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The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration
The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration
Introduction Several Olympic bids now have been used to regenerate
Introduction Several Olympic bids now have been used to regenerate
But are such urban flagship developments sustainable
But are such urban flagship developments sustainable
Sydneys 2000 Olympics gave a new dimension to urban regeneration:
Sydneys 2000 Olympics gave a new dimension to urban regeneration:
This is what the IOC say
This is what the IOC say
According to the IOC:
According to the IOC:
The Olympics: a major commitment
The Olympics: a major commitment
The Olympics - a major undertaking
The Olympics - a major undertaking
So  the economic agenda is strong and powerful Host cities have to be
So the economic agenda is strong and powerful Host cities have to be
Sydneys Olympic story
Sydneys Olympic story
Olympic Park 2000
Olympic Park 2000
But Homebush Bay had an industrial history that made regeneration
But Homebush Bay had an industrial history that made regeneration
Homebush Bay; its industrial history
Homebush Bay; its industrial history
Homebush Bay; its industrial history
Homebush Bay; its industrial history
Homebush Bay; its industrial history
Homebush Bay; its industrial history
Homebush Bay; its industrial history
Homebush Bay; its industrial history
Sydneys bid was all about clean-up  or remediation  of a previously
Sydneys bid was all about clean-up or remediation of a previously
The Greenpeace view of sustainability for Sydneys 2000 Olympics
The Greenpeace view of sustainability for Sydneys 2000 Olympics
So  how well did Sydney match up to its intentions
So how well did Sydney match up to its intentions
Before that  you have to do some research into 3 groups
Before that you have to do some research into 3 groups
The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration
The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration
How well did Sydney match up
How well did Sydney match up
How well did Sydney match up
How well did Sydney match up
How well did Sydney match up
How well did Sydney match up
Sydneys Olympics therefore did three things for sustainable
Sydneys Olympics therefore did three things for sustainable
But it wasnt problem-free
But it wasnt problem-free
But it wasnt problem-free
But it wasnt problem-free
And what about social benefits
And what about social benefits
And what about social benefits
And what about social benefits
So in judging socially sustainable principles, decide whether the
So in judging socially sustainable principles, decide whether the
To conclude
To conclude

: The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration. : Bob Digby. : The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration.ppt. zip-: 1420 .

The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration

The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration.ppt
1 The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration

The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration

Bob Digby University College School London

2 Introduction Several Olympic bids now have been used to regenerate

Introduction Several Olympic bids now have been used to regenerate

urban areas. Barcelona began the process in the mid-1980s, and now Londons vision for 2012 is the regeneration of one of the poorest parts of the UK. Developments like this are Usually large-scale Developed centrally by governments with a mix of private capital and government investment. Presented as projects for environmental remediation (e.g. Sydney 2000) or socio-economic regeneration (e.g. London 2012).

3 But are such urban flagship developments sustainable

But are such urban flagship developments sustainable

Properly analysed, they can us to understand how and why urban developments might be considered sustainable or not. This presentation asks whether these kinds of regeneration are successful; i.e. do they achieve what they set out to achieve? truly representative of what we mean by sustainability?

4 Sydneys 2000 Olympics gave a new dimension to urban regeneration:

Sydneys 2000 Olympics gave a new dimension to urban regeneration:

Olympic projects were seen as a way of regenerating urban areas Environmental transformation could take place in parts of Sydney that were polluted with toxic waste Sustainable principles were applied to produce Sydneys so-called Green Olympics

Greenpeace

5 This is what the IOC say

This is what the IOC say

. their criteria for sustainable development

The Olympics should provide sustainable environmental legacies, such as rehabilitated and revitalized sites, increased environmental awareness, improved environmental policies and practices, further encouragement and facilitation of strong environmental actions, technology and product development in a city, country and beyond, through the educational value of good example.

Source IOC website (2005) Mission Statement

6 According to the IOC:

According to the IOC:

To be successful, the Olympics should have environmental protection and, more importantly, sustainability as prime elements of Games planning and operations. positive legacies that last well beyond the Olympics themselves

Source IOC website (2005) Mission Statement

7 The Olympics: a major commitment

The Olympics: a major commitment

There are 7 years from the time a city is awarded the Olympics in which to prepare Schedules are tight and difficult to meet e.g. 2004 Athens Olympics The Olympics involve host cities in massive investment and expense; costs are substantial, and implications great, e.g. for mass tourism and accommodation

8 The Olympics - a major undertaking

The Olympics - a major undertaking

E.g. The 16 days of the London 2012 Games will involve - 11 000 athletes in 300 events, with 5000-6000 coaches & officials, attended by 4000-5000 other members of the Olympic community. Over 7000 sponsors. In the Paralympics alone, 4000 athletes and 2500 officials, equivalent to Manchesters Commonwealth Games in 2003. 20 000 newspaper, radio, TV, & internet journalists. Over 9 million tickets in total, and 500,000 spectators a day at events in and around London 63 000 operational personnel, of whom 47 000 will be volunteers, e.g. as stewards, marshals, and drivers.

9 So  the economic agenda is strong and powerful Host cities have to be

So the economic agenda is strong and powerful Host cities have to be

able to balance budgets; huge costs versus the revenue benefits.

Costs e.g. Land purchase, Construction of stadia, and transport infrastructure, and of hosting the Games themselves (e.g. security) Benefits Direct Revenue from ticket sales, TV rights, and company sponsorships e.g. to supply drinks or food. Indirect Land values after re-development

However, other indirect benefits may help make a profit:

E.g. tourist spending in hotels, restaurants, VAT etc

10 Sydneys Olympic story

Sydneys Olympic story

Bob Digby

11 Olympic Park 2000

Olympic Park 2000

Facilities were all together on one site; learning from mistakes made at Barcelona in 1992 where traffic congestion brought gridlock because facilities were spread over the city

Google Earth

12 But Homebush Bay had an industrial history that made regeneration

But Homebush Bay had an industrial history that made regeneration

costly and difficult

13 Homebush Bay; its industrial history

Homebush Bay; its industrial history

4 Wilsons Park a former coal gas plant, closed in the 1970s, turned into a park, but closed in the 1990s due to pollution

2 Former brickworks - an eyesore

5 worst of all, Union Carbide (Australia) had a chemical plant here heavily polluted with dioxins

1 Newington armaments Dump toxins and heavy metals

3 Olympic Stadium site was a former landfill site contaminated with household waste

Google Earth

14 Homebush Bay; its industrial history

Homebush Bay; its industrial history

Wilsons Park polluted by a former coal gas plant

Newington a former armaments dump

Bob Digby

15 Homebush Bay; its industrial history

Homebush Bay; its industrial history

Newington in 2006 - the site of a former armaments depot and toxic waste dump, described by a firm of US consultants in the early 1990s as containing the worst contamination ever seen.

16 Homebush Bay; its industrial history

Homebush Bay; its industrial history

2005 Newington suburb: the former Olympic Village

In the 1990s, dioxin pollution here was 6500x the safe limit for humans

Bob Digby

17 Sydneys bid was all about clean-up  or remediation  of a previously

Sydneys bid was all about clean-up or remediation of a previously

contaminated industrial site. One firm of US consultants described Homebush Bay in the early 1990s as the most contaminated site in the southern hemisphere Greenpeace emphasised a number of aspects of Green or sustainable development when they put together the winning bid for the 2000 Olympics. Their criteria that they used are shown in the next slide. These criteria they believe form the basis of any green development.

18 The Greenpeace view of sustainability for Sydneys 2000 Olympics

The Greenpeace view of sustainability for Sydneys 2000 Olympics

Submitted as part of a competitive design bid by Greenpeace Australia for the worlds first Green Games.

19 So  how well did Sydney match up to its intentions

So how well did Sydney match up to its intentions

The next slides consider some of the environmental, economic and social issues. Then you can decide for yourself! Were Sydneys Green principles kept to?

20 Before that  you have to do some research into 3 groups

Before that you have to do some research into 3 groups

Environmental group Type in Homebush Bay clean up into Google and follow the links especially the Greenpeace link and http://homepage.mac.com/herinst/sbeder/Search-Olympics.html Economic group: Type in economic impacts Sydney Olympics into Google and follow the links Social group: Type in social impacts Sydney Olympics into Google and follow the links Research these web links and feed back

21 The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration
22 How well did Sydney match up

How well did Sydney match up

Extract from Greenpeace Olympic Report 17 (1999)

There were real environmental success stories ..

Previously, only incineration processes could break down dioxins, often creating as much contamination as they broke down

Greenpeace

23 How well did Sydney match up

How well did Sydney match up

It had important economic impacts - 1

Source: PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2001 Evaluation)

24 How well did Sydney match up

How well did Sydney match up

It had important economic impacts - 2

Source: PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2001 Evaluation)

25 Sydneys Olympics therefore did three things for sustainable

Sydneys Olympics therefore did three things for sustainable

development The Olympics showed that it was possible to remediate polluted brownfield sites as part of the regeneration process They showed that it was possible to stick to sustainable principles and to make money at the same time; Sydneys were among the very few Olympics to make a profit c) Urban Development could stick to and develop further sustainable principles such as the use of recyclable water, use of non-toxic building materials etc. without compromising anyones standard of living

26 But it wasnt problem-free

But it wasnt problem-free

The high costs of producing the Games in Sydney meant that certain green principles might not be applied

They meant that costs would have to be met by sponsorship from large companies who might not agree with green principles

Greenpeace

27 But it wasnt problem-free

But it wasnt problem-free

Coca Cola and McDonalds were two of Sydneys biggest sponsors

28 And what about social benefits

And what about social benefits

1

Throughout recent Olympics, social issues have tended to be ignored There is clear evidence that socially vulnerable and lower income groups tend to suffer in the run-up to the Olympics. The cost of the Homebush Bay clean up forced the sale of the Olympic Village housing at market rates, rather than creating a pool of affordable housing, as initially planned. Rent increases in the suburbs closest to the Olympic Park in Sydney were higher than elsewhere, and boarding house accommodation (used in Australia for those who need secure accommodation) was re-vamped to accommodate paying backpackers instead of people who are normally housed there.

29 And what about social benefits

And what about social benefits

2

30 So in judging socially sustainable principles, decide whether the

So in judging socially sustainable principles, decide whether the

following principles are applied: Do the lowest paid have the same rights of access and opportunities as the rest of the population? 2 Have local communities been involved in deciding what happens in major flagship schemes? Will the least well off be able to benefit from, and not be sidelined by, benefits of flagship schemes? Have budgets for health and education been spent as they should have been and not been diverted into the Olympics?

31 To conclude

To conclude

In 2000, Greenpeace gave Sydney just 5 out of 10 for the way that it adhered its sustainable principles

What do you think?

What would you give?

Try the exercises and see how well Sydney scores

The Olympics and sustainable urban regeneration
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