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An Introduction to Animal Diversity
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom
Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
There are exceptions to nearly every criterion for distinguishing
There are exceptions to nearly every criterion for distinguishing
Nutritional Mode
Nutritional Mode
Cell Structure and Specialization
Cell Structure and Specialization
Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen
Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen
Reproduction and Development
Reproduction and Development
After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes cleavage,
After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes cleavage,
LE 32-2_3
LE 32-2_3
Many animals have at least one larval stage A larva is sexually
Many animals have at least one larval stage A larva is sexually
All animals, and only animals, have Hox genes that regulate the
All animals, and only animals, have Hox genes that regulate the
Concept 32
Concept 32
Single cell
Single cell
LE 32-4
LE 32-4
Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion524 Million Years Ago)
Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion524 Million Years Ago)
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
Paleozoic Era (542251 Million Years Ago)
Paleozoic Era (542251 Million Years Ago)
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
Mesozoic Era (25165
Mesozoic Era (25165
Cenozoic Era (65
Cenozoic Era (65
Concept 32
Concept 32
Symmetry
Symmetry
Some animals have radial symmetry, the form found in a flower pot
Some animals have radial symmetry, the form found in a flower pot
Radial symmetry
Radial symmetry
The two-sided symmetry seen in a shovel is an example of bilateral
The two-sided symmetry seen in a shovel is an example of bilateral
Bilateral symmetry
Bilateral symmetry
Bilaterally symmetrical animals have: A dorsal (top) side and a
Bilaterally symmetrical animals have: A dorsal (top) side and a
Tissues
Tissues
Animal embryos have concentric layers called germ layers that form
Animal embryos have concentric layers called germ layers that form
Body Cavities
Body Cavities
Coelom
Coelom
A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the blastocoel, rather
A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the blastocoel, rather
Body covering (from ectoderm)
Body covering (from ectoderm)
Acoelomates are organisms without body cavities
Acoelomates are organisms without body cavities
Body covering (from ectoderm)
Body covering (from ectoderm)
Protostome and Deuterostome Development
Protostome and Deuterostome Development
Cleavage
Cleavage
Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods)
Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods)
Coelom Formation
Coelom Formation
Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)
Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)
Fate of the Blastopore
Fate of the Blastopore
Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)
Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)
Concept 32
Concept 32
One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on morphological and
One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on morphological and
LE 32-10
LE 32-10
One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on molecular data
One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on molecular data
LE 32-11
LE 32-11
Points of Agreement
Points of Agreement
Disagreement over the Bilaterians
Disagreement over the Bilaterians
Ecdysozoans shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis
Ecdysozoans shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
An Introduction to Animal Diversity
Lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore Other
Lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore Other
Apical tuft of cilia
Apical tuft of cilia
Future Directions in Animal Systematics
Future Directions in Animal Systematics

: An Introduction to Animal Diversity. : BCP User. : An Introduction to Animal Diversity.ppt. zip-: 2287 .

An Introduction to Animal Diversity

An Introduction to Animal Diversity.ppt
1 An Introduction to Animal Diversity

An Introduction to Animal Diversity

Chapter 32

2 Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom

Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom

The animal kingdom extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter

Video: Coral Reef

3 An Introduction to Animal Diversity
4 There are exceptions to nearly every criterion for distinguishing

There are exceptions to nearly every criterion for distinguishing

animals from other life forms Several characteristics, taken together, sufficiently define the group

Concept 32.1: Animal are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers

5 Nutritional Mode

Nutritional Mode

Animals are heterotrophs that ingest their food

6 Cell Structure and Specialization

Cell Structure and Specialization

Animals are multicellular eukaryotes Their cells lack cell walls

7 Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen

Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen

Nervous tissue and muscle tissue are unique to animals

8 Reproduction and Development

Reproduction and Development

Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle

9 After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes cleavage,

After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes cleavage,

leading to formation of a blastula The blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming embryonic tissue layers and a gastrula

Video: Sea Urchin Embryonic Development

10 LE 32-2_3

LE 32-2_3

Blastocoel

Cleavage

Cleavage

Cross section of blastula

Eight-cell stage

Zygote

Blastula

Blastocoel

Endoderm

Ectoderm

Gastrula

Gastrulation

Blastopore

11 Many animals have at least one larval stage A larva is sexually

Many animals have at least one larval stage A larva is sexually

immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis

12 All animals, and only animals, have Hox genes that regulate the

All animals, and only animals, have Hox genes that regulate the

development of body form Although the Hox family of genes has been highly conserved, it can produce a wide diversity of animal morphology

13 Concept 32

Concept 32

2: The history of animals may span more than a billion years

The animal kingdom includes not only great diversity of living species but also the even greater diversity of extinct ones The common ancestor of living animals may have lived 1.2 billion800 million years ago This ancestor may have resembled modern choanoflagellates, protists that are the closest living relatives of animals

14 Single cell

Single cell

Stalk

LE 32-3

15 LE 32-4

LE 32-4

Somatic cells

Digestive cavity

Reproductive cells

Hollow sphere of unspecialized cells (shown in cross section)

Infolding

Gastrula-like protoanimal

Beginning of cell specialization

Colonial protist, and aggregate of identical cells

16 Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion524 Million Years Ago)

Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion524 Million Years Ago)

Early members of the animal fossil record include the Ediacaran fauna

17 An Introduction to Animal Diversity
18 Paleozoic Era (542251 Million Years Ago)

Paleozoic Era (542251 Million Years Ago)

The Cambrian explosion marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals There are several hypotheses regarding the cause of the Cambrian explosion

19 An Introduction to Animal Diversity
20 Mesozoic Era (25165

Mesozoic Era (25165

5 Million Years Ago)

During the Mesozoic era, dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates Coral reefs emerged, becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms

21 Cenozoic Era (65

Cenozoic Era (65

5 Million Years Ago to the Present)

The beginning of the Cenozoic era followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals Modern mammal orders and insects diversified during the Cenozoic

22 Concept 32

Concept 32

3: Animals can be characterized by body plans

Zoologists sometimes categorize animals according to morphology and development A grade is a group of animal species with the same level of organizational complexity A body plan is the set of traits defining a grade

23 Symmetry

Symmetry

Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it

24 Some animals have radial symmetry, the form found in a flower pot

Some animals have radial symmetry, the form found in a flower pot

25 Radial symmetry

Radial symmetry

LE 32-7a

26 The two-sided symmetry seen in a shovel is an example of bilateral

The two-sided symmetry seen in a shovel is an example of bilateral

symmetry

27 Bilateral symmetry

Bilateral symmetry

LE 32-7b

28 Bilaterally symmetrical animals have: A dorsal (top) side and a

Bilaterally symmetrical animals have: A dorsal (top) side and a

ventral (bottom) side A right and left side Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends Cephalization, the development of a head

29 Tissues

Tissues

Animal body plans also vary according to the organization of the animals tissues Tissues are collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous layers

30 Animal embryos have concentric layers called germ layers that form

Animal embryos have concentric layers called germ layers that form

tissues and organs Ectoderm is the germ layer covering the embryos surface Endoderm is the innermost germ layer Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and endoderm Triploblastic animals also have an intervening mesoderm layer

31 Body Cavities

Body Cavities

In triploblastic animals, a body cavity may be present or absent A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm

32 Coelom

Coelom

Body covering (from ectoderm)

Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm)

Digestive tract (from endoderm)

Coelomate

LE 32-8a

33 A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the blastocoel, rather

A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the blastocoel, rather

than from mesoderm

34 Body covering (from ectoderm)

Body covering (from ectoderm)

Muscle layer (from mesoderm)

Pseudocoelom

Digestive tract (from endoderm)

Pseudocoelomate

LE 32-8b

35 Acoelomates are organisms without body cavities

Acoelomates are organisms without body cavities

36 Body covering (from ectoderm)

Body covering (from ectoderm)

Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm)

Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm)

Acoelomate

LE 32-8c

37 Protostome and Deuterostome Development

Protostome and Deuterostome Development

Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome or deuterostome development

38 Cleavage

Cleavage

In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and determinate In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate

39 Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods)

Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods)

Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)

Cleavage

Eight-cell stage

Eight-cell stage

Spiral and determinate

Radial and indeterminate

LE 32-9a

40 Coelom Formation

Coelom Formation

In protostome development, the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm to form the coelomic cavity is called schizocoelous development In deuterostome development, formation of the body cavity is described as enterocoelous development

41 Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)

Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)

Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods)

Coelom formation

Coelom

Archenteron

Coelom

Blastopore

Mesoderm

Mesoderm

Blastopore

Schizocoelous: solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom

Enterocoelous: folds of archenteron form coelom

LE 32-9b

42 Fate of the Blastopore

Fate of the Blastopore

In protostome development, the blastopore becomes the mouth In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the anus

43 Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)

Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)

Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods)

Fate of the blastopore

Mouth

Anus

Digestive tube

Mouth

Anus

Mouth develops from blastopore

Anus develops from blastopore

LE 32-9c

44 Concept 32

Concept 32

4: Leading hypotheses agree on major features of the animal phylogenetic tree

Zoologists recognize about 35 animal phyla Current debate in animal systematics has led to the development of two phylogenetic hypotheses, but others exist as well

45 One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on morphological and

One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on morphological and

developmental comparisons

46 LE 32-10

LE 32-10

Radiata

Deuterostomia

Protostomia

Bilateria

Eumetazoa

Metazoa

Ancestral colonial flagellate

Porifera

Platyhelminthes

Ctenophora

Phoronida

Brachiopoda

Mollusca

Arthropoda

Cnidaria

Echinodermata

Chordata

Annelida

Ectoprocta

Rotifera

Nemertea

Nematoda

47 One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on molecular data

One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on molecular data

48 LE 32-11

LE 32-11

Radiata

Deuterostomia

Lophotrochozoa

Porifera

Bilateria

Eumetazoa

Metazoa

Ancestral colonial flagellate

Ctenophora

Platyhelminthes

Mollusca

Arthropoda

Chordata

Brachiopoda

Phoronida

Annelida

Rotifera

Ectoprocta

Nemertea

Nematoda

Calcarea

Cnidaria

Silicarea

Ecdysozoa

Echinodermata

49 Points of Agreement

Points of Agreement

All animals share a common ancestor Sponges are basal animals Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia

50 Disagreement over the Bilaterians

Disagreement over the Bilaterians

The morphology-based tree divides bilaterians into two clades: deuterostomes and protostomes In contrast, recent molecular studies assign two sister taxa to protostomes: the ecdysozoans and the lophotrochozoans

51 Ecdysozoans shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis

Ecdysozoans shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis

52 An Introduction to Animal Diversity
53 Lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore Other

Lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore Other

phyla go through a distinct larval stage called a trochophore larva

54 Apical tuft of cilia

Apical tuft of cilia

Mouth

100 m

Anus

Structure of trochophore larva

An ectoproct, a lophophorate

LE 32-13

55 Future Directions in Animal Systematics

Future Directions in Animal Systematics

Phylogenetic studies based on larger databases will likely provide further insights into animal evolutionary history

An Introduction to Animal Diversity
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