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The World of Androids
The World of Androids
Overview
Overview
What is a Robot
What is a Robot
The RUR Robot
The RUR Robot
The World of Androids
The World of Androids
The World of Androids - contd
The World of Androids - contd
Development Issues
Development Issues
Dealing with the Challenges
Dealing with the Challenges
Approach towards their Working
Approach towards their Working
Example of an Android Design
Example of an Android Design
Kismet’s Expressions
Kismet’s Expressions
Another example of an Android being built by a company
Another example of an Android being built by a company
Another example of an Android being built by a company – contd
Another example of an Android being built by a company – contd
Some In-Process Android Projects
Some In-Process Android Projects
Popular Androids & their Developers
Popular Androids & their Developers
Advantages of Androids
Advantages of Androids
Future of Androids & Fears
Future of Androids & Fears
References
References

Презентация: «The World of Androids». Автор: Preferred Customer. Файл: «The World of Androids.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 1091 КБ.

The World of Androids

содержание презентации «The World of Androids.ppt»
СлайдТекст
1 The World of Androids

The World of Androids

Presented by: Shipra Gupta CSC 650

2 Overview

Overview

Brief introduction of robots & their history Advent of androids Issues and challenges Dealing with challenges Approach of their working Detailed examples Some in-process android projects Popular androids and main industries using them Advantages of androids Future and fears of androids

3 What is a Robot

What is a Robot

Common Definition: A programmable machine that imitates the actions or appearance of an intelligent creature – usually a human. Should be able to do two things: Get information from its surroundings Do something physical Modern industrial robots have been around for less than 50 years. First programmable Robot was developed in 1954 by George Devol - Coined the name of the first Robot Company, “Unimation”. Since then they are: - Painting cars at Ford plants - Assembling Milano cookies for Pepperidge Farms - Driving trains in Paris - Defusing bombs in Northern Ireland

4 The RUR Robot

The RUR Robot

During early studies of literature and fiction, Asimov stated 3 laws: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law (A zeroth law was added later as an extension of Law 1)

Robot comes from the Czech word “robota”

Described fabricated workers in a fictional 1920s play called Rossum’s Universal Robots

5 The World of Androids

The World of Androids

Basis of Androids High demand to do tedious and dangerous tasks Advent of faster and cheaper processors Make robots move and "think" to look more like humans Psycological factors These facts have gave birth to ANDROIDS. Definition: An android is an anthropomorphic robot - Looks like a human - Known as "humanoids"

6 The World of Androids - contd

The World of Androids - contd

First Android: WABOT-1 by Waseda University (1973)

Had a limb control system, a vision system, and a conversation system. Could communicate in Japanese. Measured distances and directions Walked with his lower limbs Gripped and transported objects

7 Development Issues

Development Issues

Operational Challenges

Design challenges The need to coordinate sensors and artificial muscle Intelligent programming Efficient use of power

Need to create complex robot step-by-step - Develop separate technologies and integrate them together Not foolproof to operate Difficult to program a robot to walk To rely upon built-in operating systems to run To be designed for a novice user Lack of sufficient funds

8 Dealing with the Challenges

Dealing with the Challenges

Severe shortcomings of contemporary approach leads to: Inventions of newer concepts of development Used to “fight the establishment” Solve many serious problems Gains followers General ideas followed to deal with the challenges are: More software innovations required Move to cell manufacturing systems Develop new programming language Design new operating system if required

9 Approach towards their Working

Approach towards their Working

Use of rule-based logic in robotic "brains” (eg. Aibo, the pet dog) - Program vast amounts of information Neural networks is another approach to artificial intelligence (eg. Kismet) - Work more like human brain - Can handle ambiguity better than rule-based systems. - Feature of "learning" - a helpful tool to add more human-like behaviors. Stimulus-response mechanism (also known as subsumption architecture, eg. Cog) - No memory or logical decision making - Hard-wired responses to stimulation

10 Example of an Android Design

Example of an Android Design

Taking the example of KISMET, an android with facial expressions and emotions built at MIT, by Dr Cynthia Brenzeal. Had head with jaws Eyes had color CCD camera Small motors to move facial features A network of 3 integrated circuits: - Control - Perception - Attention Required special software. 3 drives are: - Social drive - Stimulation drive - Fatigue drive

11 Kismet’s Expressions

Kismet’s Expressions

Calm Interest Angry

Happy Sad Surprise

12 Another example of an Android being built by a company

Another example of an Android being built by a company

“Asimo” is built by Honda (2 years old). Stands for Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility Small and light weight Walks naturally Arms move dynamically Fingers are delicate Walk up & down the stairs Flexible body parts Make registered gestures High-tech control processor - Developed on its own - 3 times better than current PCs processors

“Asimo” and friend

13 Another example of an Android being built by a company – contd

Another example of an Android being built by a company – contd

Latest version of “Asimo” can: Turn its head to follow moves Recognizes preprogrammed faces Respond with vocal welcome Respond to couple of gestures

14 Some In-Process Android Projects

Some In-Process Android Projects

“Robonaut” - NASA’s space android (2.5 years old)

“Johnie”- Institute for Applied “Coco”, a baby gorilla project Mechanics at the Technical at MIT University of Munich (TUM)

15 Popular Androids & their Developers

Popular Androids & their Developers

Industries using Androids

Defense Underwater and Geological Explorations Space Projects of NASA Nuclear and Chemical Laboratories Hospitals Tourism and Entertainment Toys

Cog, built at MIT, can learn to recognize and grasp objects Working as tour guides Toy companies have started selling pet animals like robots Dante, a spider-like robot serves geologists

16 Advantages of Androids

Advantages of Androids

In general: Perform automated tasks to save on labor One of the factors contributing to higher levels of productivity Personalization and Ease of Use: Not only an appliance/machine Better acceptance by humans Provides personal touch Can be used for domestic mundane tasks Self explanatory repair mechanism

17 Future of Androids & Fears

Future of Androids & Fears

Can build itself - cost effectiveness Can rapidly become super intelligent Can become a rival to automobile industry Estimation: - 10% US homes will have android within 12 years - 50% will within 20 years Will androids be dangerous as portrayed in Hollywood Movies? Though nothing can be sure unless we work with them. But positive assumptions state that: - Androids will have built in (software) protection (Asimov's first law) - Androids don't need money or food or possessions or clothes which can drive them to hurt - They are designed to serve humans & not hurt them

18 References

References

www.androidworld.com www.thetech.org www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/ kismet/kismet.html Journals on “Artificial Intelligence: Androids” in Reinert Library Database

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