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Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen January 28, 1820
Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen January 28, 1820
James Clark Ross
James Clark Ross
First Antarctic winter Cape Adare 1899
First Antarctic winter Cape Adare 1899
The Heroic Era(1900-1920)
The Heroic Era(1900-1920)
Antarctica
Antarctica
Pre-1957
Pre-1957
International Geophysical Year 1957/58
International Geophysical Year 1957/58
International Polar Year 2007/08
International Polar Year 2007/08
History of Antarctica
History of Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctic glaciation
Antarctic glaciation
Antarctica
Antarctica
The Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic treaty
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic treaty
Antarctic Biology
Antarctic Biology
Habitats in Antarctica
Habitats in Antarctica
Habitats in Antarctica
Habitats in Antarctica
Major issues in Antarctic Biology
Major issues in Antarctic Biology

: Antarctica. : Brent Sinclair. : Antarctica.ppt. zip-: 3650 .

Antarctica

Antarctica.ppt
1 Antarctica

Antarctica

1: Introduction to a continent

2 Antarctica
3 Antarctica
4 Antarctica

Antarctica

Area = USA + Mexico Highest continent Driest Continent Windiest continent Coldest Continent Last inhabited continent Dark 50% of the year

5 Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen January 28, 1820

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen January 28, 1820

Nathaniel B. Palmer November 17, 1820

Edward Bransfield January 30, 1820

6 James Clark Ross

James Clark Ross

1839-1843 Antarctic Expedition HMS Erebus HMS Terror Sailed as far south as Ross Island, Ross Ice Shelf in the Ross Sea

7 First Antarctic winter Cape Adare 1899

First Antarctic winter Cape Adare 1899

Carstens Borchgrevink 1864-1934

8 The Heroic Era(1900-1920)

The Heroic Era(1900-1920)

9 Antarctica
10 Pre-1957

Pre-1957

Richard E. Byrd Admiral, US Navy Private and US-funded expeditions Meteorological research First flight to South Pole Commanded post-war Operation High Jump and Operation Deep Freeze

11 International Geophysical Year 1957/58

International Geophysical Year 1957/58

Largely Meteorology and Atmospheric physics Saw the US, NZ, UK, Australia etc etc. establish permanent bases, including at the South Pole

12 International Polar Year 2007/08

International Polar Year 2007/08

13 History of Antarctica

History of Antarctica

14 Antarctica
15 Antarctic glaciation

Antarctic glaciation

First full-scale ice sheet ~ 34 Ma Reached maximum ~15 Ma Some fluctuations since then e.g. at LGM Ross Ice shelf covered approx. 3x current area Extinctions Almost all terrestrial flora and fauna

16 Antarctica
17 The Antarctic Treaty

The Antarctic Treaty

in effect June 23 1961 Governs activities in Antarctica Subsidiary treaties govern flora & Fauna, Seals, Marine Living resources the Environment

18 The Antarctic Treaty

The Antarctic Treaty

Article 1 Peaceful purposes only Military personnel and equipment allowed, but only for peaceful purposes Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims, prevents new claims. Article 5 - No nuclear explosions or radioactive waste; Article 6 - all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place

19 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic treaty

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic treaty

In force 1998 Article 7: Any activity relating to mineral resources, other than scientific research, shall be prohibited.

20 Antarctic Biology

Antarctic Biology

A long history the first marine samples collected by Cook (18th C) the first terrestrial samples collected in late 19th C Biology was a major goal of many of the heroic era expeditions

21 Habitats in Antarctica

Habitats in Antarctica

Terrestrial Nunataks Coastal areas Oases and Dry Valleys

22 Habitats in Antarctica

Habitats in Antarctica

Marine Normal range of marine Benthic Pelagic (Some) intertidal Special habitats Beneath ice shelves and sea ice Associated with platelet ice Freshwater Streams Lakes Ponds

23 Major issues in Antarctic Biology

Major issues in Antarctic Biology

Survival of environmental extremes Responses to climate change Origin of the flora and fauna Sustainable use of marine resources

Antarctica
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