Английская грамматика
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Types of Forming Words
Types of Forming Words
1. TYPES OF FORMING WORDS
1. TYPES OF FORMING WORDS
1.1. Main Types of Forming Words
1.1. Main Types of Forming Words
1.2. Minor Types of Forming Words
1.2. Minor Types of Forming Words
blending is the formation of a new word by combining parts of two
blending is the formation of a new word by combining parts of two
sound-interchange is the formation of a word due to an alteration in
sound-interchange is the formation of a word due to an alteration in
Sound imitation (or onomatopoeia) is the naming of an action or a
Sound imitation (or onomatopoeia) is the naming of an action or a
back-formation is the formation of a new word by subtracting a real or
back-formation is the formation of a new word by subtracting a real or
2. Word-formation as the Subject of Study
2. Word-formation as the Subject of Study
Word-formation may be studied:
Word-formation may be studied:
3. AFFIXATION
3. AFFIXATION
Degrees of Derivation
Degrees of Derivation
Affixation=suffixation+prefixation
Affixation=suffixation+prefixation
Affixation is subdivided into suffixation and prefixation
Affixation is subdivided into suffixation and prefixation
Prefixal-suffixal derivatives:
Prefixal-suffixal derivatives:
Suffixation is mostly characteristic of noun and adjective formation
Suffixation is mostly characteristic of noun and adjective formation
Suffixes as a rule function in any one part of speech often forming a
Suffixes as a rule function in any one part of speech often forming a
3.1. SUFFIXATION
3.1. SUFFIXATION
Suffixes can be classified into different types in accordance with
Suffixes can be classified into different types in accordance with
According to the part of speech formed suffixes fall into several
According to the part of speech formed suffixes fall into several
Semantically suffixes fall into: Monosemantic:the suffix -ess has only
Semantically suffixes fall into: Monosemantic:the suffix -ess has only
According to their generalizing denotational meaning suffixes may fall
According to their generalizing denotational meaning suffixes may fall
According to their stylistic reference suffixes may be classified into
According to their stylistic reference suffixes may be classified into
3.2. PREFIXATION
3.2. PREFIXATION
Prefixes can be classified according to different principles
Prefixes can be classified according to different principles
According to the class of words they preferably form prefixes are
According to the class of words they preferably form prefixes are
Semantically prefixes fall into: Monosemantic: the prefix ex- has only
Semantically prefixes fall into: Monosemantic: the prefix ex- has only
According to their generalizing denotational meaning prefixes fall
According to their generalizing denotational meaning prefixes fall
According to their stylistic reference prefixes fall into: those
According to their stylistic reference prefixes fall into: those
4. PRODUCTIVE AND NON-PRODUCTIVE AFFIXES
4. PRODUCTIVE AND NON-PRODUCTIVE AFFIXES
Some productive affixes
Some productive affixes
Some non-productive suffixes:
Some non-productive suffixes:
The productivity of an affix should not be confused with its frequency
The productivity of an affix should not be confused with its frequency
Etymology of Derivational Affixes:
Etymology of Derivational Affixes:
Origin of Derivational Affixes
Origin of Derivational Affixes
Adjective-forming affixes:
Adjective-forming affixes:
Verb-forming affixes
Verb-forming affixes
Latin
Latin
Greek
Greek
French
French
Hybrids
Hybrids
VALENCY OF AFFIXES AND BASES
VALENCY OF AFFIXES AND BASES
Valency of bases
Valency of bases
Valency
Valency
Summary and Conclusions
Summary and Conclusions
As a subject of study English word-formation is that branch of English
As a subject of study English word-formation is that branch of English
There are two types of word-formation in Modern English:
There are two types of word-formation in Modern English:
There are minor types of word-formation: shortening, blending,
There are minor types of word-formation: shortening, blending,
Affixation (prefixation and suffixation) is the formation of words by
Affixation (prefixation and suffixation) is the formation of words by
There are quite a number of polysemantic, homonymous and synonymous
There are quite a number of polysemantic, homonymous and synonymous
Classifications of derivational affixes are based on different
Classifications of derivational affixes are based on different
The productivity of derivational affixes is relative and conditioned
The productivity of derivational affixes is relative and conditioned
Many of the Modern English derivational affixes were at one time
Many of the Modern English derivational affixes were at one time
The degree of productivity and factors favouring it make an important
The degree of productivity and factors favouring it make an important
Three degrees of productivity are distinguished for derivational
Three degrees of productivity are distinguished for derivational
References
References

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Types of Forming Words

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1 Types of Forming Words

Types of Forming Words

Affixation.

Lecture 10

2 1. TYPES OF FORMING WORDS

1. TYPES OF FORMING WORDS

Word-formation is the system of derivative types of words and the process of creating new words from the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns. Driver = v+-er (a verbal stem + the noun-forming suffix –er). The meaning of the derived noun driver - the meaning of the stem drive- ‘to direct the course of a vehicle’ and the suffix -er meaning ‘an active agent’: a driver is ‘one who drives’ (a carriage, motorcar, railway engine, etc.).

3 1.1. Main Types of Forming Words

1.1. Main Types of Forming Words

I. Word-derivation in morphology is a word-formation process by which a new word is built from a stem – usually through the addition of an affix – that changes the word class and / or basic meaning of the word. The basic ways of forming words in word-derivation are: 1. Affixation is the formation of a new word with the help of affixes: pointless (from point). 2. Conversion is the formation of a new word by bringing a stem of this word into a different formal paradigm: a fall (from to fall), a cut (from to cut). II. Word-composition is the formation of a new word by combining two or more stems which occur in the language as free forms: door-bell, house-keeper.

4 1.2. Minor Types of Forming Words

1.2. Minor Types of Forming Words

shortening is the formation of a word by cutting off a part of the word. a) initial (or aphesis):fend (v) < defend, phone < telephone; b) medial (orsyncope): specs < spectacles, fancy < fantasy; c) final (or apocope): lab – laboratory, exam – examination; d) both initial and final: flu < influenza, fridge < refrigerator;.

5 blending is the formation of a new word by combining parts of two

blending is the formation of a new word by combining parts of two

words: a) additive type: smog – sm(oke) and (f)og; b) restrictive type: telecast – television + broadcast. acronymy (or graphical abbreviation) is the formation of a word from the initial letters of a word combination. : a) acronyms which are read as ordinary English words:UNESCO – [ju:'nesk?u] the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization; b) acronyms with the alphabetic reading: BBC – [,bi:bi:'si:] the British Broadcasting Corporation;

6 sound-interchange is the formation of a word due to an alteration in

sound-interchange is the formation of a word due to an alteration in

the phonetic composition of its root. Sound-interchange falls into 3 groups: a) vowel-interchange (or ablaut): full ? to fill, blood ? to bleed, food – to feed. In some cases vowel-interchange is combined with suffixation: long ? length, strong ? strength, broad ? breadth; b) consonant-interchange: advice – to advise. c) combined forms: life – to live; Particular cases of sound-interchange: [k] — [t?]: to speak — speech, [s] — [d]: defence — to defend; offence — to offend; [s] — [t]: evidence — evident, importance — important, etc.

7 Sound imitation (or onomatopoeia) is the naming of an action or a

Sound imitation (or onomatopoeia) is the naming of an action or a

thing by a more or less exact reproduction of the sound associated with it, cf.: Cock-a-doodle-do (english) – ку-ка-ре-ку (russian). Groups: a) words denoting sounds produced by human being in the process of communication or expressing their feelings: mumble, babble; b) words denoting sounds produced by animals, birds, insects: mew, croak, buzz; c) words imitation the sound of water, the noise of metallic things, a forceful motion, movement: splash, clink, bang.

8 back-formation is the formation of a new word by subtracting a real or

back-formation is the formation of a new word by subtracting a real or

supposed suffix from the existing words. The process is based on analogy: the word to butle ‘to act or serve as a butler’ is derived by subtraction of –er from a supposedly verbal stem in the noun butler; distinctive stress is the formation of a new word by means of the shift of the stress in the source word, cf.: export (n) — to ex?port; ?import (n) — to im?port; ‘

9 2. Word-formation as the Subject of Study

2. Word-formation as the Subject of Study

is that branch of Lexicology which studies the derivative structure of existing words and the patterns on which the English language, builds new words. word-formation can deal only with words which are analysable both structurally and semantically, i.e. with all types of Complexes.

10 Word-formation may be studied:

Word-formation may be studied:

Synchronically – investigation of the existing system of the types of word-formation. The derived word is regarded as having a more complex structure than its correlated word regardless of the fact whether it was derived from a simpler base or a more complex base; Diachronically – chronological order of formation of one word from some other word that is relevant.

11 3. AFFIXATION

3. AFFIXATION

Affixation is the formation of words by adding derivational affixes to different types of bases. An affix is not-root or a bound morpheme that modifies the meaning and / or syntactic category of the stem in some way. Affixes are classified into prefixes and suffixes.

12 Degrees of Derivation

Degrees of Derivation

Zero - degree of derivation is ascribed to simple words, i.e. words whose stem is homonymous with a word-form and often with a root-morpheme, e.g. atom, haste, devote, anxious, horror, etc. First - derived words whose bases are built on simple stems and thus are formed by the application of one derivational affix, e.g. atomic, hasty, devotion, etc. Second - derived words formed by two consecutive stages of coining, e.g. atomical, hastily, devotional, etc.

13 Affixation=suffixation+prefixation

Affixation=suffixation+prefixation

Distinction is naturally made between prefixal and suffixal derivatives according to the last stage of derivation, which determines the nature of the ICs of the pattern that signals the relationship of the derived word with its motivating source unit, cf. unjust (un-+just), justify, (just++ -ify), arrangement (arrange + -ment), non-smoker (non- + smoker).

14 Affixation is subdivided into suffixation and prefixation

Affixation is subdivided into suffixation and prefixation

Distinction is naturally made between prefixal and suffixal derivatives according to the last stage of derivation, which determines the nature of the ICs of the pattern that signals the relationship of the derived word with its motivating source unit, cf. unjust (un-+just), justify, (just++ -ify), arrangement (arrange + -ment), non-smoker (non- + smoker).

15 Prefixal-suffixal derivatives:

Prefixal-suffixal derivatives:

reappearance, unreasonable, denationalise This qualification is relevant only in terms of the constituent morphemes such words are made up of, i.e. from the angle of morphemic analysis. From the point of view of derivational analysis such words are mostly either suffixal or prefixal derivatives, e.g. sub-atomic = sub- + (atom + + -ic), unreasonable = un- + (reason + -able), denationalise = de- + + (national + -ize), discouragement = (dis- + courage) + -ment.

16 Suffixation is mostly characteristic of noun and adjective formation

Suffixation is mostly characteristic of noun and adjective formation

Prefixation is mostly typical of verb formation. The distinction also rests on the role different types of meaning play in the semantic structure of the suffix and the prefix. The part-of-speech meaning has a much greater significance in suffixes as compared to prefixes which possess it in a lesser degree. A prefix may be confined to one part of speech, e.g. enslave, encage, unbutton or may function in more than one part of speech as, e.g., over- in overkind a, to overfeed v, overestimation n

17 Suffixes as a rule function in any one part of speech often forming a

Suffixes as a rule function in any one part of speech often forming a

derived stem of a different part of speech as compared with that of the base, e.g. careless a — cf. care n; suitable a — cf. suit v, etc. A suffix closely knit together with a base forms a fusion retaining less of its independence than a prefix which is as a general rule more independent semantically, cf. reading — ‘the act of one who reads’; ‘ability to read’; and to re-read — ‘to read again.'

18 3.1. SUFFIXATION

3.1. SUFFIXATION

CLASSIFICATION OF SUFFIXES

Suffixation is the formation of words with the help of suffixes, which usually modify the lexical meaning of the base and transfer words to a different part of speech. Some suffixes do not shift words from one part of speech into another, but usually transfer a word into a different semantic group, e.g. a concrete noun becomes an abstract one, e.g. child — childhood, friend — friendship, etc. A suffix is a derivational morpheme following the root and forming a new derivative in a different word class (-en, -y, -less in heart-en, heart-y, heart-less).

19 Suffixes can be classified into different types in accordance with

Suffixes can be classified into different types in accordance with

different principles:

According to the lexical-grammatical character of the base suffixes are usually added to, they may be: deverbal suffixex (those added to the verbal base): -er (builder); -ing (writing); denominal suffixes (those added to the nominal base): -less (timeless); -ful (hopeful); -ist (scientist); -some (troublesome); deajectival suffixes (those added to the adjectival base): -en (widen); -ly (friendly); -ish (whitish); -ness (brightness).

20 According to the part of speech formed suffixes fall into several

According to the part of speech formed suffixes fall into several

groups: noun-forming suffixes: -age (breakage, bondage); -ance/-ence (assistance, reference); -dom (freedom, kingdom); -er (teacher, baker); -ess (actress, hostess); -ing (building, wasing); adjective-forming suffixes: -able/-ible/-uble (favourable, incredible, soluble); -al (formal, official); -ic (dynamic); -ant/-ent (repentant, dependent); numeral-forming suffixes: -fold (twofold); -teen (fourteen); -th (sixth); -ty (thirty); verb-forming suffixes: -ate (activate); -er (glimmer); -fy/-ify (terrify, specify); -ize (minimize); -ish (establish); adverb-forming suffixes: -ly (quickly, coldly); -ward/-wards (backward, northwards); -wise (likewise).

21 Semantically suffixes fall into: Monosemantic:the suffix -ess has only

Semantically suffixes fall into: Monosemantic:the suffix -ess has only

one meaning ‘female’ – tigress, tailoress; Polysemantic: the suffix -hood has two meanings: ‘condition or quality’ – falsehood, womanhood; ‘collection or group’ – brotherhood.

22 According to their generalizing denotational meaning suffixes may fall

According to their generalizing denotational meaning suffixes may fall

into several groups. E.g., noun-suffixes fall into those denoting: the agent of the action: -er (baker); -ant (accountant); appurtenance: -an/-ian (Victorian, Russian); -ese (Chinese); collectivity: -dom (officialdom); -ry (pleasantry); Diminutiveness:-ie (birdie); -let (cloudlet); -ling (wolfling).

23 According to their stylistic reference suffixes may be classified into

According to their stylistic reference suffixes may be classified into

those characterized by neutral stylistic reference: -able (agreeable); -er (writer); -ing (meeting); those having a certain stylistic value: -oid (asteroid); -tron (cyclotron). These suffixes occur usually in terms and are bookish.

24 3.2. PREFIXATION

3.2. PREFIXATION

CLASSIFICATION OF PREFIXES.

Prefixation is the formation of words with the help of prefixes, which are derivational morphemes, affixed before the derivational base. A prefix is a derivational morpheme preceding the root-morpheme and modifying its meaning (understand – mis-understand, correct – in-correct).

25 Prefixes can be classified according to different principles

Prefixes can be classified according to different principles

According to the lexico-grammatical character of the base prefixes are usually added to, they may be: deverbal (those added to the verbal base): re- (rewrite); over- (overdo); out- (outstay); denominal (those added to the nominal base): - (unbutton); de- (detrain); ex- (ex-president); deadjectival (those added to the adjectival base): un- (uneasy); bi- (biannual). deadverbial (those added to the adverbial base): un- (unfortunately); in- independently).

26 According to the class of words they preferably form prefixes are

According to the class of words they preferably form prefixes are

divided into: verb-forming prefixes: en-/em- (enclose, embed); be- (befriend); de- (dethrone); noun-forming prefixes: non- (non-smoker); sub- (sub-committee); ex- (ex-husband) adjective-forming prefixes: un- (unfair); il- (illiterate); ir- (irregular); adverb-forming prefixes: un- (unfortunately); up- (uphill).

27 Semantically prefixes fall into: Monosemantic: the prefix ex- has only

Semantically prefixes fall into: Monosemantic: the prefix ex- has only

one meaning ‘former’ – ex-boxer; Polysemantic; the prefix dis- has four meanings: ‘not’ (disadvantage); ‘reversal or absence of an action or state’ (diseconomy, disaffirm); ‘removal of’ (to disbranch); ‘completeness or intensification of an unpleasant action’ (disgruntled).

28 According to their generalizing denotational meaning prefixes fall

According to their generalizing denotational meaning prefixes fall

into: negative prefixes: un- (ungrateful); non- (non-political); in- (incorrect); dis- (disloyal); a- (amoral); reversative prefixes: un2- (untie); de- (decentralize); dis2- (disconnect); pejorative prefixes: mis- (mispronounce); mal- (maltreat); pseudo- (pseudo-scientific); prefixes of time and order: fore- (foretell); pre- (pre-war); post- (post-war), ex- (ex-president); prefix of repetition: re- (rebuild, rewrite); locative prefixes: super- (superstructure), sub- (subway), inter- (inter-continental), trans- (transatlantic).

29 According to their stylistic reference prefixes fall into: those

According to their stylistic reference prefixes fall into: those

characterized by neutral stylistic reference: over- (oversee); under- (underestimate); un-(unknown); those possessing quite a definite stylistic value: pseudo- (pseudo-classical); super- (superstructure); ultra- (ultraviolet); uni- (unilateral); bi- (bifocal). These prefixes are of a literary-bookish character.

30 4. PRODUCTIVE AND NON-PRODUCTIVE AFFIXES

4. PRODUCTIVE AND NON-PRODUCTIVE AFFIXES

The word-forming activity of affixes may change in the course of time. This raises the question of productivity of derivational affixes, i.e. the ability of being used to form new, occasional or potential words, which can be readily understood by the language-speakers. Thus, productive affixes are those used to form new words in this particular period of language development.

31 Some productive affixes

Some productive affixes

Noun-forming suffixes

-er (manager), -ing (playing), -ness (darkness), -ism (materialism), -ist (parachutist), -ism (realism), -ation (automation), (impressionist), -ancy (redundancy), -ry (gimmickry), -or (reactor), -ics (cybernetics).

Adjective-forming suffixes

-y (tweedy), -ish (smartish), -ed (learned), -able (tolerable), -less (jobless), -ic (electronic).

Adverb-forming suffixes

-ly (equally)

Verb-forming suffixes

-ize/-ise (realise), -ate (oxidate), -ify (qualify).

Prefixes

un- (unhappy), re- (reconstruct), dis- (disappoint)

32 Some non-productive suffixes:

Some non-productive suffixes:

Noun-forming suffixes

-th (truth), -hood (sisterhood), -ship (scholarship).

Adjective-forming suffixes

-ly (sickly), -some (tiresome), -en (golden), -ous (courageous), -ful (careful)

Verb-forming suffix

-en (strengthen)

33 The productivity of an affix should not be confused with its frequency

The productivity of an affix should not be confused with its frequency

of occurrence that is understood as the existence in the vocabulary of a great number of words containing the affix in question. An affix may occur in hundreds of words, but if it is not used to form new words, it is not productive, for instance, the adjective suffix –ful.

34 Etymology of Derivational Affixes:

Etymology of Derivational Affixes:

Native affixes are those in the Old English period or were formed from Old English words. The change a morpheme undergoes in the course of time may be of different kinds. A bound morpheme, e.g. may be developed from a free one. Such are the suffixes – dom (‘fate, power’); hood ‘state’; -lock ‘actions or proceedings, practice’; -ship ‘state, conduct’, and the prefixes; over- ‘in excess, extra, upper’; out- ‘foreign, external’, ect.

35 Origin of Derivational Affixes

Origin of Derivational Affixes

Noun-forming affixes

Examples

-er -ness -ing -dom -hood -ship -th -let

Driver, painter. Ugliness, coldness. Singing, playing. Freedom, kingdom. Brotherhood, manhood. Leadership, friendship. Breath, length. Booklet, islet.

36 Adjective-forming affixes:

Adjective-forming affixes:

-ful -less -y -ish -ly -en -some -like

Joyful Harmless Cozy Childish Lovely Golden Handsome Ladylike

37 Verb-forming affixes

Verb-forming affixes

-en

Widen

Adverb-forming affixes

-ly -wise

Rarely Clockwise

Prefixes

be- mis- un- over-

Befriend Misuse Unselfish Overdo

38 Latin

Latin

Examples

-able/ -ible -ant/-ent extra- pre- ultra-

Capable, divisible. Servant, student. Extralinguistic. Pre-election. Ultra-high.

Borrowed Affixes have come to the English language from different foreign languages. The affixes of foreign origin are classified according to their source into:

39 Greek

Greek

Examples

-ist -ism -ite anti- sym-/ sin-

Artist Marxism Vulcanite Anti-democratic Synthesis

40 French

French

Examples

-age -ance/ -ence -ard -ate -ee -ess en-/ em-

Percentage Extravagance, coherence Wizard Electorate Employee Princess Enclose, embed

41 Hybrids

Hybrids

are words that are made up of elements from two or more different languages. There are 2 basic types of forming hybrid words: 1) a foreign base is combined with a native affix, e.g. colourless, uncertain; 2) a native base is combined with a foreign affix, e.g. drinkable, ex-wife. There are also many hybrid compounds, such as blackguard (English + French); schoolboy (greek + English).

42 VALENCY OF AFFIXES AND BASES

VALENCY OF AFFIXES AND BASES

Valency of affixes is understood as their capability to be combined with certain bases, e.g. adjective forming suffixes are mostly attached to nominal bases. They are: -en (golden), -ful (meaningful), -less (careless), -ly (soldierly), -like (childlike). The highly productive suffix –able, however, can be combined with nominal and verbal bases alike (honorable, advisable).

43 Valency of bases

Valency of bases

is the possibility of a particular base to take a particular affix. The valency of bases is not unlimited, e.g., noun bases can be followed by: the noun-forming suffixes, e.g. –eer (profiteer), -ful (spoonful), -ics (linguistics), -let (cloudlet); the adjective-forming suffixes, e.g. –al (doctoral), -ary (revolutionary), -ous (spacious), -ic (historic); the verb-forming suffixes, e.g. –en (hearten), -ize (sympathize).

44 Valency

Valency

is very important semantically because the meaning of the derivative depends not only on the morphemes of which it is composed but also on combinations of bases and affixes that can be contrasted with it. Contrast is observed in the use of the same morphemes in different environment or in the use of different morphemes in the same environment, e.g., the difference in the suffixes –ity and –ism becomes clear when comparing them as combined with identical bases: formality – formalism; reality – realism. -ity – ‘the quality of being what corresponding adjective describes, an instant or quality’; -ism –’ a disposition to what the adjective describes, or a corresponding type of ideology’.

45 Summary and Conclusions

Summary and Conclusions

Word-formation is the process of creating words from the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns.

46 As a subject of study English word-formation is that branch of English

As a subject of study English word-formation is that branch of English

Lexicology which studies the derivative structure of words and the patterns on which the English language builds new words. Like any other linguistic phenomenon, word-formation may be studied synchronically and diachronically.

47 There are two types of word-formation in Modern English:

There are two types of word-formation in Modern English:

word-derivation which is divided into affixation and conversion and word-composition. Within the types further distinction is made between the various ways and means of word-formation.

48 There are minor types of word-formation: shortening, blending,

There are minor types of word-formation: shortening, blending,

acronymy (graphical abbreviation), sound-interchange, sound-imitation, back-fomation and distinctive stress.

49 Affixation (prefixation and suffixation) is the formation of words by

Affixation (prefixation and suffixation) is the formation of words by

adding derivational affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to bases. One distinguishes between derived words of different degrees of derivation.

50 There are quite a number of polysemantic, homonymous and synonymous

There are quite a number of polysemantic, homonymous and synonymous

derivational affixes in Modern English.

51 Classifications of derivational affixes are based on different

Classifications of derivational affixes are based on different

principles such as: 1) the lexico-grammatical character of the stem the affix is added to, 2) the part of speech formed, 3) the meaning, 4) the generalising denotational meaning, 5) the stylistic reference, etc.

52 The productivity of derivational affixes is relative and conditioned

The productivity of derivational affixes is relative and conditioned

by various factors.

53 Many of the Modern English derivational affixes were at one time

Many of the Modern English derivational affixes were at one time

independent words. Others have always been known as suffixes or prefixes within the history of the English vocabulary. Some of them are of international currency.

54 The degree of productivity and factors favouring it make an important

The degree of productivity and factors favouring it make an important

aspect of synchronic description of every derivational pattern within the two types of word-formation.

55 Three degrees of productivity are distinguished for derivational

Three degrees of productivity are distinguished for derivational

patterns and individual derivational affixes: l) highly-productive, 2) productive or semi-productive, 3) nоn-produсtive.

56 References

References

Зыкова И.В. Практический курс английской лексикологии. М.: Академия, 2006. – С.57-77. Гинзбург Р.З. Лексикология английского языка. М.: Высшая школа, 1979. – С. 108-216. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. Лексикология английского языка. М.: Дрофа, 2006. – С. – 78-128.

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