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The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an
The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an
Overview
Overview
Health Inequalities and Government (1)
Health Inequalities and Government (1)
Health Inequalities and Government (2)
Health Inequalities and Government (2)
Health Inequalities and Government (3)
Health Inequalities and Government (3)
Social Class based on Occupation
Social Class based on Occupation
The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an
The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an
Health Inequalities and Government (4)
Health Inequalities and Government (4)
Problems with RGSC (1)
Problems with RGSC (1)
Problems with RGSC (2)
Problems with RGSC (2)
Registrar Generals Social Classes
Registrar Generals Social Classes
Registrar Generals Social Classes
Registrar Generals Social Classes
Tasks for ESRC Review
Tasks for ESRC Review
Conceptual basis for the NS-SEC (Goldthorpe)
Conceptual basis for the NS-SEC (Goldthorpe)
The Derivation of the NS-SEC
The Derivation of the NS-SEC
Typical elements of the Labour Contract
Typical elements of the Labour Contract
Typical elements of the Service Relationship
Typical elements of the Service Relationship
Dimensions of work as sources of contractual hazard
Dimensions of work as sources of contractual hazard
Dimensions of work as sources of contractual hazard, forms of contract
Dimensions of work as sources of contractual hazard, forms of contract
The Derivation of the NS-SEC
The Derivation of the NS-SEC
The NS-SEC
The NS-SEC
NS-SEC 8-Class by Sex, Aged 16-74, Census 2001
NS-SEC 8-Class by Sex, Aged 16-74, Census 2001
Categories of the Operational Version of the NS-SEC
Categories of the Operational Version of the NS-SEC
Collapsing the Operational Version
Collapsing the Operational Version
Summary (1)
Summary (1)
Summary (2)
Summary (2)
Creating the NS-SEC
Creating the NS-SEC
The NS-SEC Derivation Matrix
The NS-SEC Derivation Matrix
Reduced & Simplified versions of NS-SEC
Reduced & Simplified versions of NS-SEC
Validation studies
Validation studies
Criterion validation
Criterion validation
Construct validation
Construct validation
Table 8.6: SMRs by NS-SEC for Our Healthier Nation causes of death,
Table 8.6: SMRs by NS-SEC for Our Healthier Nation causes of death,
Hazard ratios for mortality 1986-1995 by NS-SEC
Hazard ratios for mortality 1986-1995 by NS-SEC
Figure 8.2: SMRs by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64, England and Wales 1991-93
Figure 8.2: SMRs by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64, England and Wales 1991-93
Figure 8.4: Age-specific mortality rates by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64,
Figure 8.4: Age-specific mortality rates by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64,
Table 8.8: Stillbirth and infant mortality rates by NS-SEC, England
Table 8.8: Stillbirth and infant mortality rates by NS-SEC, England
Table 9.5: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of low birth
Table 9.5: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of low birth
Table 10
Table 10
Table 10
Table 10
Causal narratives (1)
Causal narratives (1)
Causal narratives (2)
Causal narratives (2)
Causal narratives (3)
Causal narratives (3)
The Whitehall Studies
The Whitehall Studies
Advantages of the NS-SEC
Advantages of the NS-SEC
Possible ESeC Classes (Level 1)
Possible ESeC Classes (Level 1)
The conceptual derivation of ESeC
The conceptual derivation of ESeC
Underlying ESeC Socio-economic Groups (Level 2)
Underlying ESeC Socio-economic Groups (Level 2)

: The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an Illustration of its Uses in Research on Health Inequalities. : S1505. : The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an Illustration of its Uses in Research on Health Inequalities.ppt. zip-: 704 .

The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an Illustration of its Uses in Research on Health Inequalities

The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an Illustration of its Uses in Research on Health Inequalities.ppt
1 The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an

The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an

Illustration of its Uses in Research on Health Inequalities

David Rose Institute for Social and Economic Research University of Essex

2 Overview

Overview

UK Government and health inequalities The ESRC Review of Government SECs Conceptual basis of NS-SEC (4) Criterion validation of NS-SEC (5) Construct validation of NS-SEC in relation to health data

3 Health Inequalities and Government (1)

Health Inequalities and Government (1)

Measuring and monitoring socio-economic differentials in mortality and other health inequalities in the UK has been a key part of the work of the office responsible for the registration of deaths since the establishment of the General Register Office (GRO) in 1837. The GRO has since been subsumed within the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and it is now ONS that carries on the tradition of reporting on health variations today. This role continues to be of major importance as health inequalities are as much a public health issue today as they were 170 years ago, when the GRO was set up.

4 Health Inequalities and Government (2)

Health Inequalities and Government (2)

The earliest analyses of mortality differences were undertaken by reference to occupation and industry. However, from the beginning of the twentieth century, the development of RGSC gave a clearer framework for identifying and understanding health differentials within the population.

5 Health Inequalities and Government (3)

Health Inequalities and Government (3)

It was demonstrated that there was a class gradient in health in particular in mortality rates and despite the creation of the National Health Service in 1948, class inequalities in health and life expectancy have persisted. Overall, those in partly skilled and unskilled occupations in RGSC IV and V had far higher mortality rates and lower life expectancy than those in professional and managerial occupations in Classes I and II.

6 Social Class based on Occupation

Social Class based on Occupation

I Professional occupations II Managerial and technical occupations IIIN Skilled occupations, non-manual IIIM Skilled occupations, manual IV Partly skilled occupations V Unskilled occupations

7 The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an
8 Health Inequalities and Government (4)

Health Inequalities and Government (4)

The Acheson Inquiry 1998 The weight of scientific evidence supports a socio-economic explanation of health inequalities. The research task is to trace the paths from social structure, represented by SES, through to inequalities in health. Health inequalities are the outcome of causal chains which run back into and from the basic structure of society.

9 Problems with RGSC (1)

Problems with RGSC (1)

No coherent conceptual basis

Therefore:

Difficult to interpret in use Difficult to maintain

10 Problems with RGSC (2)

Problems with RGSC (2)

Use outmoded industrial distinctions

Skill Manual/Non-manual divide

11 Registrar Generals Social Classes

Registrar Generals Social Classes

Simon Szreter (1984)

The RGSC might best be classified as a pseudo-analytical construction. (It never had any relationship to) a recognised, coherent and examinable body of social theory.

(The propositions that underlie RGSC are those) of nineteenth century anthropometric and biometric science, only with the explicit commitment to a naturalistic and hereditarian theory of ultimate explanation removed.

12 Registrar Generals Social Classes

Registrar Generals Social Classes

RGSC is the Crude Inequality Index.

Simon Szreter (1984)

13 Tasks for ESRC Review

Tasks for ESRC Review

To create a single occupationally-based SEC which would be:

Clear conceptually Analytically transparent Thus easy to maintain and interpret Nested Bridgeable to RGSC Applicable to a wide range of data

14 Conceptual basis for the NS-SEC (Goldthorpe)

Conceptual basis for the NS-SEC (Goldthorpe)

Employment relations and conditions are central to delineating the structure of socio-economic positions in modern societies

15 The Derivation of the NS-SEC

The Derivation of the NS-SEC

16 Typical elements of the Labour Contract

Typical elements of the Labour Contract

Short-term exchange of money for effort Payment by the time or piece No occupational pension or health scheme Contract easily terminated Low level of job security

17 Typical elements of the Service Relationship

Typical elements of the Service Relationship

Long-term exchange of service for compensation Greater job security and employability Salary Incremental or similar payment systems Occupational pension and health schemes Greater control over the job and thus trust between employer and employee

18 Dimensions of work as sources of contractual hazard

Dimensions of work as sources of contractual hazard

Specificity of human assets

high

Difficulty of monitoring

low

high

low

19 Dimensions of work as sources of contractual hazard, forms of contract

Dimensions of work as sources of contractual hazard, forms of contract

and class locations

Specificity of human assets

high

Difficulty of monitoring

low

high

low

1

5

Service relationship

mixed

mixed

Labour contract

3

7

20 The Derivation of the NS-SEC

The Derivation of the NS-SEC

(1.1) (1,2,4) (4) (1.1,1.2,2) (3,5) (6,7) (8) (8)

21 The NS-SEC

The NS-SEC

1 Higher managerial and professional occupations (1.1 Large employers and higher managerial) (1.2 Higher professional) 2 Lower managerial and professional occupations

3 Intermediate occupations 4 Small employers and own account workers 5 Lower supervisory and technical occupations 6 Semi-routine occupations 7 Routine occupations 8 Never worked and long-term unemployed

22 NS-SEC 8-Class by Sex, Aged 16-74, Census 2001

NS-SEC 8-Class by Sex, Aged 16-74, Census 2001

23 Categories of the Operational Version of the NS-SEC

Categories of the Operational Version of the NS-SEC

24 Collapsing the Operational Version

Collapsing the Operational Version

The 34 categories and sub-categories may be collapsed into

a nine class variable an eight class variable (the official NS-SEC) a seven class variable a five class variable a three class variable

25 Summary (1)

Summary (1)

NS-SEC is first a conceptual construction (hence NS-SEC is a schema) To operationalise the schema we need an algorithm to a detailed set of occupation-by-employment status units

26 Summary (2)

Summary (2)

How well the NS-SEC schema is operationalised depends upon two things:

(a) how closely the basic occupational and employment status classifications available map onto the categories of the NS-SEC (i.e. adequacy of the derivation matrix) (b) how much information is available relevant to the construction of the algorithm linking these classifications to the schema (i.e. issues of criterion validity)

27 Creating the NS-SEC

Creating the NS-SEC

Data required on

occupation employment status establishment size

These then linked via the NSSEC derivation matrix of OUG by ES units to NSSEC classes

28 The NS-SEC Derivation Matrix

The NS-SEC Derivation Matrix

29 Reduced & Simplified versions of NS-SEC

Reduced & Simplified versions of NS-SEC

Reduced NS-SEC - if no information on establishment size Simplified NS-SEC - if data only on occupation

30 Validation studies

Validation studies

(a) CRITERION VALIDATION Do measures of employment relations discriminate between the categories of the NS-SEC? (b) CONSTRUCT VALIDATION How well does the NS-SEC explain variance in theoretically relevant dependent variables?

31 Criterion validation

Criterion validation

1 form of remuneration 2 career opportunities 3 autonomy with regard to time

MEASURES OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS

Three conceptually separable respects in which employment relations are differentiated according to whether a service relationship or labour contract prevails

32 Construct validation

Construct validation

NS-SEC and Health Data NS-SEC and Labour Market Data

33 Table 8.6: SMRs by NS-SEC for Our Healthier Nation causes of death,

Table 8.6: SMRs by NS-SEC for Our Healthier Nation causes of death,

men aged 20-64, England and Wales 1991-93

34 Hazard ratios for mortality 1986-1995 by NS-SEC

Hazard ratios for mortality 1986-1995 by NS-SEC

35 Figure 8.2: SMRs by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64, England and Wales 1991-93

Figure 8.2: SMRs by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64, England and Wales 1991-93

36 Figure 8.4: Age-specific mortality rates by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64,

Figure 8.4: Age-specific mortality rates by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64,

England and Wales 1991-93

37 Table 8.8: Stillbirth and infant mortality rates by NS-SEC, England

Table 8.8: Stillbirth and infant mortality rates by NS-SEC, England

and Wales, 1996

38 Table 9.5: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of low birth

Table 9.5: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of low birth

weight and very low birth weight for classes of the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification for live, singleton births within marriage 1996-98 England and Wales (n=114,382)

39 Table 10

Table 10

3: Logistic regression odds ratios of NS-SEC inequalities in health for men and women aged 18-59: separating the long-term unemployed and never worked

40 Table 10

Table 10

4: Logistic regression odds ratios of NS-SEC inequalities in health for men and women aged 18-59: classifying the long-term unemployed by last main occupation

41 Causal narratives (1)

Causal narratives (1)

NS-SEC offers not improved statistical associations over other SES measures, but the possibility of explaining the associations we find; NS-SEC is measuring employment relations and conditions, i.e. aspects of the work situation and the employment contract.

42 Causal narratives (2)

Causal narratives (2)

So we can construct causal narratives which specify how the NS-SEC links to a range of outcomes via a variety of intervening variables; Not the case for the former government SECs, since it is not clear what they measure. They may show statistical associations with dependent variables of interest, but they do not lend themselves to causal explanations. Same for e.g. housing tenure, car access etc.

43 Causal narratives (3)

Causal narratives (3)

One of the major uses of SECs has been in studies of fertility, morbidity and mortality, i.e. as a means of obtaining a macro or societal perspective on these issues; NS-SEC defines structural positions which can be seen conceptually to exist independently of the individuals who occupy those positions at any particular time. The positions condition and shape the lives of their occupants; We are therefore linking health with social organisation or social structure.

44 The Whitehall Studies

The Whitehall Studies

The Whitehall Studies: growing evidence that the amounts of control and autonomy a person has at work are important factors in explaining heart disease; The prospective perspective associated with secure, career employment among top managers and professionals is associated with greater control and autonomy at work, more self-esteem, greater self-care with regard to factors such as diet and exercise, more choice over medical treatment and so on.

45 Advantages of the NS-SEC

Advantages of the NS-SEC

Conceptually clear and rigorous Simple to create Flexible in use Improved classification of women Easier to maintain Better explanatory tool

46 Possible ESeC Classes (Level 1)

Possible ESeC Classes (Level 1)

Large employers, higher managerial and professional occupations Lower managerial and professional occupations Intermediate occupations Small employers and own account workers Self-employed in agriculture etc Lower supervisory and technician occupations Lower services etc occupations Lower technical occupations Routine occupations Never worked and long-term unemployed

47 The conceptual derivation of ESeC

The conceptual derivation of ESeC

48 Underlying ESeC Socio-economic Groups (Level 2)

Underlying ESeC Socio-economic Groups (Level 2)

11. Employers (other than in agriculture) with 10+ employees 12. Farmers with full-time employees (or large business farmers) 13. Higher managerial occupations 14. Higher professional occupations (employees) 15. Self-employed professional occupations

Class 1 Large employers, higher managerial and professional occupations

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