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Argentina
Argentina
Argentina~Background Information
Argentina~Background Information
The Argentine Republic
The Argentine Republic
Argentina
Argentina
People
People
History
History
Argentine Politics: Conflict and Charisma
Argentine Politics: Conflict and Charisma
Military and Politics
Military and Politics
1940s
1940s
Peronism
Peronism
Post-Peron
Post-Peron
Military in Government
Military in Government
Onset of Dirty War
Onset of Dirty War
The Dirty War
The Dirty War
Democratic Transition
Democratic Transition
Carlos Menem
Carlos Menem
Fernando De la Rua
Fernando De la Rua
President(s)
President(s)
President(s)
President(s)
Personalism vs Institutionalism
Personalism vs Institutionalism
Kirchner
Kirchner

: Argentina. : UNCW. : Argentina.ppt. zip-: 861 .

Argentina

Argentina.ppt
1 Argentina

Argentina

2 Argentina~Background Information

Argentina~Background Information

Official Name: The Argentine Republic Population (2001): 36.02 million Ethnic Groups: European 85%, mostly of Spanish or Italian descent. Mestizo, Armerindian or other non-white groups15% Religion: 92% Roman Catholic, Protestant 2%, other 4%. Language: Spanish Education 10 years compulsory (Adult Literacy (2001) 97%.)

3 The Argentine Republic

The Argentine Republic

Presidential democracy Nestor Kirchner Bicameral Congress Senate (72) Chamber of Deputies (257) Judiciary: Supreme Court Administrative subdivisions: 23 provinces, one federal district (Buenos Aires).

2.8 million sq. miles 36.02 million pop. GDP $263 billion Per capita: $7,400 Growth: -4.5%

4 Argentina
5 People

People

Descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants. Overwhelmingly Catholic with largest Jewish population in South America. Indigenous population mainly in northern provinces. Majority of the population urbanized, half considers itself middle class.

6 History

History

1516 Juan Diaz de Solias visits area of contemporary Argentina. Spanish colony est. 1580 at site of Buenos Aires which becomes an important port. 1816 independence declared San Martin most important leader of the movement. Post Spanish defeat civil conflict over future. 1853 Constitution promulgated.

7 Argentine Politics: Conflict and Charisma

Argentine Politics: Conflict and Charisma

Conservatives and Radicals were the dominant factions in Argentine politics from independence. Conservatives elite controlled, hierarchically ordered political system (ex: limited suffrage). Radicals fair elections/democratic institutions (Union Civica Radical) Juan Peron emerges on national scene in military coup of 1943. Peron wins election 1946.

8 Military and Politics

Military and Politics

In 1930s military begins a process of modernization and professionalization. Divided on best political leadership for Argentina: Different factions supported: oligarchy, semi-fascism, corporatism (hierarchical order based on function), became convinced it was best qualified to run government.

9 1940s

1940s

Antipathy to Allied powers. Argentine military views neutrality as good for the economy. Military impatient with corrupt, disorganized civilian politics. Class consciousness emerges among workers (military sympathetic).

10 Peronism

Peronism

Corporatism with a difference Base is the working class, industrialists, military An interventionist role for the state in the economy Populist message: promised promoting Argentine solutions while channeling material and psychological rewards to workers (previously denied). Increased minimum wages Encouraged strikes, stepped in to settle in favor of workers. Reduced foreign influence in the economy Nationalized railroads (GB constructed). Initial results: 1946-50 GDP grew 5-12% annually.

11 Post-Peron

Post-Peron

Peron exiled in 1955 Growing class conflict Death of Evita (1953) Loss of control (especially anti-clericalism) Military stewardship until 1958 Not effective in reversing economic decline Political parties divided (strong anti-Peron) 1958-62 transition, Frondizi administration IMF program adopted: 25% cut in worker wages, 97% increase in income to beef industry emphasis reversed from workers to capitalists. 1966 military intervenes determined to restructure Argentine society.

12 Military in Government

Military in Government

Unable to successfully restructure economy Opposition develops Clandestine torture, kidnapping on part of military opposition groups engage in terror tactics. Peron influencing system from (30 yr) exile. Returns to power in 1973 elections via Hector Campora a stand-in candidate.

13 Onset of Dirty War

Onset of Dirty War

Peron and wife Isabel run as President/VP in 1973 (new elections). Peron ticket wins Peron dies in 1974. Isabel unable to control the government. Turns on supporters Erratic changes in Cabinet Economy out of control Revolutionaries unchecked Removed by coup in 1976 military allowed the situation to worsen.

14 The Dirty War

The Dirty War

1976-1980 (82) 10,000-30,000 disappeared. Shows the ability of a well equipped government to put down guerrilla movements. Military goal was to fundamentally alter nature of Argentine society. Military expanded beyond government to social arenas (sports/charitable organizations). Falkland/Malvinas conflict discredits military.

15 Democratic Transition

Democratic Transition

1983 elections Raul Alfonsin (UCR) Radical Party leader wins. (6 year term) Disappeared Economic stabilization Civilian control of armed forces Consolidating democratic institutions Economic stabilization package less than successful leaves office 6 months early.

16 Carlos Menem

Carlos Menem

Peronist-Justicialist (Justicialist) Party 1989 presidential election winner Reversed the role of the state in Argentine economy (privatization). Imposes peso-dollar parity. Continued with efforts to resolve los desaparacedos situation. 1995 wins re-election. Large public sector debt problematic in eyes of international financial community.

17 Fernando De la Rua

Fernando De la Rua

Radical Party candidate wins presidential election in 1999. Raises taxes in attempt to deal with debt situation chokes off domestic growth..intensifying the recession. Economy tailspins inflation skyrockets, growth at a stop, government stops citizen access to banked monies. Peso-dollar convertibility stops inflation but makes peso less competitive in export environment. Chronic deficit made worse by continued IMF loaning Asian financial crisis 98 capital outflow panic 11/01 Riots violence De la Rua resigns in December 2001.

18 President(s)

President(s)

The Legislative Assembly moved to replace De la Rua with an interim and scheduled elections for within three months. December 23-30, 2001 Adolfo Rodriguez Saa Continued violence, lack of support led to his 12/30 resignation. January 1, 2002 Eduardo Duhalde Rising poverty, continued social unrest government response has been to increase social programs; continue efforts at economic stabilization.

19 President(s)

President(s)

April 27, 2003 first round presidential elections: Menem (PJ) 24.3% of vote Nestor Kirchner (PJ) 22% Ricardo Murphy 16.4% Elisa Carrio 14.2% Menem withdraws before runoff May 25 (polling shows overwhelming support for Kirchner). Kirchner takes office May 25, 2003

20 Personalism vs Institutionalism

Personalism vs Institutionalism

Argentinas political history is dominated by personalities. Institutional strength vis-?-vis individuals or organizations, such as the military is increasing but has not yet fully emerged. Military remains independent of the civilian political system as opposed to subordinate to civilian rule. Military does appear to be out of crisis political decisions but is this because of institutional change or merely because it chooses to remain outside of these processes? Economic growth/stability still not systematic.

21 Kirchner

Kirchner

Was Santa Cruz governor. Peronist-Justicialist Party. Wife is Senator Christina Fernandez de Kirchner Focused on increasing support beyond 22% in April 03 election. Terms are 4 years and limited to one re-election. Reforms include social efforts such as increasing the minimum wage, pensions, some governmental salaries. Economic reforms include continuing.

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