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The Spanish in the New World
The Spanish in the New World
The Spanish in the New World
The Spanish in the New World
Spain before the New World
Spain before the New World
Isabella and Ferdinand
Isabella and Ferdinand
Castile, Aragon, and Granada
Castile, Aragon, and Granada
Cristobel Colon
Cristobel Colon
Columbus and the Caribbean
Columbus and the Caribbean
Hispaniola
Hispaniola
Sites investigated span the period from 1493–1821:
Sites investigated span the period from 1493–1821:
Social Processes of Spanish New World
Social Processes of Spanish New World
En Bas Saline (la Navidad) 1492
En Bas Saline (la Navidad) 1492
En Bas Saline – Taino food
En Bas Saline – Taino food
En Bas Saline – Taino food
En Bas Saline – Taino food
En Bas Saline – Taino material culture
En Bas Saline – Taino material culture
La Isabela (1493–1498)
La Isabela (1493–1498)
La Isabela (1493–1498)
La Isabela (1493–1498)
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Concepci
Importance of community
Importance of community
General patterns of Spanish –native interaction
General patterns of Spanish –native interaction
Puerto Real, Haiti 1503-1578 A coastal cattle-ranching town
Puerto Real, Haiti 1503-1578 A coastal cattle-ranching town
Puerto Real, Haiti
Puerto Real, Haiti
Puerto Real, Haiti
Puerto Real, Haiti
Puerto Real, Haiti: the church
Puerto Real, Haiti: the church
Puerto Real, Haiti
Puerto Real, Haiti
Puerto Real, Haiti
Puerto Real, Haiti
Scarcity of Spanish women in early colonies
Scarcity of Spanish women in early colonies
St
St
St
St
Boazio map of St
Boazio map of St
St Augustine Men
St Augustine Men
St Augustine: Fountain of Youth site
St Augustine: Fountain of Youth site
St Augustine: Ximenez-Fatio House
St Augustine: Ximenez-Fatio House
Ximenez-Fatio Site: 17th-18th-century house
Ximenez-Fatio Site: 17th-18th-century house
Ximenez-Fatio Site – pottery and glass
Ximenez-Fatio Site – pottery and glass
Ximenez-Fatio Site - Artifacts
Ximenez-Fatio Site - Artifacts

Презентация: «The Spanish in the New World». Автор: Department of Marketing and Communications. Файл: «The Spanish in the New World.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 3569 КБ.

The Spanish in the New World

содержание презентации «The Spanish in the New World.ppt»
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1 The Spanish in the New World

The Spanish in the New World

2 The Spanish in the New World
3 Spain before the New World

Spain before the New World

15th C Spain multi-ethnic (had been colonized by Romans, Visigoths, Arabs) Reconquista – war to reclaim agricultural land from the invading Moors had raged for 700 years, sharpening military skills Spain emerged as unified political entity in 1469, with marriage of Isabella, sister of King Henry IV of Castile, to Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Aragon Expansionist policies began in late 1470s, with colonization of Canaries Islands (conquistadors given rights: 10% of booty and land) License granted to Genoese navigator Cristobel Colon in 1492, to sail to the Indies Diverted attention away from conquest of Muslim North Africa

4 Isabella and Ferdinand

Isabella and Ferdinand

5 Castile, Aragon, and Granada

Castile, Aragon, and Granada

6 Cristobel Colon

Cristobel Colon

7 Columbus and the Caribbean

Columbus and the Caribbean

8 Hispaniola

Hispaniola

9 Sites investigated span the period from 1493–1821:

Sites investigated span the period from 1493–1821:

In Caribbean: En Bas Saline (La Navidad) (1492) La Isabela (1493–1498) Concepci?n de la Vega (1498–1562) Puerto Real (1503–1578) In Florida: St. Augustine (1565–1821)

10 Social Processes of Spanish New World

Social Processes of Spanish New World

Multi-ethnic diversity Interaction Conflict Accommodation These processes occur in all situations of invasion & encounter

11 En Bas Saline (la Navidad) 1492

En Bas Saline (la Navidad) 1492

12 En Bas Saline – Taino food

En Bas Saline – Taino food

mostly ate sea- fish and shellfish for protein, but also hutias small guinea piglike rodents

13 En Bas Saline – Taino food

En Bas Saline – Taino food

plants cultivated by the Ta?no included manioc tubers, also corn, peppers, beans, guava, primrose

14 En Bas Saline – Taino material culture

En Bas Saline – Taino material culture

15 La Isabela (1493–1498)

La Isabela (1493–1498)

‘the first intentional European colonial town in the New World’

Columbus house

16 La Isabela (1493–1498)

La Isabela (1493–1498)

‘The overall stylistic character of La Isabela’s material world was strongly medieval and strongly Morisco (Spanish Muslim) with medieval Muslim traditions evident in building construction, personal ornamentation, pottery forms and decoration, horse equipment, medicine, lighting, and sanitation’ Deagan and Cruxent 2002

17 Concepci

Concepci

n de la Vega, Dominican Republic 1496-1562 ‘a gold-rush boom town’

18 Concepci

Concepci

n de la Vega, Dominican Republic

Built as small fort by Columbus in 1496 Intended to guard route to gold mines of Cibao valley Spanish settlement gradually grew up here & the town experienced a gold-rush boom after 1508 By 1510 was one of the largest & most important European cities in the hemisphere; destroyed & buried by earthquake in 1562 Excavations have exposed remains of several stone buildings, including fort with tower, water system, remains of monastery, & home sites

19 Concepci

Concepci

n de la Vega, Dominican Republic

Thorough survey & mapping has defined the bounds of the city

20 Concepci

Concepci

n de la Vega, Dominican Republic

Rumbler bells. top - copper alloy cascabeles (hawk’s bells) below – petaloid crotal bells AD 1500-1562

Ceramic lion shaped from a child’s footprint

21 Concepci

Concepci

n de la Vega, Dominican Republic

Copper alloy chain-mail links and belt-clasp AD 1500-1560

22 Concepci

Concepci

n de la Vega, Dominican Republic

Copper alloy candle sticks (northern European), iron candle snuffer, Italian majolica plate (AD 1500-1560), Venetian-style glassware

23 Importance of community

Importance of community

After the disasters of La Navidad & La Isabela (earliest unplanned colonies) the Spanish crown sought to impose city planning ordinances. Laws of the Indies published in 1573. These laws imposed principals of regularity & hierarchy and led to highly organized & militaristic towns Possible influences? ancient Roman colonization strategy Spanish experience in the Canary Islands Centrality of Church & State visibly manifested in location on central plaza, with homes of elite ranged nearby, those of lesser sort living beyond the town centre

24 General patterns of Spanish –native interaction

General patterns of Spanish –native interaction

Replicated to varying degrees at nearly all post-15th-century Spanish colonial sites in the Caribbean, Florida, and Mexico, regardless of social, economic, or ethnic affiliations Certain elements of Spanish life were retained intact Spanish adopted & incorporated native American elements in other areas Developed new, syncretistic material forms in yet other areas

25 Puerto Real, Haiti 1503-1578 A coastal cattle-ranching town

Puerto Real, Haiti 1503-1578 A coastal cattle-ranching town

regular grid pattern organization concentration of governmental and religious authority in the central plaza -spatial segregation of differing residential status groups and production activities

26 Puerto Real, Haiti

Puerto Real, Haiti

At its peak in the second decade of the 16th century occupied by more than 300 Spaniards and 1000 unfree Indian labourers The town was forcibly abandoned and destroyed (after 75 years,) in 1578 on the orders of the Spanish Crown, due to persistent illegal trade with foreign traders and pirates

27 Puerto Real, Haiti

Puerto Real, Haiti

Archaeologists have investigated the church complex, a high-status household, lesser households, & a production area (cattle processing for hide trade) Results show differentiation in architecture among households High status had masonry foundations, were arranged in linear plan around or adjacent to a patio Lesser households tended to live in two-room plan houses of post-in-the-ground construction

Criollo cow

28 Puerto Real, Haiti: the church

Puerto Real, Haiti: the church

29 Puerto Real, Haiti

Puerto Real, Haiti

Lace bobbins (ca. 1540-1575) Haiti , Puerto Real

Unicorn pendant (ca. 1550-1570) Haiti , Puerto Real

Columbia Plain majolica (ca. 1550-1585) Haiti , Puerto Real

30 Puerto Real, Haiti

Puerto Real, Haiti

The material assemblage from Puerto Real is distinct from that at La Isabella, both in the diversity of its origins and in the relative scarcity of medieval and Islamic influences elements (more Italian and Dutch wares) Cooking pots hand-made and non-European in style Diets also changed – lots of beef eaten – as opposed to Spanish liking for fish, sheep, goat, and less reliance on imports. Local food sources used: fish turtles, manioc

31 Scarcity of Spanish women in early colonies

Scarcity of Spanish women in early colonies

Led to intermarriage between Spanish men & native American women Native elements predominate in female domestic activities Socially visible symbols associated with males (e.g., clothing, ornamentation, tablewares, & architecture) remain predominantly European

32 St

St

Augustine, Florida

33 St

St

Augustine, Florida

Established by Pedro Men?ndez de Aviles in 1565 Served as northernmost outpost of Spanish empire after fall of Santa Elena in 1587 Was largely a garrison town at first Settlement was made within a town already populated by Timucua Indians, led by Secoy Excavations have been carried out throughout the town for over 30 years, at sites across the spectrum of cultures & historical periods, including military, domestic, religious, &c., and ranging from 16th-19th centuries in date

34 Boazio map of St

Boazio map of St

Augustine AD 1586

35 St Augustine Men

St Augustine Men

ndez camp

The first thanksgiving feast in the U.S. was on September 8, 1565. The meal probably included corn, fish, oysters, venison, garbanzo beans, hardtack biscuit, olives and wine, prepared and eaten using Spanish - and perhaps Indian- utensils.

36 St Augustine: Fountain of Youth site

St Augustine: Fountain of Youth site

37 St Augustine: Ximenez-Fatio House

St Augustine: Ximenez-Fatio House

38 Ximenez-Fatio Site: 17th-18th-century house

Ximenez-Fatio Site: 17th-18th-century house

39 Ximenez-Fatio Site – pottery and glass

Ximenez-Fatio Site – pottery and glass

Guadalajara Polychrome (ca. 1650-1800)

16th century Spanish majolica (ca. 1585-1650)

Glass vial or perfume bottle (ca. 1650-1700)

40 Ximenez-Fatio Site - Artifacts

Ximenez-Fatio Site - Artifacts

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