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Chapter 14: Applets and More
Chapter 14: Applets and More
Chapter Topics
Chapter Topics
Introduction to Applets
Introduction to Applets
Introduction to Applets
Introduction to Applets
Introduction to Applets
Introduction to Applets
Applet Limitations
Applet Limitations
Introduction to HTML
Introduction to HTML
Introduction to HTML
Introduction to HTML
Document Structure Tags
Document Structure Tags
Document Structure Tags
Document Structure Tags
Text Formatting Tags
Text Formatting Tags
Text Formatting Tags
Text Formatting Tags
Breaks in Text
Breaks in Text
Breaks in Text
Breaks in Text
HTML Links
HTML Links
HTML Links
HTML Links
Creating Applets With Swing
Creating Applets With Swing
Creating Applets With Swing
Creating Applets With Swing
Running an Applet
Running an Applet
Running an Applet
Running an Applet
Using appletviewer
Using appletviewer
Applet Event Handling
Applet Event Handling
Using AWT for Portability
Using AWT for Portability
Using AWT for Portability
Using AWT for Portability
Drawing Shapes
Drawing Shapes
XY Coordinates
XY Coordinates
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Graphics Objects
Rectangles
Rectangles
Ovals and Bounding Rectangles
Ovals and Bounding Rectangles
Arcs
Arcs
Polygons
Polygons
Polygons
Polygons
The repaint Method
The repaint Method
Drawing on Panels
Drawing on Panels
Drawing on Panels
Drawing on Panels
Drawing on Panels
Drawing on Panels
Handling Mouse Events
Handling Mouse Events
Handling Mouse Events
Handling Mouse Events
Mouse Listener Methods
Mouse Listener Methods
Mouse Events
Mouse Events
Mouse Motion Events
Mouse Motion Events
Mouse Motion Listener Methods
Mouse Motion Listener Methods
Using Adapter Classes
Using Adapter Classes
Timer Objects
Timer Objects
Timer Objects
Timer Objects
Timer Object Methods
Timer Object Methods
Timer Object Methods
Timer Object Methods
Playing Audio
Playing Audio
Playing Audio
Playing Audio
Playing Audio
Playing Audio
Using an AudioClip Object
Using an AudioClip Object
Using an AudioClip Object
Using an AudioClip Object
Playing Audio in an Application
Playing Audio in an Application

: Applets and More. : mlong. : Applets and More.ppt. zip-: 188 .

Applets and More

Applets and More.ppt
1 Chapter 14: Applets and More

Chapter 14: Applets and More

Starting Out with Java: From Control Structures through Objects Fifth Edition by Tony Gaddis

2 Chapter Topics

Chapter Topics

Chapter 14 discusses the following main topics: Introduction to Applets A Brief Introduction to HTML Creating Applets with Swing Using AWT for Portability Drawing Shapes Handling Mouse and Key Events Timer Objects Playing Audio

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3 Introduction to Applets

Introduction to Applets

There are two types of programs you can create with Java: applications applets. An application is a stand-alone program that runs on your computer. Applets are Java programs that are usually part of a Web site. If a user opens the Web site with a Java-enabled browser, the applet is executed inside the browser window.

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4 Introduction to Applets

Introduction to Applets

It appears to the user that the applet is part of the Web site. Applets are stored on a Web server along with the sites Web pages. Applets associated with a viewed web page are transmitted to the users system. Once the applets are transmitted, the users system executes them. Applets can be used to extend the capabilities of a Web page.

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5 Introduction to Applets

Introduction to Applets

Web pages are normally written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). HTML is static content; whereas, applets are dynamic. An applet does not have to be on a web server in order to be executed. They can be stored on the local computer.

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6 Applet Limitations

Applet Limitations

Applets run on the users system, not the server. For security purposes, applets can not: access the local computer file system, run any other program on the users system. execute operating system procedures. retrieve information about the user or their system. make network connections with any system except the server from which the applet was transmitted. run anonymously. If an applet displays a window, it will automatically have a message such as Warning: Applet Window displayed in it.

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7 Introduction to HTML

Introduction to HTML

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the language that Web pages are written in. Hypertext can contain a link to other content on the web page, or another web page. A Markup Language allows you to mark up a text file by inserting special instructions. These instructions tell the browser how to format the text and create any hypertext links. To make a web page, create a text file: that contains HTML instructions (known as tags), the text that should be displayed on the Web page, and typically has a .html file extension.

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8 Introduction to HTML

Introduction to HTML

This document is called an HTML document. The tags instruct the browser: how to format the text, where to place images, what to do when the user clicks on a link, etc. Most HTML tags have an opening tag and a closing tag. <tag_name>Text</tag_name> The tags are enclosed in angle brackets (< >). The closing tag is preceded by a forward slash (/).

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9 Document Structure Tags

Document Structure Tags

The <html></html> tag marks the beginning and ending of an HTML document. The tag <head></head> marks the document head, a section containing information about the document. The document head contains the <title> </title> tag, which is contains the title of the document. Example: BasicWebPage1.html

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10 Document Structure Tags

Document Structure Tags

After the document head comes the <body></body> tag. The document body contains all of the tags and text that produce output in the browser. Example: BasicWebPage2.html

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11 Text Formatting Tags

Text Formatting Tags

There are many HTML tags that you can use to change the appearance of text. For example, there are six different header tags. <h1></h1> through <h6></h6> A level one header appears in boldface, and is much larger than regular text. A level two header also appears in boldface, but is smaller than a level one header. This pattern continues with the other header tags.

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12 Text Formatting Tags

Text Formatting Tags

Many tags allow an align attribute to be used to modify where the text shows on the web page: <h1 align="center">Text</h1> <h1 align="left">Text</h1> <h1 align="right">Text</h1> An old way of centering text is to use the <center></center> tag to center a line of text. You can display text: in boldface <b></b>, and italics <i></i> . Example: BasicWebPage3.html

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13 Breaks in Text

Breaks in Text

The <br /> tag causes a line break to appear at the point in the text where it is inserted. Browsers usually ignore the newline characters that are created when you press the Enter key. The <p /> tag causes a paragraph break. A paragraph break typically inserts more space into the text than a line break.

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14 Breaks in Text

Breaks in Text

The <hr /> tag causes a horizontal rule to appear at the point in the text where it is inserted. A horizontal rule is a thin, horizontal line that is drawn across the web page. Example: BasicWebPage4.html

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15 HTML Links

HTML Links

A link is some element in a Web page that can be clicked on by the user. The tag that is used to insert a link has the following general format: <a href="Address">Text</a> The Text that appears between the opening and closing tags is the text that will be displayed in the web page. The web resource that is located at Address will be displayed in the browser.

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16 HTML Links

HTML Links

This address is a uniform resource locator (URL). The address is enclosed in quotation marks. Example: <a href="http://www.gaddisbooks.com">Click here to go to the textbook's web site.</a> Example: LinkDemo.html

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17 Creating Applets With Swing

Creating Applets With Swing

Applets are very similar to the GUI applications. Instead of displaying its own window, an applet appears in the browsers window. The differences between GUI application code and applet code are: A GUI application class is derived from JFrame. An applet class is derived from JApplet. The JApplet class is part of the javax.swing package. A GUI application class has a constructor that creates other components and sets up the GUI. An applet class does not normally have a constructor. Instead, it has a method named init that performs the same operations as a constructor.

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18 Creating Applets With Swing

Creating Applets With Swing

The differences are (continued): The following methods are not called in an applet: super setSize setDefaultCloseOperation pack setVisible No main method is needed to create an Applet object. The browser creates an instance of the class automatically. Example: SimpleApplet.java SimpleApplet.html

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19 Running an Applet

Running an Applet

The process of running an applet is different from that of running an application. To run an applet, create an HTML document with an APPLET tag, which has the following general format: <applet code="Filename.class" width="width_value" height="height_value"></applet> Dont forget the closing angle bracket. Attributes should be enclosed in quotes.

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20 Running an Applet

Running an Applet

Filename.class is the compiled bytecode of the applet, not the .java file. You can optionally specify a path along with the file name. If you specify only the file name, it is assumed that the file is in the same directory as the HTML The browser: loads specified byte code, and executes it in an area that is the size specified by the width_value and height_value.

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21 Using appletviewer

Using appletviewer

The appletviewer program loads and executes an applet without the need for a Web browser. When running the program, specify the name of an HTML document as a command line argument. appletviewer SimpleApplet.html This command executes any applet referenced by an APPLET tag in the file SimpleApplet.html. If the document has more than one APPLET tag, it will execute each applet in a separate window.

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22 Applet Event Handling

Applet Event Handling

Events in applets are handled with event listeners exactly as they are in GUI applications. Example: TempConverter.java TempConverter.html

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23 Using AWT for Portability

Using AWT for Portability

AWT is the original library that has been part of Java since its earliest version. Swing is an improved library that was introduced with Java 2. Some browsers do not directly support the Swing classes in applets. These browsers require a plug-in to run swing applets. This plug-in is automatically installed on a computer when the Java SDK is installed.

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24 Using AWT for Portability

Using AWT for Portability

Other people running applets might not have the required plug-in. The AWT classes can be used instead of the Swing classes for the components in the applet. The AWT component classes: there is a corresponding AWT class for each of the Swing classes covered so far. The names of the AWT classes names do not start with the letter J. Example: AWTTempConverter.java, TempConverter.html

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25 Drawing Shapes

Drawing Shapes

Components have an associated Graphics object that may be used to draw lines and shapes. Java allows drawing of lines and graphical shapes such as rectangles, ovals, and arcs. Frame or panels can become a canvas for your drawings.

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26 XY Coordinates

XY Coordinates

The location of each pixel in a component is identified with an X coordinate and a Y coordinate. The coordinates are usually written in the form (X, Y). Unlike Cartesian coordinates, the upper-left corner of a drawing area (0, 0). The X coordinates increase from left to right, and the Y coordinates increase from top to bottom. When drawing a line or shape on a component, you must indicate its position using X and Y coordinates.

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27 Graphics Objects

Graphics Objects

Each component has an internal object that is derived from the Graphics class, which is part of the java.awt package. This object has numerous methods for drawing graphical shapes on the surface of the component.

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28 Graphics Objects

Graphics Objects

Some of the methods of the Graphics class: setColor(Color c) Sets the drawing color for this object. getColor() Returns the current drawing color for this object. drawLine(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2) Draws a line on the component drawRect(int x, int y, int width, int height) Draws the outline of a rectangle on the component. fillOval(int x, int y, int width, int height) Draws a filled oval. drawString(String str, int x, int y) Draws the string passed into str using the current font.

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29 Graphics Objects

Graphics Objects

In order to call these methods, you must get a reference to a components Graphics object. One way to do this is to override the paint method. You can override the paint method in any class that is derived from: JApplet JFrame Any AWT class The paint method is responsible for displaying, or painting, a component on the screen.

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30 Graphics Objects

Graphics Objects

The paint method is automatically called when the component is first displayed and any time the component needs to be redisplayed. The header for the paint method is: public void paint(Graphics g) The methods argument is a Graphics object, which is automatically passed by the calling component. Overriding the paint method, allows drawing of graphics on the Graphics object argument. Example: LineDemo.java, LineDemo.html

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31 Graphics Objects

Graphics Objects

The Graphics object argument is responsible for drawing the entire applet window. It is advisable to call the base class paint method passing the Graphics object, g, as an argument: super.paint(g); g.setColor(Color.red); g.drawLine(20, 20, 280, 280); This is a red diagonal line drawn from the top-left area of the applet window to the bottom-right area.

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32 Rectangles

Rectangles

Rectangles can be drawn or filled. g.drawRect(10, 10, 50, 50); g.fillRect(10, 10, 50, 50); The fillRect and drawRect take four integers as parameters: drawRect(int x, int y, int width, int height) Example: RectangleDemo.java RectangleDemo.html

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33 Ovals and Bounding Rectangles

Ovals and Bounding Rectangles

Ovals are created by drawing the oval inside of a bounding rectangle. This rectangle is invisible to the viewer of the Graphics object. g.fillOval(x, y, width, height);

Example: OvalDemo.java OvalDemo.html

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34 Arcs

Arcs

Arcs are drawn from the 90 degree position counterclockwise and can be filled or unfilled g.drawArc(0, 20, 120, 120, 0, 90); g.fillArc(0, 20, 120, 120, 0, 90); The fillArc and drawArc take six integers as parameters: drawArc(int x, int y, int width, int height, int start, int end) Example: ArcDemo.java ArcDemo.html

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35 Polygons

Polygons

Polygons are drawn using arrays of integers representing x, y coordinates int[]xCoords={60,100,140,140,100,60,20,20}; int[]yCoords={20,20,60,100,140,140,100,60};

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36 Polygons

Polygons

The fillPolygon and drawPolygon use the arrays as parameters: Example: PolygonDemo.java PolygonDemo.html

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37 The repaint Method

The repaint Method

We do not call a components paint method. It is automatically called when the component must be redisplayed. We can force the application or applet to call the paint method. repaint(); The repaint method clears the surface of the component and then calls the paint method.

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38 Drawing on Panels

Drawing on Panels

To draw on a panel, get a reference to the panels Graphics object and use that objects methods. The resulting graphics are drawn only on the panel. Getting a reference to a JPanel components Graphics object is similar to previous examples. Instead of overriding the JPanel objects paint method, override its paintComponent method. This is true for all Swing components except JApplet and JFrame.

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39 Drawing on Panels

Drawing on Panels

The paintComponent method serves the same purpose as the paint method. When it is called, the components Graphics object is passed as an argument. public void paintComponent(Graphics g) When overriding this method, first call the base classs paintComponent method. super.paintComponent(g);

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40 Drawing on Panels

Drawing on Panels

After this you can call any of the Graphics objects methods to draw on the component. Example: GraphicsWindow.java, DrawingPanel.java, GraphicsWindow.html

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41 Handling Mouse Events

Handling Mouse Events

The mouse generates two types of events: mouse events and mouse motion events. Any component derived from the Component class can handle events generated by the mouse. To handle mouse events you create: a mouse listener class and/or a mouse motion listener class.

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42 Handling Mouse Events

Handling Mouse Events

A mouse listener class can respond to any of the follow events: The mouse button is pressed. The mouse button is released. The mouse button is clicked on (pressed, then released without moving the mouse). The mouse cursor enters a components screen space. The mouse cursor exits a components screen space. A mouse listener class must implement the MouseListener interface.

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43 Mouse Listener Methods

Mouse Listener Methods

public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) called if the mouse button is pressed over the component. public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e) called if the mouse is pressed and released over the component without moving the mouse. public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e) called when the mouse button is released. public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent e) called when the mouse cursor enters the screen area of the component. public void mouseExited(MouseEvent e) This method is called when the mouse cursor leaves the screen area of the component.

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44 Mouse Events

Mouse Events

The MouseEvent object contains data about the mouse event. getX and getY are two common methods of the MouseEvent class. They return the X and Y coordinates of the mouse cursor when the event occurs. Once a mouse listener class is created, it can be registered with a component using the addMouseListener method

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45 Mouse Motion Events

Mouse Motion Events

The appropriate methods in the mouse listener class are automatically called when their corresponding mouse events occur. A mouse motion listener class can respond to the following events: The mouse is dragged The mouse moved. A mouse motion listener class must implement the MouseMotionListener interface and its methods.

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46 Mouse Motion Listener Methods

Mouse Motion Listener Methods

public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent e) called when a dragging operation begins over the component. The mousePressed method is always called just before this method. public void mouseMoved(MouseEvent e) called when the mouse cursor is over the component and it is moved. Example: MouseEvents.java MouseEvents.html

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47 Using Adapter Classes

Using Adapter Classes

The mouse listener class must implement all of the methods required by the interfaces they implement. If any of the methods are omitted, a compiler error results. The MouseAdapter and MouseMotionAdapter classes provide empty implementations of the methods. They can serve as base classes for mouse listener and mouse motion listener classes. Examples: DrawBoxes.java, DrawBoxes.html, DrawBoxes2.java, DrawBoxes2.html

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48 Timer Objects

Timer Objects

Timer objects automatically generate action events at regular time intervals. This is useful when you want a program to: perform an operation at certain times or after an amount of time has passed. Timer objects are created from the Timer class. The general format of the Timer classs constructor: Timer(int delay, ActionListener listener)

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49 Timer Objects

Timer Objects

The delay parameter is the amount of time between action events in milliseconds. The the listener parameter is a reference to an action listener to be registered with the Timer object. Passing null will cause no action listener to be registered. the Timer objects addActionListener method can register an action listener after the objects creation.

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50 Timer Object Methods

Timer Object Methods

void addActionListener (ActionListener listener) Registers the object referenced by listener as an action listener. int getDelay() Returns the current time delay in milliseconds. boolean isRunning() Returns true if the Timer object is running. void setDelay(int delay) Sets the time delay in milliseconds. void start() Starts the Timer object. void stop() Stops the Timer object.

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51 Timer Object Methods

Timer Object Methods

An application can use a Timer object to automatically execute code at regular time intervals. Example: BouncingBall.java BouncingBall.html

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52 Playing Audio

Playing Audio

Java programs can play audio that is stored in a variety sound file formats. .aif or .aiff (Macintosh Audio File) .au (Sun Audio File) .mid or .rmi (MIDI File) .wav (Windows Wave File) One way to play an audio file is to use the Applet classs play method. One version of this method is: void play(URL baseLocation, String fileName)

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53 Playing Audio

Playing Audio

The argument passed to baseLocation is a URL object that specifies the location of the file. The argument passed to fileName is and name of the file. The sound that is recorded in the file is played one time. The getDocumentBase or getCodeBase methods can get a URL object for the first argument.

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54 Playing Audio

Playing Audio

The getDocumentBase method returns a URL object containing the location of the HTML file that invoked the applet. play(getDocumentBase(), "mysound.wav"); The getCodeBase method returns a URL object containing the location of the applets .class file. play(getCodeBase(), "mysound.wav"); If the sound file specified by the arguments to the play method cannot be found, no sound will be played.

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55 Using an AudioClip Object

Using an AudioClip Object

The Applet classs play method: loads a sound file, plays it one time, and releases it for garbage collection. If you need to load a sound file to be played multiple times, use an AudioClip object. An AudioClip object is an object that implements the AuidoClip interface.

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56 Using an AudioClip Object

Using an AudioClip Object

The AudioClip interface specifies the following three methods: play plays a sound one time. loop repeatedly plays a sound. stop causes a sound to stop playing. The Applet classs getAudioClip method can be used to create an AudioClip object: AudioClip getAudioClip(URL baseLocation, String fileName) The method returns an AudioClip object that can be used to play the sound file. Example: AudioDemo2.java, AudioDemo2.html

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57 Playing Audio in an Application

Playing Audio in an Application

Playing audio in from a JFrame is slightly different than playing audio from an applet.

Example: AudioFrame.java

// Create a file object for the step.wav file. File file = new File("step.wav"); // Get a URI object for the audio file. URI uri = file.toURI(); // Get a URL for the audio file. URL url = uri.toURL(); // Get an AudioClip object for the sound // file using the Applet class's static // newAudioClip method. sound = Applet.newAudioClip(url);

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