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The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Maps of Africa
Maps of Africa
Africa
Africa
Time Line of Africa
Time Line of Africa
Major Kingdoms in West Africa
Major Kingdoms in West Africa
Songhay Empire
Songhay Empire
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Empire of Benin
Empire of Benin
Portuguese Relations with Benin
Portuguese Relations with Benin
Slavery in West Africa
Slavery in West Africa
Portuguese as Slave Traders
Portuguese as Slave Traders
Central African Kingdoms
Central African Kingdoms
King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo
King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo
King Afonso I
King Afonso I
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Queen Nzinga
Queen Nzinga
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Mutapa Empire – East Africa
Mutapa Empire – East Africa
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Most slaves in the Americas were men
Most slaves in the Americas were men
Triangle Trade and Rise of Capitalism
Triangle Trade and Rise of Capitalism
Impact of Slavery
Impact of Slavery

Презентация: «The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery». Автор: whaddad. Файл: «The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery.pptx». Размер zip-архива: 2280 КБ.

The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery

содержание презентации «The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery.pptx»
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1 The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery

The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery

Reading: Smith, et al., 491-492, 551-555, 581-609. 610-620, 818-819

2 Maps of Africa

Maps of Africa

3 Africa

Africa

Much of Africa was very wealthy and prosperous before Europeans Africans early learned Metalworking and the crafting of gold. Architecture of Africa was very impressive in some spots

4 Time Line of Africa

Time Line of Africa

6020 BCE Africans living in what is now the Congo used marks on bones to develop numeration system. 300 BCE Africans in Kenya develop a complex calendar system based on astronomical reckoning. 1290 CE. The Dogon of the Mali Kingdom plot the orbits of various universes and star systems including Sirius B.

5 Major Kingdoms in West Africa

Major Kingdoms in West Africa

Old Kingdom of Ghana Mali According to tradition founded by Sundiata Reached height under Mansa Musa (ca. 1312-1327) “Lord of the blacks of Guinea” Maybe wealthiest man in world Established centers of learning Traveller Ibn Battuta impressed by stability and court Possibility of Atlantic voyages

6 Songhay Empire

Songhay Empire

Gradually Succeeded Mali Never controlled as much trade as Mali Muhammad Touray Askia – used Islam to gain power in late 15th century– Songhay becomes Muslim state Prior to Askia’s rise, most of West Africa polytheistic—believed there were divine spirits in everything – could be mediated with rituals and sacrifices Expanded cultivation and canals Contributed to terraced rice cultivation

7 The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
8 Empire of Benin

Empire of Benin

1486 – Portuguese visit obas (rulers of Empire of Benin) Obas believed to be channel through which spirits worked in world Controlled trade and production Portuguese Negotiated with Ozolua the Conqueror, who ruled from 1480-1504

9 Portuguese Relations with Benin

Portuguese Relations with Benin

Benin believed obas descended from Olokun, god of the sea Gave Portuguese a special status because they came from the Atlantic Ozolua wanted to trade for guns and manillas (brass bracelets) Portuguese reluctant to trade guns unless population converted to Christianity Imported bracelets from Germany and Flanders to trade with Ozolua When missionaries converted Ozolua’s heir, the guns arrived and the Portuguese helped Benin fight against neighboring Oyo Temporarily powerful enough to restrict slave trade, but eventually forced to reopen it to compete with rivals, who also began to trade for guns

10 Slavery in West Africa

Slavery in West Africa

West Africans used slaves before the Portuguese Number of slaves = wealth and status Slaves taken as prisoners of war People gave others slaves to pay off debts Those caught committing crimes given to crime victims Worked in hardest labor as field hands Slaves added to lineage Most lost slave status after a number of years or because bought freedom – not a permanent status

11 Portuguese as Slave Traders

Portuguese as Slave Traders

1400s African Kings allowed Portuguese to set up trading posts—”factories”—along the coast Before 1450 – slaves so available, Portuguese began sending small numbers of slaves to Portugal 1460 – sending 500 slaves a year to Portugal 1472 – Portuguese discovered then converted Sao Tom? into sugar plantations 1500 – sending 1000 slaves a year to Portugal, others to work on sugar plantations in Azores and Spanish territories 1501 – Began sending slaves to Americas – totally changed nature of slavery – becomes almost permanent condition

12 Central African Kingdoms

Central African Kingdoms

Kongo, Ndongo, Luba and Lunda

13 King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo

King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo

Manikongo ruled kingdom as semi-divine spokesman of the gods Nkuwu/Nzinga was baptised King Jo?o I Constructed Church with Portuguese workers and architects Urged Conversions to Christianity Invited Portuguese assistance to build up army Much exchange with Portugal Had reverted to African beliefs at death in 1509

14 King Afonso I

King Afonso I

C. 1509, In struggle for power, Nzinga Mbemba converted and became King Afonso I – supposedly defeated rival when massive number of soldiers had a vision of Santiago (Saint James) Began using Portuguese language in court Used Portuguese mercenaries in expansion of empire Wealthy Kongolese went to Portugal for education One Kongolese became an Archbishop Controlled slave trade and owned thousands of slaves himself But trade in slaves overwhelmed him, as much of kingdom devoted all energies to capturing slaves to supply Portuguese – eventually led to civil wars and decline but not until end of 17th century

15 The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
16 Queen Nzinga

Queen Nzinga

Ndongo was ruled by Queen Nzinga from 1623-1663 Sometime in 1640s, announced she would become a man Wanted her subjects to call her king Had multiple husbands she required to dress as women and live as concubines At first converted to Christianity to get Portuguese help, then renounced both the faith and the Portuguese, then returned to both An effective military leader who consolidated power Ruthless and calculating, probably used Portuguese more than they used her Succeeded by sister Barbara Women continued to rule Ndongo for 75 of 100 years after Nzinga’s death

17 The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
18 Mutapa Empire – East Africa

Mutapa Empire – East Africa

Mutapa Empire controlled gold fields of Great Zimbabwe Mwene Mutapa facing external and internal threats, calls on the Portuguese Offered them rights to trade, mines, the right to build churches By 1607, the Portuguese controlled all the gold, copper, and iron of the empire as well as all trade With Portuguese encouragement, Muslims persecuted

19 The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
20 Most slaves in the Americas were men

Most slaves in the Americas were men

Why?

Theory 1: Europeans only think men good for labor. Theory 2: Africans want to keep women for labor Coastal Chiefs in West Africa begin to trade slaves for guns.

21 Triangle Trade and Rise of Capitalism

Triangle Trade and Rise of Capitalism

Portuguese central to slave trade before Spanish With Portuguese weakness, Spain monopolizes slave trade—the Asiento 1714 – End of War of Spanish Succession, England wins Asiento Question: How important is slave trade to rise of European countries, especially England?

22 Impact of Slavery

Impact of Slavery

Impact in West Africa: More men than women—polygamy Interior chiefs decline in power Coastal Chiefs thrive, often with Portuguese help Portuguese provide guns Portuguese train soldiers Active trade with Portugal Influence of Christianity extensive Economies begin long decline

Impact in East Africa: Chinese wanted slaves for prostitution Most slaves were women Portuguese wreck, destroy, kill enemies/rivals Invited into Mutapa Empire and get control of gold and slaves Much political instability, economic disorder

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