzzle? (has goal + interaction ask: why not?) ? strategy and outcome is the same each time A computer game is a software program in which one or more players make decisions through the control of game objects and resources, in pursuit of a goal. Definitions (from Ch 2.2): Play - Interactions to elicit emotions Game - Object that provides rule-bound play Frame - The border of a games context Inside the frame is in the game Outside the frame is real life Aesthetics - Emotional responses during play General enough to cover everything

Chapter 2.2, Introduction to Game Development

16 What is a Game (2 of 3)

What is a Game (2 of 3)

A Computer Game is a Software Program Not a board game or sports Consider: chess vs. soccer vs. Warcraft Ask: What do you lose? What do you gain? Lose: 1) physical pieces, 2) social interaction Gain: 1) real-time, 2) more immersive, 3) more complexity A Computer Game involves Players No, Duh. But stress because think about audience. The game is not for you but for them. Dont just think about your story or the graphics or the interface, but consider the players. Ex: complicated flight simulator (say, you are a flying geek) but audience is beginner

Based on Tutorial: What is a Good Game?, by Mark Overmars

17 What is a Game (3 of 3)

What is a Game (3 of 3)

Playing a Game is About Making Decisions Ex: what weapon to use, what resource to build Can be frustrating if decision does not matter Want good gameplay (next major topic) Playing a Game is About Control Player wants to impact outcome Uncontrolled sequences can still happen, but should be sparing and make logical Ex: Riven uses train system between worlds A Game Needs a Goal Ex: Defeat Ganandorf in Zelda Long games may have sub-goals Ex: recover Triforce first, then Sword of Power Without game goals, a player develops his/her own (a toy)

Based on Tutorial: What is a Good Game?, by Mark Overmars

18 What a Game is Not (1 of 2)

What a Game is Not (1 of 2)

A bunch of cool features Necessary, but not sufficient May even detract, if not careful, by concentrating on features not game A lot of fancy graphics Games need graphics just as hit movie needs special effect but neither will save weak idea Again, may detract Game must work without fancy graphics Suggestion: should be fun with simple objects When a designer is asked how his game is going to make a difference, I hope he talks about gameplay, fun and creativity as opposed to an answer that simply focuses on how good it looks Sid Meier (Civilizations, Railroad Tycoon, Pirates)

Based on Chapter 2, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

19 What a Game is Not (2 of 2)

What a Game is Not (2 of 2)

A series of puzzles All games have them But not gameplay in themselves Puzzles are specific, game systems spawn more generic problems An intriguing story Good story encourages immersion But will mean nothing without gameplay Example: Baldurs Gate, linear story. Going wrong way gets you killed. But not interactive. Interaction in world all leads to same end.

Based on Chapter 2, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

20 Games are Not Everything

Games are Not Everything

Most important is it fun, compelling, engaging? And these come from a superset of games Computers are good at interactivity Allow for interactive fun Interactive Media and Game Development ? Examples: SimCity - very compelling, but mostly no goals. More of toy than a game, but still fun. Grim Fandango - good visuals, story, etc. But need to do puzzles to proceed. Could have skipped to just watch story. Would still have been fun without the gameplay.

21 Core Design

Core Design

Topics What is a Game Gameplay Game Balance Look and Feel

22 Approaching Game Design

Approaching Game Design

Used to be thought that could not teach game design more of an art But you can teach art! (AR1000 + ) Even to art, there are technical disciplines such as in music, film, poetry So, consider computer game designs as are an art form ? Game design practices can be taught

Chapter 2.2, Introduction to Game Development

23 Game Theory

Game Theory

Some designers approach Game Theory thinking it will help design games Rather, it is a theory about games are played Game theory is Branch of economics Systems governed by rules Mathematically analyzed to determine payoffs of various end points. Game theory assumes rational players Abstract model players not real people Always try to maximize their potential utility Solve problems using pure logic Always fully aware of the state of the game

Chapter 2.2, Introduction to Game Development

24 Gameplay

Gameplay

Gameplay Collective strategies to reach end points of game theory Specific to game activities What the player does Includes Utility - A measure of desire associated with an outcome Payoffs - The utility value for a given outcome Preference - The bias of players towards utility Note, gameplay is not everything Choice of car in GTA is not always about payoff, but about what is fun Software doesnt have to have gameplay to be entertaining consider SimCity No one expects gameplay in movies or plays Who says: Hey, where is the gameplay in Hamlet? Rule 1: It should be fun (entertainment) Rule 2: It should be interactive (make use of computer, else perhaps use film) Rule 3: It can have gameplay (but that is choice)

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

25 Gameplay Example (1 of 2)

Gameplay Example (1 of 2)

Adventure game: knight, dwarf, priest, thief During combat, knight and dwarf in front, thief fires arrows Priest casts spells (assume all cost the same) E-bolts (do damage equal to sword) Band-aids (heal equal to sword) Which spell should Priest cast? Ask: against single opponent (they are equal) Ask: against opponent with 6 arms (bolts) Ask: against many opponents with weak attacks (band-aids) ? Can always decide which is better Not so interesting

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

26 Gameplay Example (2 of 2)

Gameplay Example (2 of 2)

Now, suppose Band-aids still affect single target but e-bolts have an area affect E-bolts do less damage, but armor doesnt make a difference Now, which spell should Priest cast? Answer isnt as easy. Interesting choices. Good gameplay.

A game is a series of interesting choices. - Sid Meier (pirates, civilization)

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

27 Implementing Gameplay (1 of 4)

Implementing Gameplay (1 of 4)

Choice A question asked of the player Outcome The end result of a given choice Possibility space Represents the set of possible events A landscape of choice and outcome

Chapter 2.2, Introduction to Game Development

28 Implementing Gameplay (2 of 4)

Implementing Gameplay (2 of 4)

Choices must be non-trivial, with upside and downside If only upside, AI should take care of it If only downside, no-one will ever use it Note, this is only regarding game theory Ex: Could have ray gun that plays music. Cool, but soon gimme the BFG Ex: Nintendos Smash Bros has Taunt ask: what for? Ask: other examples from popular games? Gameplay value when upside and downside and payoff depends upon other factors Ex: Rohan horsemen, but what if other player recruits pikemen? Ex: Bazooka, but what if other player gets out of tank?

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

29 Implementing Gameplay (3 of 4)

Implementing Gameplay (3 of 4)

Well-designed choice Often desirable and undesirable effects Should relate to player goals Qualities of Choice (from book, Ch 2.2) Hollow lacking consequence Obvious leaves no choice to be made Uninformed arbitrary decision Weighted good and bad in every choice Dramatic strongly connects to feelings Immediate effects are immediate Long-term effects over extended period Orthogonal choices distinct from each other

Chapter 2.2, Introduction to Game Development

30 Implementing Gameplay (4 of 4)

Implementing Gameplay (4 of 4)

Should be series of interesting choices Ex: Use of health potion now may depend upon whether have net for capturing more fairies Having net may depend upon whether needed space for more arrows for bow Needing arrows may depend upon whether killed all flying zombie bats yet Hence, well designed game should require strategy Game must display complexity But doesnt mean it must be complex! Dont make too many rules. Less if more. Real world example: termites place one piece of mud. Results in hive, with cooling vents, etc. Emergence from interaction of rules Ex: Priests convert, but not if already in combat (Me: see what game) Ask: examples from popular games?

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

31 The Dominant Strategy Problem

The Dominant Strategy Problem

Articles with 10 killer tactics or ultimate weapon Ask: what are these doing? ? Taking advantage of flaws in the game design! Should never have a option not worth using Dominated strategy Should never have an option that is so good, it is never worth doing anything else Dominant strategy

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

32 Near Dominance

Near Dominance

Worth looking for near dominance, too Near-dominated useful only very narrow circumstance Near-dominant used most of the time Ex: stun gun only useful against raptors, so only useful on raptor level (near dominated) Do I want it used more often? How much effort on this feature? Should I put in lots of special effects? Ex: flurry of blows most useful attack (near dominant) by Monk Should we spend extra time for effects?

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

33 Avoid Trivial Choices (1 of 2)

Avoid Trivial Choices (1 of 2)

Horsemen ? Archers ? Pikemen Transitive, not so interesting Horsemen ? Archers ? Pikemen ? Horsemen (picture) Ask: what game does this look like? (rock-paper-scissors) Intransitive, more interesting Ex: from LOTR Battle for Middle Earth Horsemen fast, get to archers quickly with lances Pikemen spears hurt horsemen bad Pikemen slow, so archers wail on them from afar

(Will look at game balance in depth, next topic)

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

34 Avoid Trivial Choices (2 of 2)

Avoid Trivial Choices (2 of 2)

A beats B, B beats C, C beats A (could hardwire) But could also have how much better 1) Single horseman can beat any number of archers: Horseman ? Archers (?) 2) Single horseman barely beat an archer: Horseman ? Archers (1.1) Ask: Which is better? Trick question! Both are bad Case 1) equal number of each, all others lose Case 2) doesnt matter which you choose Dont want to hardwire. Sometimes A way better than B, sometimes a bit better, sometimes worse The answer should depend upon the game situation, weather, terrain, time also what opponent is doing

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

35 Environment + Rules = Gameplay

Environment + Rules = Gameplay

Battle of Hastings, 1066 A.D. King Harold tired, mostly infantry Duke William more archers, cavalry Archers beat slower infantry ? game over Not quite Harold on hill (arrows less effective) and defensive mode Archers tire ? game over Not quite William also smart, cavalry approach, but retreat. Infantry break ranks since they are frustrated, charge Arrows now shred Infantry ? Harold loses, game over Point: ways to change balance between different troop types. A good commander isnt the one with the best army; he is the one who knows how to use it best

http://www.battle1066.com/

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

36 Ensuring Interesting Choices (1 of 3)

Ensuring Interesting Choices (1 of 3)

Ex: Elite (early 80s, ask: who played?) Accumulate wealth by trading When 1000 credits, trade lazer for better lazer and have 400 left over for trading. No brainer. Always a win. What if could buy lazer with 600? Then no credits left over. Decision is tougher. Point: keep difficult choices in hands of player Ask: other examples?

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

37 Ensuring Interesting Choices (2 of 3)

Ensuring Interesting Choices (2 of 3)

Kinds of choices in gameplay can involve options: 1) Should sometimes be taken, sometimes not 2) Timing is critical and depends upon context (upgrade armor or build more troops) 3) Makes little difference whether taken or not 4) Always worth taking (target nearest) 5) Never worth taking (remove armor, pay guy for tapestry in Vici) First and Second most interesting Third valid, but really only chrome Fourth should be handled by AI Fifth should seriously consider removing

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

38 Ensuring Interesting Choices (3 of 3)

Ensuring Interesting Choices (3 of 3)

Interesting choices require good judgment on the part of the player Correct choice must vary with circumstances Aim as designer, ensure circumstances dont stagnate and have only one right way to win No method for finding best choices Thats where creativity comes in (art) Still, some tips

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

39 Toolbox of Interesting Choices

Toolbox of Interesting Choices

Strategic versus Tactical Supporting Investments Versatility Compensating Factors Impermanence Shadow Costs

40 Strategic versus Tactical (1 of 3)

Strategic versus Tactical (1 of 3)

Strategic choices affect course of game over medium or long term Tactical choices apply right now Ex: build archers or swordsmen (strategic) Ex: send archers or swordsmen to defend against invading force (tactical) Strategic choices have effect on tactical choices later Ex: if dont build archers, cant use tactically later

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

41 Strategic versus Tactical (2 of 3)

Strategic versus Tactical (2 of 3)

Ex: StarCraft Strategic choice: 1 ) upgrade range of marines, 2) upgrade damage, or 3) research faster fire Which to choose? If armored foes, Protoss Zealot, more damage If fast foes, Zerglings, maybe faster fire Other factors: number of marines, terrain, on offense or defense

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

42 Strategic versus Tactical (3 of 3)

Strategic versus Tactical (3 of 3)

Ex: Warzone 2100 (ask: who played?) Build factories to spawn war machines If build in level, then spawn quickly but factory only used for that level If build at base, spawn slowly (have to ship to front lines) but factory can be used in subsequent levels Lesson: Good gameplay should have different choices leading to different kinds of payoff Reduces the risk of trivial choices Increase scope for good judgment

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

43 Supporting Investments

Supporting Investments

Often game has primary goal (ex: beat enemy) but secondary goals (ex: build farms for resources) Some expenditures directly impact primary goal (ex: hire soldier), while others indirect (ex: build farm) called supporting investments Primary goals are one-removed Ex: improve weapons, build extra barracks Supporting goals are two-removed Ex: build smithy can then improve weapons Ex: research construction lets you build smithy and build barracks (two and three removed) Most interesting since strategic Payoff will depend upon what opponents do

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

44 Versatility (1 of 2)

Versatility (1 of 2)

Rule of thumb is to ask what is best and worst about choices: 1) This move does most damage, but slowest 2) This move is fastest, but makes defenseless 3) This move best defense, but little damage 4) This neither best nor worst, but most versatile Most should be best in some way Versatile good for beginners flexibility (against unpredictable or expert opponent)

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

45 Versatility (2 of 2)

Versatility (2 of 2)

Ex: beam can mine asteroids and shoot enemies Versatility makes it good choice Speed is common way for versatility Dont make fast units best If a versatile unit is also cheapest and most powerful ? no interesting choice (See Compensating Factors, next)

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

46 Compensating Factors

Compensating Factors

Consider strategy game where all units impeded by some terrain Ships cant go on land, tanks cant cross water, camel riders only in dessert Assume flying unit that can go anywhere (Ask: how to balance?) 1) Make slow 2) Make weak, easily destroyed 3) Make low surveillance range (unrealistic) 4) Make expensive Note, last choice common but uninteresting since doesnt change tactical use Choice should be clear to player. Dont make a gamble before they know. Ex: pick troops (cold weather) then find in jungle

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

47 Impermanence (1 of 2)

Impermanence (1 of 2)

Some permanent (ex: you get to treasure first), others not (ex: I got storage near mine, but you can grab it off me) Really, another kind of compensating factor I.e. impermanence can compensate for something being really good Can be used for interesting choices Ex: choice of medium armor for rest of game or invulnerable for 30 seconds? Advantage (or disadvantages) can be impermanent in number of ways:

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

48 Impermanence (2 of 2)

Impermanence (2 of 2)

(Examples mostly from Magic the Gathering Battlegrounds) Can be destroyed (enchantments, ex: gratuitous violence makes units tough, but can be destroyed) Can be stolen or converted (ex: threaten steals or converts enemy for short time) Can be applied to something you dont always have (ex: goblin king gives bonus to goblins, but must have goblins) Certain number of uses (ex: three grenades, but grenade spamming) Last for some time (wears off, ex: Mario invulnerable star) Common in games, but deserves special attention

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

49 Shadow Costs (1 of 2)

Shadow Costs (1 of 2)

In a game, continually presented with costs and trade-offs. But not all direct. Ex: soldiers for gold, but need armory first for weapons and barracks for soldiers Called shadow costs for supporting investments Can make flow chart mapping shadow costs

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

50 Shadow Costs (2 of 2)

Shadow Costs (2 of 2)

Ex: Age of Mythology has wood and food. Food is inexhaustible, wood is finite Charioteer Costs 60 wood, 40 food and 40 seconds to spawn Shadow costs vary over game Early on, food and wood expensive, spawn doesnt matter Mid-game, much food and wood, spawn makes it harder to pump out new units End-game, no wood, spawn is priceless Use variability to add subtlety to game. Vary environment and vary shadow costs (ex: more trees to vary cost of wood) Challenge for level designer Expert players will appreciate

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

51 Review: Use Tools from Toolbox of Interesting Choices

Review: Use Tools from Toolbox of Interesting Choices

Strategic versus Tactical Supporting Investments Versatility Compensating Factors Impermanence Shadow Costs Groupwork: Use 1-2 in a game about graduating from college. Discuss.

52 Synergies (1 of 2)

Synergies (1 of 2)

Synergies are interaction between different elements of players strategies (note, terms may be different than ch 2.2)

Positive Feedback Economies of Scale the more of one type, the better (ex: wizards draw strength from each other) Economies of Scope the more of a set, the better, or advantage of combined arms (ex: trident and net, infantry and tanks)

Negative Feedback Diseconomies of scale first is most useful, others have less benefit (ex: diminishing returns from more peasants entering a mine since get in each others way) Diseconomies of scope (ex: mixed troops go only as fast as slowest)

53 Synergies (2 of 2)

Synergies (2 of 2)

Ideally, all go together at once, but can emphasize Ex: Chess is a game of positive feedback Small advantage early on, exploited to crushing advantage Game of negative feedback needs other ways to keep interesting Ex: trench combat makes a catch-up factor, or as get far from base, supply long grows, game lasts a long time Ex: Super NES NBA Jam catch up setting as an equalizer Be aware of each

54 Final Word on Gameplay

Final Word on Gameplay

Need to make sure choices interact Ex: no fun winning just because out-optimize guy on resource production Ex: no fun if winning just because know right thing to do else lose ? no game, just forgone conclusion Want choices to interact with choices of opponent, want it to depend

55 Interactivity versus Gameplay

Interactivity versus Gameplay

Gameplay is important because it allows you to take the experience someplace Ex: Kick the soccer ball around, practice headers, bicycle kicks, etc. (interactivity) Play a game of soccer on the pitch (interactivity + gameplay) Can you have gameplay without interactivity? Maybe. But even so, gameplay without interactivity could be fun (ie- television), but would start wondering if time is better spent doing something else Interactivity is more important that gameplay Interactivity without gameplay can be fun Ex: Black and White, Sims Interactivity is the heart and soul of entertainment software

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

56 Kinds of Interactivity (1 of 2)

Kinds of Interactivity (1 of 2)

Can interact in many ways game designers sometimes restrict themselves to facts Ex: if you hit w/BFG, do 50 points damage Think broadly. Player could potentially: 1) Directly control characters (Ex: move Laura Croft) 2) Affect world (Ex: make Stronghold guys insane) 3) Influence characters actions at one remove (Ex: give weapons, like Zeus to a hero) 4) Influence at two removes (Ex: provide inspiration, like a Muse) 5) Decide who to follow, rather than what to follow (Ex: observer mode) 6) Select what parts are interesting and give more time to that (Ex: like a child with a bedtime story, Saahil likes the hero build up and powers most)

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

57 Kinds of Interactivity (2 of 2)

Kinds of Interactivity (2 of 2)

(Ask: others?) In the above list, how many are done? 1 most everything, 2 for changing difficulty But many not done: Why cant you say to computer opponent: Hey, lets build up a big army before we fight or Dont attack me since Im having fun building Or, why cant you switch sides in a battle? Avoid making mutant versions of films, novels or even board games Use imagination for interactivity

Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

58 Concentrate on Why not just What

Concentrate on Why not just What

Doesnt have to be about what happens Ex: ER. Noah Wylie is avatar. With a sick patient does he follow rules, give experimental drug, play basketball? But not only way to be interactive. Instead, follow Noah, switch to patient, go to other Dr., back to Noah (learn about characters, the Why) Drama unfolds because of understanding of characters True in non-interactive drama, so true in games, too Ex: D&D dungeon, series of rooms w/monsters. Much richer if why behind scenes. Why were dwarves there? Why did they die? How orcs break in? Goal of entertainment is to make audience care Use interactivity as a way to powerful technique to help this

59 Core Design

Core Design

Brief, since overlaps material in IMGD 1000. Critical Studies of Interactive Media and Games Topics What is a Game (Overmars + Ch2) Gameplay (Ch 3) Game Balance (Ch 5) Look and Feel (Ch 6)

Based on Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

60 Game Balance - Introduction

Game Balance - Introduction

Beauty in balanced games Like Rolls Royce or Ball Machine in Airport Game without balance often unsatisfying and wasted effort (parts not in balance not used, so wasted effort) Broadly, game balance includes: Player-Player advantage only in skill (can be luck, but should be equal to both) Player-Gameplay learning curve matched by reward Gameplay-Gameplay Composite longbow does twice damage, should cost twice $

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

61 Mini-Outline

Mini-Outline

Broadly, game balance includes: Player-Player (next) Player-Gameplay Gameplay-Gameplay

62 Player/Player Balance (1 of 2)

Player/Player Balance (1 of 2)

Ex: Virtua Fighter (ask: who has played?) Say, Sarah Bryant beats Lion every time? Does that mean unbalanced? No, look more closely Suppose friend said could beat everyone as Sarah Bryant all the time. Would say prove it Would only be a problem if beginner as Sarah always beat expert as Lion And if could choose characters? Sarah versus Sarah?

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

63 Player/Player Balance (2 of 2)

Player/Player Balance (2 of 2)

Allow to arrange victory by skill and judgment Avoid results mostly as stroke of luck Right from the start or magnified as game progresses (ex: start close to gold mine provides escalating advantage) Simplest way is to have symmetry Same weapons, maneuvers, hit points (sports do this) (But note, not always the most interesting. Want different moves on fighters, say. More later.)

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

64 Symmetry - Example

Symmetry - Example

Two heroes square off for duel, poised in kung fu stance Hours pass. Days pass. Breeze comes by, spec of dust in ones eye Blinks, frowns then bows Know result without fight tiny asymmetry enough to decide outcome If breeze or dust decided game, is that ok? No youd want your money back! Dont want to decide by factors out of control Keep symmetric

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

65 Symmetry

Symmetry

Symmetry is fine in abstract games (ex: chess, even basketball) In realistic games, would be problem (ex: U.S. versus Iraq, game symmetry would be bothersome since not realistic) While easy, kind of an insult Ex: LOTR BfME Wargs same as horses but Wargs can bite in book/movie! Better is functional symmetry that is not obvious

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

66 Symmetry in Level Design

Symmetry in Level Design

Can avoid obvious symmetry Ex: each player has impassible region on flank (water or mountain range) Knights and soldiers cant cross Later on, advanced units can cross Choice of unit depends upon barrier Mountaineers to storm, ships to cross sea Or bluff, and then go up middle Players can choose asymmetric start location Should not be deciding factor (Ex: you choose downwind port, so you lose) Avoiding making start location critical decision Ex: potential mines in many spots, so not critical

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

67 Symmetry in Game Design (1 of 2)

Symmetry in Game Design (1 of 2)

Make all choices for players functionally the same Ex: Warcraft 2 humans have griffons and orcs have dragons; both flying toughies. But even slight differences make interesting Ex: Warcraft 2 orc players runes explode, making use in mountain passes good Just broken asymmetry easier to manage than total asymmetry (can compensate)

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

68 Symmetry in Game Design (2 of 2)

Symmetry in Game Design (2 of 2)

Making choices for players different, yet balanced is tougher Ex: Starcraft: Protoss, Zergs, Terrans all very different (Same with Command and Conquer Generals) Imagine the hours of playtesting! Recommend only for deep pockets Starcraft is often a benchmark against which to judge other RTS game balance Also, if re-creating historical simulation, tradeoff between fairness and authenticity Ex: Conquistadors vs. Aztecs Aztecs are doomed, but may be no fun. Certainly not symmetric

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

69 Mini-Outline

Mini-Outline

Broadly, game balance includes: Player-Player Player-Gameplay (next) Gameplay-Gameplay

70 Player/Gameplay Balance  Introduction (1 of 2)

Player/Gameplay Balance Introduction (1 of 2)

Means remembering that the business is about interactivity think about players relationship to the game Ex: If had to tune the T.V. every time channel surf, would not do it much Likewise, should not struggle for small reward Ex: Baldurs Gate (ask: whos played?) Attributes are 3-18 (ask: why?), can re-roll if dont like. So, re-roll until all 18s. Ugh. Test of endurance!

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

71 Player/Gameplay Balance  Introduction (2 of 2)

Player/Gameplay Balance Introduction (2 of 2)

Player/Gameplay balance entails balancing challenges against players improvement curve Many RPGs have monsters get tougher with level Ex: Diablo 2 does this But boring if that is all since will feel the same Want widening options, too Ex: character gets more abilities Three rules 1) Reward the player 2) Let the machine do the work 3) Make a game that you play with, not against

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

72 Reward the Player

Reward the Player

Player will have to learn. Will make mistakes (discouraging). Want to offset with reward when do something right Ex: Virtua Fighter, takes longer to learn complicated moves Sarahs backflip. Reward comes from seeing flip (eye candy) and punch in kidneys (payoff) Best when expand game options Ex: Now with backflip, I can see new use for reverse punch In general, better to reward player for something right than punish for something wrong Punishment makes players not want to play

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

73 Let the Machine do the Work

Let the Machine do the Work

Interface should show player the world and let him/her manipulate Computer is tool to take care of wide-range of tedious tasks If tasks are not fun, dont make player do them There is a blur of boundary between chore and game feature RPG could provide graph so player can manually draw map as explore but is that fun? Ex: In D&D, can tell D.M. we go back to the dungeon entrance. Easy, fun. What if a game makes player walk back over map that has been seen? Boring, no fun. Ex: Myst provided lightning bolt move to avoid tedium (Ask: other examples?) Also, if game option is no-brainer, consider AI taking care of it

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

74 Make a Game that you Play With, Not Against

Make a Game that you Play With, Not Against

Consider great story, graphics, immersion but only progress by trial and error is this fun? Ex: crossbowman guards exit Run up and attack. Hes too fast. Back to save point (more on save points next). Drink potion. Sneak up. He shoots you. Back to save. Drop bottle as distraction. He comes looking. Shoots you. Back to save. Drink potion. Drop bottle. He walks by you. You escape! Lazy design! Should succeed by skill and judgment, not trial and error

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

75 Specific Example - The Save Game Problem (1 of 2)

Specific Example - The Save Game Problem (1 of 2)

Designer talking about RPG Designer: Ive got a great trap! platform goes down to room. Player thinks treasure but really flame throwers. Player is toast! Tester: What if player jumps off? D: Thinks its a loophole Ok, teleport in then toast T: What is the solution? D: There isnt one. (surprised) Its a killer trap. It will be fun. T: So, theres no clue for player? Charred remains on platform or something? D: No. Thats what the Save feature is for.

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

76 Specific Example - The Save Game Problem (1 of 2)

Specific Example - The Save Game Problem (1 of 2)

Should be used only so players can go back to their Real Lives? in between games Or maybe to allow player to fully see folly of actions, for exploratory and dabbling Dont design game around need to save Has become norm for many games, but too bad Ex: murderous level can only get by trying all combat options Beginner player should be able to reason and come up with answer Challenges get tougher (more sophisticated reasoning) as player and game progress, so appeals to more advanced player But not trial and error

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

77 Mini-Outline

Mini-Outline

Broadly, game balance includes: Player-Player Player-Gameplay Gameplay-Gameplay (next)

78 Gameplay/Gameplay Balance

Gameplay/Gameplay Balance

Challenges when balancing aspects of gameplay? Want variety of interesting choices, rather than single, dominant choice Best choices depend upon choices of other players (or on AI) Not easy to see how frequently different choices will be worth making, but need to know to balance game Sounds like catch-22? Can use simple concepts to make first guess Then lots of play testing to fine tune! ?

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

79 Component Balance

Component Balance

Two levels to balancing: component and attribute Component balance deals with relative values (ex: cost and strength) Attribute involves interaction of abilities (ex: speed versus hit points) Talk about component first, attribute later Establish the value of each game choice For game balance, each choice must be reducible to simple value and factors must even out Ex: Pirate game Dreadnoughts > Galleons > Brigantines All have identical functions If Dreadnoughts 2x powerful, then (for balance) Galleons should take ? time to spawn

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

80 What if Not Easily Reducible

What if Not Easily Reducible

Ex: Starcraft Mutalisks fly over any terrain, but cannot fight other fliers Wraiths are not as tough, but can attack other fliers Observers can see enemy, but not fight ? There is no expression for values since different things! Ex: Pirate game Dreadnoughts slowest, Brigantines fastest ? Interesting from gameplay, but what about balance?

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

81 Attribute Balance

Attribute Balance

Involves not the relative values, but the way the choices interact Ex: How important is ship speed relative to combat strength? Envision as a set, where relative values based on one factor only: Speed: Brigantines > Galleons > Dreadnoughts Tuffness: Dreadnoughts > Galleons > Brigantines Range: Can then combine to get average set combining all factors Then, adjust component values (often, through play testing) so all units are useful

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

82 Component versus Attribute Balance

Component versus Attribute Balance

Mnemonic to remember: Component choices are about artifacts Ex: Hmm. Should I use the ion cannon or laser? Attribute choices are more abstract regarding use: Ex: I should sneak past troll or take extra health Attribute balance is harder (set of all problems) But if can get approximate picture of better strategies, can tweak component costs to get game balance

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

83 Intransitive Game Mechanics (1 of 5)

Intransitive Game Mechanics (1 of 5)

Rock

Paper

Scissors

Rock

0

-1

+1

Paper

+1

0

-1

Scissors

-1

+1

0

Payoff, match your choice with opponent Suppose I always picked rock. Then opponent would notice and pick paper. Then I would start to always pick scissors, then spiral to center of triangle where all options equal only break even, like thermodynamics

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

84 Intransitive Game Mechanics (2 of 5)

Intransitive Game Mechanics (2 of 5)

Suppose scissors costs most, rock costs least May use rock more often, scissors less But wait, that would mean paper less useful, too what is optimum choice now? Suppose scissors costs 3 ki, paper costs 2 ki, rock costs 1 ki and hit does 5 ki damage

Rock

Paper

Scissors

Rock

0

-4

+7

Paper

+4

0

-4

Scissors

-7

+4

0

Ex: I choose scissors, you choose rock. Ki diff is 2. Plus damage is 5, so 7 total.

85 Intransitive Game Mechanics (3 of 5)

Intransitive Game Mechanics (3 of 5)

Say payoff is R, P, S and frequency r, p, s Want to know how often used (r, p, s) Net payoff R is (0 x r) + (-4 x p) + (7 x s) 1) R = -4p + 7s 2) P = 4r 4s 3) S = -7r + 4p Sum must be zero (zero sum game, whatever one player gains other loses. Both cannot have net gain.) R + P + S = 0 All costs must be equal else would favor (remember, triangle example) R = P = S

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

86 Intransitive Game Mechanics (4 of 5)

Intransitive Game Mechanics (4 of 5)

Solve: (3 equations in 3 unknowns) (eq1) -4p + 7s = 4r 4s (eq2) 11s = 4r + 4p ? s = (4r+4p) / 11 (eq2) 0 = 4r 4(4r+4p)/11 0 = 44r 16r - 16p 0 = 28r - 16p ? p = (7/4)r (eq3) 0 = -4(7/4)r + 7s 0 = 7r + 7s r = s Ratio ? r:p:s = 1 : 1.75 : 1 Rock and Scissors used 27%, Paper about 46% Probably not what expected. Often result if one option more expensive, others are most affected

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

87 Intransitive Game Mechanics (5 of 5)

Intransitive Game Mechanics (5 of 5)

Can use technique to adjust costs Ex: if it turns out too many tanks relative to infantry Enhance to more choices. Ex: could do combination moves. Rock + Scissors + Scissors = Garden Shears Could be countered with Paper Weight Strategy becomes complicated (Can also use to justify spending more artistic assets on paper!) Fine, all is balanced. Players must avoid predictability because clever opponent will exploit. But that is barely above where have only 1 choice! To balance so interesting, must have attribute factors that interact (remember, the Battle of Hastings)

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

88 Other Intransitive Relationships

Other Intransitive Relationships

Can extend RPS? Sure (otherwise not useful) More than 3 options ? Table 5.3 and Case Study 5.5 Less regular are 4 options ? Table 5.4 Figure 5.7 discusses another 4-way relationship Infantry dominated But, looking further, infantry only one that doesnt have to move Can hold territory! (In game that needs that) Ex: In AoE, could teleport supplies by building base. Didnt need to hold territory. Infantry useless. Even making them cost less doesnt (expansion pack). Still great game, but didnt need.

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

89 Combinatorial Explosions

Combinatorial Explosions

How many attributes should there be to make interesting? Too few? Then becomes trivial (Ex: in Hastings, only way to change power base is to put infantry on hill) Too many? Then too hard to have skilled play Rule of thumb: N factors that could modify core mechanics, and each boolean (hill or not, rain or not ) ? 2N possible combinations explodes rapidly Err on the side of caution In Populous (EA god-game), should have lots of characters or half-dozen? Noticed would be easier to understand game experience with few, versatile units rather than many specific ones. Richard Leinfellner, Exec in charge of Bullfrog

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

90 Design Scalability

Design Scalability

Intransitive designs are inflexible If have 5 way relationship and remove one, will have dominated strategy Ex: RPS and remove R always choose S If project lead says behind schedule, so dont include 5th orc type ? Elegant design falls like a house of cards But is relatively easy to add components Doesnt have to be symmetrical, can be redundant or useful in only a few cases Ex: scout, or special spell Lesson, if you are going to scale, scale up not down

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

91 A Game Balance Checklist (1 of 3)

A Game Balance Checklist (1 of 3)

Player-Player ensures game is fair. Increasingly important as multiplayer increases. Symmetry works for this, but asymmetry may be needed or more appealing (try just broken). Make sure any asymmetry doesnt magnify imbalance as game progresses. Golden rule: a player should never be put in an unwinnable situation through no fault of their own

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

92 A Game Balance Checklist (2 of 3)

A Game Balance Checklist (2 of 3)

Player-Game ensures player never becomes frustrated. Continually brings player back for more. Interface should not present obstacles. Small rewards are needed to guide player (fancy animation or new powers). Best rewards widen options. Golden rule: The game should be fun to learn as well as to play, and it should be more fun the more you master it

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

93 A Game Balance Checklist (3 of 3)

A Game Balance Checklist (3 of 3)

Gameplay-Gameplay makes sure no element redundant or useless. Can do briefly by making factor table for each attribute (fire, range ) Make sure each best at something. RPS ensures each component dynamically best rather than statically so. Oblige player to alter tactics. Dont have to have every component equally useful. But cost, availability and ease of use should reflect value. Get right through playtesting. Golden rule: all options in game must be worth using sometime, net cost of each option must be on par with payoff

Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

94 Look and Feel

Look and Feel

(Me: consider skipping this whole section) Create a sense of alternate reality Immersion Ambience Interface Storytelling

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

95 Ambience

Ambience

Everything that contributes to innate look and feel of game Not just spiffy graphics - GLFOPS and trilinear filtering Rather, how graphics are used Two fighters on bare stage. Fine. How about dirty street, realistic crowd hooting and hollering. Dark skies Ex: Fiery hell when battling boss in Battlegrounds Ambience is about providing background for story Broadly Sound, Vision, Touch

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

96 Sound

Sound

Wistful guitar in Diablo Ethnic rhythms in AoE Stirring call to arms in Warcraft Whimsical in QBicles Best does ambience plus gameplay Ex: Thief Come out taffer, looking for you Just a rat, you are safe Ex: LOTR Stirring music when level nearly over (but can still die!)

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

97 Vision

Vision

The "look" of the game Concept art Broad strokes, not pixel finished detail Rough sketches of characters or settings

- Paolo Piselli

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

98 Vision Example

Vision Example

Movie

Concept Art

99 Touch

Touch

Not really touch, but physicality of games look and feel handling of game Ex: early animation characters did not move right Disney pioneered with physical attributes that felt right, moved with weight Contrast Ex: comic-book acrobatics in Smash Bros Ex: bouncing vehicles in Mario Kart Ex: realistic crashes in Mid-town Madness Ex: super-players in Lego Soccer Ex: realism in Madden (actually, guys 1.5 times faster)

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

100 Interface

Interface

Ideal is transparent Ex: LOTR BfME novel way when click expands with choices Ex: Status can be in formation or appearance (not health hit-points, say) Doesnt have to be invisible Ex: racing game expects dash Ex: flight sim interface can look like cockpit Ex: less is more (small square more annoying than framing with interface) Can enhance look and feel

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

101 Storytelling

Storytelling

No need of story? After all, supposed to be interactive. If you want to tell a story, write a book. Bah. Consider choose your own adventure Ex: Doom two factions 1) Strong setting and backstory enhance game 2) Story? We dont need no stinking story! Action takes care of itself Interactive can help user create story Ex: Half-life Stronger want to suspend disbelief of user but need to make them want to suspend Ex: Starwars merely some sword fights and vehicle chases. Need to know who Luke is, why hes in the spaceship. Why the battle

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

102 Toolbox of Storytelling Techniques

Toolbox of Storytelling Techniques

Best ? not chunks of action with static facts Details revealed to audience let them figure it out Get emotional involvement from audience Storytellers knew tricks for creating good stories long before Shakespeare Game Designers should employ Obstacles, Plot Points, Foreshadowing (More next)

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

103 Obstacles

Obstacles

Old man runs to hero in inn. Says Vampire on hill. You have to kill it. Poor Old man enters inn. Avoids hero. Purchases crucifix from another. Mumbles you better have one if you are in these parts. Not great, but better. Has obstacle Viewer must find out himself/herself Tricked into level of acceptance not obtained if just told, too artificial

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

104 Foreshadowing

Foreshadowing

A story depicts the intrusion of the world on status quo Ex: AoE settlement grows to large city Ex: Total Recall construction worker spy Foreshadowing occurs early, before intrusion, hints at what is to come Ex: AoE small bandits come, fought off Ex: Total Recall dream of spy

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

105 Personalization

Personalization

Novice author Ex: save the world, because big But not compelling, so only you can save it Still weak Need to add person reason so audience cares Ex: you have two hours to save the world versus you have two hours to find your niece lost at sunset Ex: Luke told must save galaxy. Why? Drawn in by personal (Princess Leia) Careful not to make personal hook in backstory might skip

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

106 Resistance

Resistance

Back of mind saying it isnt true Need to pull them along Ex: Bruce Willis, drinking at dingy strip club. Two suits say you must save president from terrorist. Does he jump up and get to work? No. Snarls Im retired. Takes another drink. We want him to change his mind. Rooting for him before main character does.

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

107 Plot Points (1 of 2)

Plot Points (1 of 2)

Importance of confounding expectations Ex: Gandalf on quest to Mount Doom. Boring if that is exactly what happens Gets killed early on (and comes back), not expected Adventure games benefit most, but can do for other games, too Aristotle reversal, discovery, calamity Ex: trying to save kid, causing her death (reversal) Ex: finding Swiss account number on victim (discovery) Ex: bomb going off, killing hero (calamity)

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

108 Plot Points (2 of 2)

Plot Points (2 of 2)

Games, too. Ex: strategy game find cliff so army built up wont work (reversal) Ex: tunnel for small commando force (discovery) Whammo every 10 minutes, turn story in different direction Big ones (Luke, I am your father) divide into levels or acts Movies - setup, conflict, resolution But games whole season (40 hours), not one movie Best if can integrate in game without cut-scenes Early plot points deepen mystery, later clear it up (not always completely) Overarching structure, hierarchical in plot points

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

109 Suspense

Suspense

Ex: Unbeatable foe (Gorgon, only beat by lure to trap). With save game let hero try. After 9 times, try something else. Death of lead character destroys illusion Instead, provide clues, suspense. Bodies, rotting, see NPC get eaten. Hear sounds. Can see gorgon survive rock crash.

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

110 Dialog

Dialog

One picture worth a thousand words Dont have needless dialog when visual will do Good dialog serves more than one purpose Ex: telling about bomb. How long? Plenty of time smoke cigarette, call mom dont read War and Peace. Reminds of mortality. Dont tell what know, but also reveal Do you expect me to talk? No, Mr. Bond, I expect you to die Surprise

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

111 Resolution

Resolution

Should be: Hard won no reward is satisfying if too easy (most computer games not this) Not obvious dont want ending one been seeing for 10 hours (yet should still make sense looking back) Satisfying usually morally (hero wins) but could be aesthetically (tragedy) Consistent with character, style development Achieve closure resolve story Many examples of stories/games where above fails Diablo 2 defeat Diablo then 60 seconds to end. Might and Magic 2 long struggle, mystery. Very end, control panel 15 minutes to decode Fourscore and seven years Solved it, asteroid missed, thank you and go home Ex: A Christmas Story decoder ring drink Ovaltine

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

112 Change

Change

Stories set in interesting times No Sir Gawain shops for bread. Rather, marries hag, one week until green knight chops head off Sometimes, return to normal Inner change is often point of story No Frodo lives in Shire with friends, rather learns of evil, innocence to self-knowledge

Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Morris

113 Whats Next

Whats Next

Art (2d, 3d, audio) Architecture Wrap up

The Game Development Process
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