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CSMA
CSMA
'Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection' ('CSMA/CD')
'Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection' ('CSMA/CD')
CSMA/CD is a modification of pure carrier sense multiple access (CSMA)
CSMA/CD is a modification of pure carrier sense multiple access (CSMA)
IEEE Std 802
IEEE Std 802
'GraphicsMagick' is a fork (software development)|fork of ImageMagick,
'GraphicsMagick' is a fork (software development)|fork of ImageMagick,
In addition to the programming language APIs available with
In addition to the programming language APIs available with
GraphicsMagick is used by several websites to process large numbers of
GraphicsMagick is used by several websites to process large numbers of
'Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance' ('CSMA/CA')
'Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance' ('CSMA/CA')
It is particularly important for wireless networks, where the
It is particularly important for wireless networks, where the
Collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of the CSMA
Collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of the CSMA
Unlike CSMA/CD, it is very challenging for a wireless node to listen
Unlike CSMA/CD, it is very challenging for a wireless node to listen
Although CSMA/CA has been used in a variety of wired communication
Although CSMA/CA has been used in a variety of wired communication
Studies show that under ideal propagation conditions (simulations),
Studies show that under ideal propagation conditions (simulations),
* Apple Computer|Apple's LocalTalk implemented 'CSMA/CA' on an
* Apple Computer|Apple's LocalTalk implemented 'CSMA/CA' on an
* The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a way to create a high-speed
* The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a way to create a high-speed
In CSMA/CA collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of
In CSMA/CA collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of
VTCSMA is designed to avoid collision generated by nodes transmitting
VTCSMA is designed to avoid collision generated by nodes transmitting
1-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CD systems including Ethernet
1-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CD systems including Ethernet
; Non-persistent : Non persistent CSMA is a non aggressive
; Non-persistent : Non persistent CSMA is a non aggressive
p-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CA systems including Wi-Fi and other
p-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CA systems including Wi-Fi and other
O-persistent CSMA is used by CobraNet, LonWorks and the controller
O-persistent CSMA is used by CobraNet, LonWorks and the controller
Again, CSMA/CARP is similar to the functions of the CSMA/CA
Again, CSMA/CARP is similar to the functions of the CSMA/CA
In addition to having a different IFS per priority, a station in a
In addition to having a different IFS per priority, a station in a
* The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed local area
* The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed local area
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Презентация: «Apple 09 03 2015». Автор: g. Файл: «Apple 09 03 2015.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 272 КБ.

Apple 09 03 2015

содержание презентации «Apple 09 03 2015.ppt»
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1 CSMA

CSMA

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

2 'Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection' ('CSMA/CD')

'Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection' ('CSMA/CD')

is a media access control method used most notably in local area networking using early Ethernet technology

CSMA/CD

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

3 CSMA/CD is a modification of pure carrier sense multiple access (CSMA)

CSMA/CD is a modification of pure carrier sense multiple access (CSMA)

CSMA/CD is used to improve CSMA performance by terminating transmission as soon as a collision is detected, thus shortening the time required before a retry can be attempted.

CSMA/CD

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

4 IEEE Std 802

IEEE Std 802

3, which defines all Ethernet variants, for historical reasons still bears the title Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications.

CSMA/CD - Applications

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

5 'GraphicsMagick' is a fork (software development)|fork of ImageMagick,

'GraphicsMagick' is a fork (software development)|fork of ImageMagick,

emphasizing stability of both programming API and command-line options. It was branched off ImageMagick's version 5.5.2 in 2002 after irreconcilable differences emerged in the developers' group.[http://marc.info/?l=imagemagick-developerm=104777007831767w=2 imagemagick-developer mailing list: Introducing GraphicsMagick Project, 15 March 2003]

GraphicsMagick

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

6 In addition to the programming language APIs available with

In addition to the programming language APIs available with

ImageMagick, GraphicsMagick also includes a Tcl API, called TclMagick.

GraphicsMagick

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

7 GraphicsMagick is used by several websites to process large numbers of

GraphicsMagick is used by several websites to process large numbers of

uploaded photographs.[http://www.kitchensoap.com/2009/04/03/slides-from-web20-expo-2009-and-somethin-else-interestin/ Slides from Web2.0 Expo 2009. (and somethin else interestin’)][http://codeascraft.etsy.com/2010/07/09/batch-processing-millions-of-images/ Etsy: Batch processing millions of images]

GraphicsMagick

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

8 'Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance' ('CSMA/CA')

'Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance' ('CSMA/CA')

in computer networking, is a network multiple access method in which Carrier wave|carrier sensing is used, but Node (networking)|nodes attempt to avoid collisions by transmitting only when the channel is sensed to be idle. When they do transmit, nodes transmit their packet data in its entirety.

CSMA CA

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

9 It is particularly important for wireless networks, where the

It is particularly important for wireless networks, where the

collision detection of the alternative Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection|CSMA/CD is unreliable due to the hidden node problem.

CSMA CA

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

10 Collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of the CSMA

Collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of the CSMA

method by attempting to divide the channel somewhat equally among all transmitting nodes within the collision domain.

CSMA CA - Details

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

11 Unlike CSMA/CD, it is very challenging for a wireless node to listen

Unlike CSMA/CD, it is very challenging for a wireless node to listen

at the same time as it transmits (its transmission will dwarf any attempt to listen)

CSMA CA - Details

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

12 Although CSMA/CA has been used in a variety of wired communication

Although CSMA/CA has been used in a variety of wired communication

systems, it is particularly beneficial in a wireless LAN due to a common problem of multiple stations being able to see the Access Point, but not each other

CSMA CA - Details

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

13 Studies show that under ideal propagation conditions (simulations),

Studies show that under ideal propagation conditions (simulations),

direct-sequence spread spectrum|Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) provides the highest throughput for all nodes on a network when used in conjunction with CSMA/CA and the IEEE 802.11 RTS/CTS exchange under light network load conditions

CSMA CA - Performance

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

14 * Apple Computer|Apple's LocalTalk implemented 'CSMA/CA' on an

* Apple Computer|Apple's LocalTalk implemented 'CSMA/CA' on an

electrical bus using a three-byte jamming signal.

CSMA CA - Usage

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

15 * The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a way to create a high-speed

* The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a way to create a high-speed

(up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network using existing home wiring (Power line communication|power lines, phone lines and ethernet over coax|coaxial cables), uses CSMA/CA as a channel access method for flows that don't require guaranteed quality of service, specifically the CSMA/CARP variant.

CSMA CA - Usage

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

16 In CSMA/CA collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of

In CSMA/CA collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of

CSMA by attempting to be less greedy on the channel. If the channel is sensed busy before transmission then the transmission is deferred for a random interval. This reduces the probability of collisions on the channel.

Carrier sense multiple access - CSMA with collision avoidance

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

17 VTCSMA is designed to avoid collision generated by nodes transmitting

VTCSMA is designed to avoid collision generated by nodes transmitting

signals simultaneously, used mostly in hard Real-time computing|real-time systems. The VTCSMA uses two clocks at every node, a virtual clock (vc) and a real clock (rc) which tells real time. When the channel is sensed to be busy, the vc freezes, when channel is free, it is reset. Hence, calculating vc runs faster than rc when channel is free, and vc is not initiated when channel is busy.

Carrier sense multiple access - Virtual time CSMA

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

18 1-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CD systems including Ethernet

1-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CD systems including Ethernet

Carrier sense multiple access - CSMA access modes

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

19 ; Non-persistent : Non persistent CSMA is a non aggressive

; Non-persistent : Non persistent CSMA is a non aggressive

transmission algorithm

Carrier sense multiple access - CSMA access modes

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

20 p-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CA systems including Wi-Fi and other

p-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CA systems including Wi-Fi and other

packet radio systems.

Carrier sense multiple access - CSMA access modes

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

21 O-persistent CSMA is used by CobraNet, LonWorks and the controller

O-persistent CSMA is used by CobraNet, LonWorks and the controller

area network.

Carrier sense multiple access - CSMA access modes

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

22 Again, CSMA/CARP is similar to the functions of the CSMA/CA

Again, CSMA/CARP is similar to the functions of the CSMA/CA

CSMA/CARP

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

23 In addition to having a different IFS per priority, a station in a

In addition to having a different IFS per priority, a station in a

CSMA/CARP network will add a random backoff to its waiting period, to reduce the collision probability between stations that have to transmit packets in the same priority.

CSMA/CARP

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

24 * The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed local area

* The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed local area

networking over existing home wiring (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables) includes support for CSMA/CARP, although only during certain periods of time called Shared Transmission Opportunities (STXOP). During the rest of the time, G.hn uses a Time division multiple access Channel access method to ensure Quality of Service.

CSMA/CARP - Applications

https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

25 https://store

https://store

theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html

For More Information, Visit:

The Art of Service https://store.theartofservice.com

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