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Chapter 5  Atoms & Bonding
Chapter 5 Atoms & Bonding
Electron Shells
Electron Shells
Shells
Shells
Valence Electrons & Bonding
Valence Electrons & Bonding
Lets practice
Lets practice
Valence Electrons & Bonding
Valence Electrons & Bonding
Valence Electrons & Bonding
Valence Electrons & Bonding
Chapter 5  Atoms & Bonding
Chapter 5 Atoms & Bonding
Electron Sharing
Electron Sharing
Drawing covalent Bonds
Drawing covalent Bonds
How many Bonds
How many Bonds
Attraction between Molecules
Attraction between Molecules
Chapter 5  Atoms & Bonding
Chapter 5 Atoms & Bonding
Ionic Bonding
Ionic Bonding
Ions
Ions
Ions
Ions
Properties of Ionic Compounds
Properties of Ionic Compounds
Chemical Formula & Names
Chemical Formula & Names
Naming Ionic Compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds
Practice with Ionic Bonds
Practice with Ionic Bonds
Ions
Ions

: Atoms Bonding. : Ryan Archer. : Atoms Bonding.ppt. zip-: 787 .

Atoms Bonding

Atoms Bonding.ppt
1 Chapter 5  Atoms & Bonding

Chapter 5 Atoms & Bonding

2 Electron Shells

Electron Shells

Electrons arent the same distance from the nucleus. They are arranged in shells or energy levels. The electrons in the outer shell are called valence electrons Each shell can hold only a certain number of electrons.

3 Shells

Shells

First shell = 2 electrons the sports car Second shell = 8 electrons the mini van Third shell= 8 electrons another mini van

4 Valence Electrons & Bonding

Valence Electrons & Bonding

Valence e- = electrons in the outermost shell responsible for bonding The number of valence e- in an atom of an element determines many traits of that element, including the ways in which the atom can bond with other atoms The family # tells you the number of valence electrons for each element in the family (A groups only)

5 Lets practice

Lets practice

According to the periodic table how many valence electrons do the following atoms have: Sodium (Na) Oxygen (O) How do you know? Its the same as the family #

6 Valence Electrons & Bonding

Valence Electrons & Bonding

Atoms are more stable (less likely to react) when they have 8 valence electrons Atoms can gain or lose electrons in order to have 8 valence electrons Chemical Bond the force of attraction that holds two atoms together

7 Valence Electrons & Bonding

Valence Electrons & Bonding

Electron Dot Diagram includes the symbol for the element surrounded by dotsthe dots show the valence electrons

8 Chapter 5  Atoms & Bonding

Chapter 5 Atoms & Bonding

Section 3 - Covalent Bonds Standards 3.b Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements. 7.c Students know substances can be classified by their properties, including their melting temperature, density, hardness and thermal and electrical conductivity

9 Electron Sharing

Electron Sharing

Atoms can share valence e- to fill the outer shell. Non-metals tend to make covalent bonds. Covalent Bond a chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons Ex: H2O Cl2

10 Drawing covalent Bonds

Drawing covalent Bonds

We can use electron dot diagrams to set up an atom to have 8 valence electrons Electrons can be shared in order to fulfill the octet rule (8 valence electrons) Draw an electron dot diagram for Oxygen in black: Draw 2 Hydrogen atoms electron dot diagrams in red: Circle the shared electrons for each atom:

11 How many Bonds

How many Bonds

Atoms can share more than one pair of electrons. Double Bond two pairs of electrons being shared between two atoms

Triple Bond three pairs of electrons being shared between two atoms

12 Attraction between Molecules

Attraction between Molecules

Differences in the attractions between molecules lead to different properties in polar and nonpolar compounds

13 Chapter 5  Atoms & Bonding

Chapter 5 Atoms & Bonding

Section 2 Ionic Bonds Standards 3.b Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements. 3.c Students know that atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers

14 Ionic Bonding

Ionic Bonding

Atoms can give and take valence electrons to fill their outer shell. When an atom loses or gains electrons, the protons no longer balance out the electrons, and the atom becomes positively or negatively charged.

15 Ions

Ions

Ion an atom or group of atoms that has become electrically charged When an atom loses an electron it has a positive charge When an atom gains an electron it has a negative charge

Element

Ion

Element

Ion

Hydrogen

H +

Flouride

F -

Potassium

K +

Chloride

Cl -

Sodium

Na +

Bromide

Br -

Barium

Ba 2+

Iodide

I -

Calcium

Ca 2+

Bromide

Br -

Magnesium

Mg 2+

Oxide

O 2-

Aluminum

Al 3+

Sulfide

S 2-

Boron

B 3+

Nitride

N 3-

Lithium

Li +

Phosphide

P 3-

16 Ions

Ions

Ionic Bond the attraction between two oppositely charged ions Ionic bonds form as a result of the attraction between positive and negative ions Ionic Compound compound that consists of positive and negative ions

17 Properties of Ionic Compounds

Properties of Ionic Compounds

The characteristic properties of ionic compounds are: Crystal Shape orderly 3-D shape High Melting Point ionic bonds are strong Electrical Conductivity when dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity

18 Chemical Formula & Names

Chemical Formula & Names

Chemical Formula combination of symbols that shows the ratio of elements in a compound Ex. MgCl2 or NaCl or K2S When ionic compounds form, the ions come together in a way that balances out the charges on the ions Subscript tells you the ratio of elements in the compound Ex. MgCl2 - 1 Magnesium ion and 2 Chlorine ions

19 Naming Ionic Compounds

Naming Ionic Compounds

The name of the positive ion goes first Then the name of the negative ion

If the negative ion is an element, add the ending ide If the negative ion is polyatomic, leave the name the same

Mg2+ + O2- ? MgO Magnesium Oxide Na+ + CO32- ? Na2CO3 Sodium Carbonate

20 Practice with Ionic Bonds

Practice with Ionic Bonds

Examples: Na + Cl ? NaCl

Na+ + Cl ? NaCl

Mg + Cl ? MgCl

Mg2+ + Cl ? MgCl2

Ca + O ? CaO

Ca2+ + O2 ? CaO

Al + O ? AlO

Al3+ + O2 ? Al2O3

21 Ions

Ions

Polyatomic Ion ions that are made of more than one atom Poly means many So polyatomic means many atoms

Element

Ion

Ammonium

NH4 +

Bicarbonate

HCO 3-

Nitrate

NO3 -

Carbonate

CO3 2-

Sulfate

SO4 2-

Phosphate

PO4 3-

Atoms Bonding
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