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The Nature of the Russian Far East
The Nature of the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
Russian Far East
Natural Wonders of the Russian Far East
Natural Wonders of the Russian Far East
Geyser Valley - Kamchatka
Geyser Valley - Kamchatka
The Polar Bear
The Polar Bear
Arctic Poppy
Arctic Poppy
The сlimate in the russian far east
The сlimate in the russian far east
Vladivostok – East Possessor
Vladivostok – East Possessor
Flora and Fauna of the Russian Far East
Flora and Fauna of the Russian Far East
Thank You for Your Attention
Thank You for Your Attention

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The Nature of the Russian Far East

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1 The Nature of the Russian Far East

The Nature of the Russian Far East

Работу на тему «Природа Дальнего Востока (география, климат, флора и фауна и т.д.)» выполнила ученица МОУ СОШ № 13, 9 “A” класса Шевченко Софья Александровна. misssonychik2007@mail.ru Преподаватель английского языка: Домрачева Татьяна Дмитриевна.

2 Russian Far East

Russian Far East

Russia reached the pacific coast in 1647 with the establishment of okhotsk, and consolidated its control over the russian far east in the 19th century. Russian far east or transbaikalia is a term that refers to the russian part of the far east, in other words, extreme east parts of russia, between lake baikal in central siberia, and the pacific ocean. The russian far eastern federal district, which covers this area, should not be mixed up with the siberian federal distriсt, which does not stretch all the way to the pacific. The potential confusion with the international meaning of far east in translation is caused by the fact, that in russia, the region is usually referred to as just "far east". And the international meaning of far east is usually called in russia "the asia-pacific region" (or "east asia" ) until 2000, the russian far east lacked officially defined boundaries. A single term "siberia and the far east" was often used to refer to russia's regions east of the urals without making a clear distinction between "siberia" and "the far east." Several entities with the name "far east" had existed in the first half of the 20thcentury, all with rather different boundaries: 1920–1922: the far-eastern republic (included transbaikalia, amur oblast, primorskaya oblast, sakhalin oblast, and kamchatka); 1922–1926: the far-eastern oblast (included pribaykalskaya, amurskaya, primorskaya, sakhalinskaya, and kamchatskaya guberniyas); 1926–1938: the far-eastern krai (included modern primorsky krai and khabarovsk krai). In 2000, russia's federal subjects were grouped into larger federal districts, and far eastern federal district was created, including amur oblast, chukotka, autonomous okrug, jewish autonomous oblast, kamchatka oblast, koryak autonomous okrug, khabarovsk krai, magadan oblast, primorsky krai, sakha (yakutia) republic, and sakhalin oblast. Since 2000, the term "far east" has been increasingly used in russia to refer to the district, though it is often also used more loosely. Defined by the boundaries of the federal district, the far east has an area of 6.2 million square kilometers—over one-third of the russia's total area. According to the 2002 census, far eastern federal district had a population of 6,692,865. Ethnic russians and ukrainians make up the majority of the population. 75% of the population is urban. The largest cities are (all population figures are as of the 2002 census): vladivostok (pop. 594,701) khabarovsk (pop. 583,072) komsomolsk-on-amur (pop. 281,035) blagoveshchensk (pop. 219,221) yakutsk (pop. 210,642) petropavlovsk-kamchatsky (pop. 198,028) yuzhno-sakhalinsk (pop. 177,682) nakhodka (pop. 177,133) ussuriysk (pop. 157,759)

3 Natural Wonders of the Russian Far East

Natural Wonders of the Russian Far East

The Russian Far East is full of many unique natural wonders: volcanoes, the Geyser Valley of Kamchatka, the Amur Tiger (the world's largest cat), rare Japanese Cranes and wild ginseng. More than one hundred species of flowering plants, such as arctic poppy and snow buttercup, are found in the Arctic wilderness, populated by polar bears and foxes in the winter and, in summer, huge bird colonies. Many cliffs of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands have recently been opened to civilian visitors after years of being reserved for military use only.

4 Geyser Valley - Kamchatka

Geyser Valley - Kamchatka

The Geyser Valley is a unique and world-famous natural feature situated on the east of Kamchatka Peninsula, about 200 kilometers north east of Petropavlovsk. It was discovered in 1914 by the Russian geologist T.Ustinova. She found many geysers, hot springs, boiling mud, vapour springs and hot lands close to the river Shumnaya. Scientists of different fields started exploring and studying this area in 1940ies to explain why these geysers and hot springs appear, how they operate and to discover their influence on the surrounding areas. Geysers are natural hot springs with a permanent rhythmical activity and are quite rare. The cycle of geyser activity consists of several phases. The fountains of hot water may be vertical, e.g. geysers "Velikan" (The Giant) and "Bolshoi" (The Great), or inclined, e.g. geysers "Triple" and "Pioneer". Pulsating Hot Springs differ from geysers as they are continuously erupting with very short calm periods. For example "Sakharnyi" (Sugar) Hot Spring has eruptions every 4-5 minutes, with a duration of about 2minutes. The small pools of these hot springs are always full of boiling water pouring over theedges and forming small streams. Some of the pulsating hot springs had been geysers in the past, but changed their character for natural reasons (mainly micro relief changes) or because of human activity. Every second there are about 250-300 liters of thermal water pouring out in the Geyser Valley. The various hydrothermal phenomena of Geyser Valley influence their local environment, such as rock, relief, air, soil, flora and fauna. The air has a permanent chemical laboratory smell as water vapors produced by geysers and fumaroles are associated with hydrogen sulfide, methane and other gases. Thermal grounds do not get a permanent snow cover during the winter. The vegetation bursts into bud earlier in spring, birds start making nests, insects and brown bears wake up earlier. The varied mineral compositions and temperatures of natural springs has resulted in some having health and medical resorts built around them.

5 The Polar Bear

The Polar Bear

The polar bear is a bear native largely within the Arctic circle encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is the world's largest land carnivore and also the largest bear, together with the omnivorous Kodiak bear, which is approximately the same size. An adult male weighs around 350–680 kg (770–1,500 lb), while an adult female is about half that size. Although it is closely related to the brown bear, it has evolved to occupy a narrow ecological niche, with many body characteristics adapted for cold temperatures, for moving across snow, ice, and open water, and for hunting the seals which make up most of its diet. Although most polar bears are born on land, they spend most of their time at sea (hence their scientific name meaning "maritime bear") and can hunt consistently only from sea ice, so spend much of the year on the frozen sea. The polar bear is classified as a vulnerable species, with 8 of the 19 polar bear subpopulations in decline. For decades, unrestricted hunting raised international concern for the future of the species; populations have rebounded after controls and quotas began to take effect. For thousands of years, the polar bear has been a key figure in the material, spiritual, and cultural life of Arctic indigenous peoples, and the hunting of polar bears remains important in their cultures. The IUCN now lists global warming as the most significant threat to the polar bear, primarily because the melting of its sea ice habitat reduces its ability to find sufficient food. The IUCN states, "If climatic trends continue polar bears may become extirpated from most of their range within 100 years."On 14 May 2008, the United States Department of the Interior listed the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act.

6 Arctic Poppy

Arctic Poppy

Unique Qualities: The arctic poppy is extremely tough, but its flower petals are delicate. It is yellow and can grow up to 25cm in height. The whole plant is covered with black hairs. The arctic poppy is heliotropic meaning it turns its face to follow the sun. It does this to attract I nsects to the centre of its bloom. Can be Seen: Both yellow and white arctic poppies can be seen in Arctic areas. Likes to Hang Out: The arctic poppy likes to hang out in Arctic meadows. It also likes to grow in the mountains, in the gravel beds of dry rivers, or in rocky high plains. It likes to grow among the rocks because the stones absorb heat from the sun and provide moist shelter for the roots. Benefits of the Plant: Parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested, it is toxic to some mammals but its toxicity level is low. Status: Arctic poppies are very rare and uncommon globally. Some species are abundant in certain areas but within a narrow range.

7 The сlimate in the russian far east

The сlimate in the russian far east

Extreme weather is the main challenge to life in the northern area. In January or December, don’t be surprised if you notice a strange noise when you exhale. The dry and dense frost turns your breath immediately into flourishing snowflakes and ice and you will be able to hear the crystallization of your own breath. All you need do is buy some warm clothes and you will be glad to breathe in the fresh frosty air, to admire the white snow, and to say that Russian winters are beautiful. Tomtor settlement of Yakutia (Sakha) republic owns the world record for the lowest (-71.2 C / -96 F) temperature ever registered (1926) in a populated area. Yet, cold winters lead to toughness and ingenuity; People gather together indoors to bring each other good cheer, fellowship and artistic and creative expression. There are people who like winter, and throughout most of Russia there is always snow in the winter, so you can go snow-skiing, ice-skating, or sledding. Many people like summer, because in many parts of Russia you can swim in the rivers and lakes, gather mushrooms and berries in the forest, or go fishing. Russians have liked going to the forest to gather mushrooms, berries and medicinal herbs since olden times, and this tradition has remained. In the forests of Russia, especially far from the cities, there are a lot of various berries and mushrooms. At home, Russian women like preserving different kinds of food collected outside: salted and pickled mushrooms and vegetables, jam, stewed fruit, and what not. In Russia they say that autumn is golden. It is a very beautiful season, and many Russian poets have devoted much of their poetry to it. In autumn the warm weather returns for a short while, giving rise to the name “babiye leto” (literally, “ladies’ summer”, whereas in America this period is called “Indian summer”).

8 Vladivostok – East Possessor

Vladivostok – East Possessor

The Russian Far East is comprised of ten federal districts; its largest cities are Vladivostok and Khabarovsk.

The Khabarovsk, Primorski Krai, Sakhalin, Amur Jewish districts etc.

Kamchatka, Magadan, Chukotka, Yakutia (Sakha), Koryak districts etc.

Once tigers roamed on this territory and ancient God of Sea Cucumbers ruled in shoaling waters… And now look at this beautiful city Vladivostok! Like the Greek Amphitheatre it stands out of the waters of Japanese sea. Vladivostok Hills waiting to give you breathtaking marine views and amazing panorama of the city. Even Alexander the Great dreamed to visit this place where all land roads end and marine ones begin. Indeed Vladivostok is the end of the world. The big unknown world of Russia. The heart of Russian Far East so close to Asia is beating here. You can find Russian Orthodox Churches and mysteries, Slovenian rituals mixed with Mongolian and Chinese ones. Ancient Bohay city’s ruins and mystic ritual mountain Pidan waiting for You to solve their mysteries. The nature of Far East is incredibly rich with northern and southern types of flora and fauna. You can try it’s wild taste in nature preserves. Only there you can approach to the real tigers up close or dance with funny Himalayan baby bears. The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide. Vladivostok shares the latitude with Sapporo, Sukhumi, Almaty, Florence, Marseille, A Coru?a, Boston, and Toronto. The Trans-Siberian Railway was built to connect European Russia with Vladivostok, Russia's most important Pacific Ocean port. Finished in 1905, the rail line ran from Moscow to Vladivostok via several of Russia's main cities. Part of the railroad, known as the Chinese Eastern Line, crossed over into Manchuria, China, passing through Harbin, a major city in Manchuria. Air routes connect Vladivostok International Airport with Japan; People's Republic of China; North Korea; South Korea; Vietnam.It is possible to get to Vladivostok from several of the larger cities in Russia.

9 Flora and Fauna of the Russian Far East

Flora and Fauna of the Russian Far East

10 Thank You for Your Attention

Thank You for Your Attention

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