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Himachal Pradesh MARKET INTERVENTION TO ENSURE REMUNNERATIVE PRICES
Himachal Pradesh MARKET INTERVENTION TO ENSURE REMUNNERATIVE PRICES
Introduction
Introduction
Today, Himachal Pradesh has emerged as an important fruit & vegetables
Today, Himachal Pradesh has emerged as an important fruit & vegetables
Agro climatic zone of the State
Agro climatic zone of the State
Name of zone
Name of zone
In zone, III & IV farmers are growing off season vegetables which are
In zone, III & IV farmers are growing off season vegetables which are
Vegetable production
Vegetable production
Crop-wise Vegetable production:
Crop-wise Vegetable production:
Fruit production
Fruit production
Area and production of fruit crops
Area and production of fruit crops
The marketable surplus of vegetables
The marketable surplus of vegetables
The marketable surplus of fruit crops ( out of state) (in boxes of 20
The marketable surplus of fruit crops ( out of state) (in boxes of 20
152232
152232
The marketable surplus of other commercial crops
The marketable surplus of other commercial crops
Marketing season of major crops
Marketing season of major crops
S.No
S.No
Arrivals of fruits and vegetables in apmcs
Arrivals of fruits and vegetables in apmcs
Present statues of marketing infrastructure
Present statues of marketing infrastructure
APMC’s and market sub yards
APMC’s and market sub yards
Market intervention
Market intervention
Farmer level
Farmer level
APMCs level
APMCs level
Strengthening of marketing infrastructure In production areas through
Strengthening of marketing infrastructure In production areas through
The availability of marketing infrastructure i.e. Small
The availability of marketing infrastructure i.e. Small
Alternative marketing channels: Direct marketing to consumers/retail
Alternative marketing channels: Direct marketing to consumers/retail
Modernization and expansion of existing yards providing therein
Modernization and expansion of existing yards providing therein
Govt
Govt
In addition, Government is implementing Market Intervention Scheme
In addition, Government is implementing Market Intervention Scheme
The Price Support Scheme (PSS) and Market Intervention Scheme (MIS)
The Price Support Scheme (PSS) and Market Intervention Scheme (MIS)
State wise implementation of price sport scheme & Market intervention
State wise implementation of price sport scheme & Market intervention
Minimum Support Price (MSP) Wheat and paddy are two major agricultural
Minimum Support Price (MSP) Wheat and paddy are two major agricultural
In Punjab and Haryana farmers are able to sell their surplus wheat and
In Punjab and Haryana farmers are able to sell their surplus wheat and
Efficiency of market intervention scheme (MIS)
Efficiency of market intervention scheme (MIS)
Coverage of districts under mis for different fruits
Coverage of districts under mis for different fruits
Period of implementation
Period of implementation
Price announcement of mis
Price announcement of mis
Cost of fruit procurement under MIS
Cost of fruit procurement under MIS
Details of procurement rate, quantity procured and dispatch of apple
Details of procurement rate, quantity procured and dispatch of apple
District wise procurement of apples and value of procured apples under
District wise procurement of apples and value of procured apples under
S. No
S. No
Issues/problems of mis in the state
Issues/problems of mis in the state
Suggestions:
Suggestions:
Handling charges need to area specific so that the collection of
Handling charges need to area specific so that the collection of
The positive effects of market intervention
The positive effects of market intervention
Issue
Issue
Conclusion
Conclusion
Boon for farmer when excessive production
Boon for farmer when excessive production
Thanks
Thanks

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Apple 10 сентября 2013

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1 Himachal Pradesh MARKET INTERVENTION TO ENSURE REMUNNERATIVE PRICES

Himachal Pradesh MARKET INTERVENTION TO ENSURE REMUNNERATIVE PRICES

National conference on Agriculture for Kharif campaign 26-27th February, 2014.

2 Introduction

Introduction

Agriculture sector provides direct employment to about 69% of the main working population in the State. Contribution from the Agriculture and allied sectors account for nearly 20% of the total state domestic product. Agriculture sector has experienced spectacular development due to progressive policy of Government and the adoption of improved/scientific production technology by the farmers. There was a great increase in the marketable surplus. Consequently the farmers were not getting remunerative price for their produce. For this purpose market intervention is essential to ensure the remunerative prices.

3 Today, Himachal Pradesh has emerged as an important fruit & vegetables

Today, Himachal Pradesh has emerged as an important fruit & vegetables

growing State in the country. The state is providing excellent quality of temperate fruits like apple, pear, stone fruits, nuts, etc. and sub-tropical fruits like mango, litchi, guava, citrus fruits etc. new fruits crops like-kiwi, strawberry, olive, hazelnuts etc. have been introduced in recent years, Besides flowers, vegetables, mushrooms, hops, honey, tea, medicinal and aromatic plants etc. are also being grown in the state. The Agro climatically the state is divided in to four zone.

4 Agro climatic zone of the State

Agro climatic zone of the State

Name of zone

Elevation in meters above Sea level

% Geographically area

% Cultivated area

Major Crops grown

SHIWALIK HILL ZONE (SubTropical, Sub mountain and low hills)

350-650

35%

40%

Wheat. Maize, Paddy, Black, Gram, Sugarcane, Mustard, Potato, Vegetables, Pulses etc.

MID HILL ZONE (Sub humid Mid hills)

651-1800

32%

37%

Wheat, Maize, Barley, Black Gram, Beans and Paddy Pulses and Forages ,off season vegetables, Ginger, seed production of cauliflower & root crops

5 Name of zone

Name of zone

Elevation in meters above Sea level

% Geographically area

% Cultivated area

Major Crops grown

HIGH HILL ZONE (Wet Temperate High hills)

1801-2200

35%

21%

Wheat, Barley, Lesser, Millets, Pseudo-cereals (Buckwheat and Amaranthus), Maize, Rice and Potato etc.

COLD DRY ZONE (Dry Temperate High Hills)

About 2200

8%

2%

Wheat, Barley, Rajmash, Pseudo cereals like Buckwheat and Amaranthus. It is ideally suited to the production of quality seed potato, temperate and European type of vegetables and their seeds, seed potato and peas seed.

6 In zone, III & IV farmers are growing off season vegetables which are

In zone, III & IV farmers are growing off season vegetables which are

marketed in the within state and adjoining plains of the country. The present status of area, production of vegetables and fruits marketable surplus is as under:

7 Vegetable production

Vegetable production

Vegetable production has increased form 25000 M tonnes during 1951-52 to 5,30,000 tonnes during 1966-67 & 12.68 lac tonnes during 2010-11. It further increased during 2010-11-12 to 13,56,600 MT Major vegetables include Peas, French bean, Cauliflower, Root Crops, Potato, Cucurbits, Onion, Garlic, Capsicum, Tomato, Cauliflower, Cabbage, etc. Area and production of different vegetables in the state is as under:

8 Crop-wise Vegetable production:

Crop-wise Vegetable production:

Crop

Crop

2010-11

2010-11

2011-12

2011-12

2012-13

2012-13

Area (Hac.)

Production (M.T)

Area (Hac.)

Production (M.T)

Area (Hac.)

Production (M.T)

Tomato

9944

388426

9870

392061

9930

413709

Peas

22823

254177

23672

274032

23668

280231

Cabbage

4513

144233

4349

141087

4387

149671

Cauliflower

3002

60701

4180

91640

4351

101710

Beans

3013

35789

3295

39157

3436

40879

Capsicum

2136

32092

2027

31670

2072

34132

Other vegetables

19644

353479

20575

969647

21021

377716

Total

65075

1268897

67968

1356600

68865

1398048

9 Fruit production

Fruit production

The agro-climatic conditions of Himachal Pradesh are extremely suitable for growing different varieties of fruits. Apple is the most important amongst all. The peak marketing season for apple is August to September year. During 2001, the apple production was 2, 75,036 MT alone out of total fruit production of 3.72823 MT Apart from this, there is vast potential of growing other temperate fruits. The area under fruits was 792 hac in 1950-51 with total production of 1200 tonnes which has increased drastically to 2.08 Lac hac. With total fruit production of 10.27 lac M tonnes during 2010.

10 Area and production of fruit crops

Area and production of fruit crops

Crop

Crop

2010-11

2010-11

2011-12

2011-12

2012-13

2012-13

Area (Hac.)

Production (M.T)

Area (Hac.)

Production (M.T)

Area (Hac.)

Production (M.T)

Apple

101485

892112

103644

275036

106440

412395

Pears

7370

32075

7333

11760

7283

25212

Peach

5182

9527

5181

5101

5159

11276

Mango

39194

31463

39568

28972

39828

50001

Orange

8621

17849

8554

13889

8609

13214

Others

49443

44795

50294

38065

50984

Total

211295

1027821

214574

372823

218303

555708

11 The marketable surplus of vegetables

The marketable surplus of vegetables

Vegetable

Marketable surplus (%)

Annually revenue generated through export

Peas

93

600-800 Crores

Tomato

95

Beans

94

Cabbage

93

Cauliflower

95

Capsicum

93

12 The marketable surplus of fruit crops ( out of state) (in boxes of 20

The marketable surplus of fruit crops ( out of state) (in boxes of 20

kg each)

Sr.No.

Name of the Market

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

1

Delhi

7401199

10745396

20211474

2

Chandigarh

3737729

5956535

9740069

3

Kalka

9901

14844

23270

4

Ludhiana

81865

122471

199455

5

Jalandhar

12377

18556

33243

6

Amritsar

9901

14845

26594

7

Luck now

34654

51957

93079

8

Ambala

12377

18556

33243

9

Moga

20421

30618

54850

10

Kolkata

49506

74225

132970

13 152232

152232

Sr.No.

Name of the Market

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

11

Mumbai

228241

408883

12

Chennai

60645

90925

152916

13

Ahmadabad

43318

64947

116349

14

Agra

40843

61235

109700

15

Saharanpur

33417

50102

89755

16

Karnal

12377

18556

33243

17

Other markets

664003

963066

1725289

Total

1,23,76,587

1,85,57,549

3,32,42,556

14 The marketable surplus of other commercial crops

The marketable surplus of other commercial crops

Name of crop

Area

Production

Marketing seasons

Major Distract Of marketable surplus

Maize

3 Lac hectare

7.6 lac tonne

1st Spt. 15 Nov.

Mandi, Bilaspur, Kangra and Kullu

Potato

14000 hectare

1.55 lac tonne

April-October, June-October Sept. December

Shimla, Kangra, Kinnaur, Chamba, Lahul Spiti and Sirmour

Ginger

2270 hectare

25500 tonnes

Sept. -December

Sirmour, Solan, Bilaspur and Shimla

Garlic

3339 hectare

44733 tonnes

April-June

Kullu, Mandi, Sirmour and Kangra

15 Marketing season of major crops

Marketing season of major crops

S.No.

Name of the crop

Marketing Season

APMC

1

Wheat

1st April-15th June

Sirmaur, Kangra, Una

2

Paddy

1st Oct.-30th Nov.

Sirmour, Mandi, Solan, Kangra, Chamba

3

Maize

1st Sept.-15th Nov.

Solan, Mandi, Kangra, Una, Hamirpur

4

Garlic

15th April-30th June

Solan, Kullu

5

Ginger

1st Oct.-15th January

Sirmaur

6

Tomato

20th June-15th Oct.

Solan, Shimla & Kinnaur, Kullu & Lahaul-Spiti, Mandi

16 S.No

S.No

Name of the crop

Marketing Season

APMC

7

Apple

1st July-30th Oct.

Shimla & Kinnaur, Kullu & lahaul-Spiti, Mandi, Chamba

8

Off-Season Vegetables (Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Beans, Capsicum, etc.

1st April-30th June

Shimla & Kinnaur, Kullu & Lahaul-Spiti, Solan

9

Peas (Off-Season

1st April-30th June

Kullu & Lahaul-Spiti

10

Potato

1st Sept.-15th Nov.

Shimla & Kinnaur, Sirmaur, Kangra, Chamba

11

Cabbage

1st Feb.-31st March

Mandi, Kangra

17 Arrivals of fruits and vegetables in apmcs

Arrivals of fruits and vegetables in apmcs

Year

Vegetables in Qtls

Fruits in Qtls.

2010-11

1787973

2005004

2011-12

2418056

1185784

2012-13

2332238

2144344

2013-14

---

Apples-1,29,75392 Boxes (size 20/kg. Each) (259507 M.T.)

18 Present statues of marketing infrastructure

Present statues of marketing infrastructure

The H.P. State Agriculture Marketing Board has setup 54 market yards at various places in the state it is plan to expand the mostly infrastructure as per the requirement and availability of sources.

19 APMC’s and market sub yards

APMC’s and market sub yards

Sr.No.

|Name of the APMC

Principal Market Yard

No. Of Sub-Market Yards

1

Shimla & Kinnaur

Shimla

8

2

Hamirpur

Hamirpur (Dosarka)

2

3

Chamba

Chamba (Balupul)

--

4

Bilaspur

Bilaspur

1

5

Kullu & Lahaul Spiti

Kullu

6

6

Mandi

Mandi (Kangni)

5

7

Kangra

Kangra

7

8

Paonta-Sahib

Paonta Sahib

6

9

Solan

Solan

8

10

Una

Una

1

Total

10 Nos

44

20 Market intervention

Market intervention

In order to ensure remunerative price for the major agricultural produce the market intervention activities divided into three categories. 1. Farmer level 2. APMCs level 3. Govt. level (State/Central sponsored Scheme)

21 Farmer level

Farmer level

The producer is the main contributor of every situation. His participation is expected to make up a whole intervention. He has to keep all the factors in mind before the production. The following steps may help him. Focus on day to day market information. Short/long terms planning of produce as per demand. Adoption of Scientific Cultivation Technique helps to reduce the cost of production. Use of post harvest technology . Focus on grading and value addition packing.

22 APMCs level

APMCs level

The farmer along with the return some times faces the problem of surplus production and he does not get sufficient pay for work. APMC becomes involved in that situation to improve or control it. . The points which are given may be valuable as further remarks. These factors may make the way easy. I these points are considered seriously we can not only ensure the farmers but can also gain his lost determination and confidence. In future the following plans are designed to achieve a long term aim or purpose. The mutual understanding will pave the way for the farmer. Finally with this collaboration and putting our full capacity in action will provide way and the fruitful results may be found.

23 Strengthening of marketing infrastructure In production areas through

Strengthening of marketing infrastructure In production areas through

involvement of Agricultural Produce Market Committees, Co-operative, Small farmers groups in clusters and Private Sector will not only help farmers to get income through greater participation in a more efficient rural market & inclusive growth but provide further impact for diversification and bring more employment and prosperity in rural areas of Himachal Pradesh.

24 The availability of marketing infrastructure i.e. Small

The availability of marketing infrastructure i.e. Small

markets/collection centres in the production area will also solve the problems of marketing of produce in distant markets and they will save in term of cost of transportation, transit losses and miscellaneous charges. Setting up more seasonal markets in production area after proper designing planning to handle the arrivals in efficient manner providing minimum facility of auction platform, storage, structure, grading and packing houses, public facilities etc.

25 Alternative marketing channels: Direct marketing to consumers/retail

Alternative marketing channels: Direct marketing to consumers/retail

chain/buyers i.e. Fair price shops at APMC level. Farmers Markets ie. Apni Mandi Contract farming Contract farming involves agreement between producer and sponsoring agency (Buyer) for Future Trade .The price of the commodities is also decided by the both party at the time of agreement. Popularization of Grading at producers’ level, value addition through primary processing and packaging

26 Modernization and expansion of existing yards providing therein

Modernization and expansion of existing yards providing therein

grading and packing lines, repining chambers cold/CA stores, adequate auction platform and other facilities. Empowerment of farmers through market information website, news paper, Doordarshan, Ticker Board,(agmarknet) SMS portal and documentation of success stories. Integration and strengthening of Marketing network to curb malpractices and reduce paper work through automation of market operations. Marketing through e-trading Setting up more agro- based small processing units

27 Govt

Govt

level (State/Central sponsored Scheme)

Government intervenes through Minimum support Price (MSP). The MSP is ensured through procurement by central, state and cooperative agencies in the states. State governments have been alerted from time to time to make adequate arrangements to ensure MSP to farmers.

28 In addition, Government is implementing Market Intervention Scheme

In addition, Government is implementing Market Intervention Scheme

(MIS) for agricultural and horticultural commodities not covered under the Price Support Scheme. The MIS is implemented on the request of State/UT Government in order to protect the growers of these commodities from making distress sale in the event of bumper crop when the prices tend to fall below the cost of production.

29 The Price Support Scheme (PSS) and Market Intervention Scheme (MIS)

The Price Support Scheme (PSS) and Market Intervention Scheme (MIS)

ensures remunerative prices to the growers and in case market prices fall below the MSP/MIS, central/state agencies Start the purchase operation by paying the MSP/MIS to the farmers.

Price Support scheme (PSS) and market intervention scheme (MIS), Minimum support price (MSP)

30 State wise implementation of price sport scheme & Market intervention

State wise implementation of price sport scheme & Market intervention

scheme (PSS AND MIS)

State

Commodities under PSS

Commodities under MIS

Andhra Pradesh

Milling copra, Cotton, Sunflower, Tur

Oil Palm, Chilly

Haryana

Sunflower, Mustard

Himachal Pradesh

Apple C Grade, Kinnow, Malta, Santra, Galgal, Mango

Karnataka

Ball Copra, Sunflower, Safflower, Tur

Oil Palm, Arecanut

Kerala

Milling Copra, Ball Copra

Black Pepper

Madhya Pradesh

Urad, Mustard

Maharashtra

Tur, Sunflower, Safflower

Mizoram

Chillies, Ginger, Passion Fruit, Chow-chow (Iskut)

Rajasthan

Gram, Mustard

Onion, Garlic

Uttar Pradesh

Groundnut, Mustard

Potato

Uttarakhand

Apple C Grade

West Bengal

Sesamum

Potato

31 Minimum Support Price (MSP) Wheat and paddy are two major agricultural

Minimum Support Price (MSP) Wheat and paddy are two major agricultural

commodities procured by the National cooperative marketing federation (NAFED), Food corporation of India (FCI) under MSP in order to have sufficient buffer stock from food security point of view and to feed the public distribution system. Procurement through MSP is not done in all the states like in case of wheat it is mostly done form the states of Punjab and Haryana whereas in other states it is almost negligible.

32 In Punjab and Haryana farmers are able to sell their surplus wheat and

In Punjab and Haryana farmers are able to sell their surplus wheat and

paddy at MSP but this is not true in case of farmers of all other stages. The reasons are difference in procurement mechanism by the procurement agencies like procurement through commission agents in some states whereas provision of direct procurement from farmers in other states. In states where there is provision of direct procurement from farmers, no significant procurement actually takes place.

33 Efficiency of market intervention scheme (MIS)

Efficiency of market intervention scheme (MIS)

The MIS in the state of Himachal Pradesh is being implemented through State agencies of HPMC & HIMFED. The fruits like apple, Kinnow, Malta and Santra were taken up under the scheme during the year 1990-91. Later on Galgal was included during the year 1995-96 and for mango MIS was implemented during 1998.

34 Coverage of districts under mis for different fruits

Coverage of districts under mis for different fruits

Apple

Kinnow, Malta and Santra

Mango

Shimla

Una

Una

Kullu

Solan

Solan

Mandi

Mandi

Mandi

Sirmour

Sirmour

Sirmour

Kangra

Kangra

Kangra

Kinnaur

Bilaspur

Bilaspur

Chamba

Hamirpur

Hamirpur

Lahul Spiti

Chamba

Chamba

Solan

35 Period of implementation

Period of implementation

The scheme is not open throughout the year and is open only during the harvesting and marketing period of fruits covered under the scheme. The duration of operation of scheme has been presented in the table.

Name of Fruit

|Duration of MIS (Each year)

Apple

July 20 to October 31

Santra and Malta

November 21 to February 15

Kinnow, Galgal and Mango

July 1 to August 15

36 Price announcement of mis

Price announcement of mis

The procurement of fruit under the scheme is strictly at the price announced and notified by the state government beforehand. The procurement cost is being born by the administrative department i.e. Horticulture department.

37 Cost of fruit procurement under MIS

Cost of fruit procurement under MIS

Name of fruit

Cost of procurement (Rs./Kg.) 2013-14

Apple

6.50/kg.

Kinnow, Malta and Santra

B-6.50/kg. C-6/kg.

Galgal

5.50/kg.

Mango

Seedling-5.50/kg. Grafting-6.50/kg.

38 Details of procurement rate, quantity procured and dispatch of apple

Details of procurement rate, quantity procured and dispatch of apple

under MIS

Year

Procurement Rate (Rs. Per kg.)

Quantity procured in M.T.

Procurement in bags

No. Of bags dispatched to market/processing

2007-08

4.75

29427

490448

490448

2008-09

5.25

45741

762350

659650

2009-10

5.25

912

15200

15200

2010-11

5.25

111154

1852567

931260

2011-12

5.25

5664

94400

93367

2012-13

6.00

11822

197033

*

2013-14

6.50

34229

570483

*

39 District wise procurement of apples and value of procured apples under

District wise procurement of apples and value of procured apples under

MIS

2011

2011

2010.182

2010.182

2013

2013

Procurement price @ Rs.5.25 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.5.25 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.6.00 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.6.00 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.6.00 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.6.00 per kg

S. No.

S. No.

S. No.

Name of District

Name of District

Name of District

Qty.Procured (in M.T)

Value of Procured apples (in lakh Rs.)

Qty. Procured (in M.T.)

Value of Procured apples (in lakh Rs.)

Qty. Procur3ed (in M.T.)

Value of Procured apples (in lakh Rs.)

1

Shimla

5398.920

283.44

11158.800

669.53

31622.208

2055.44

2

Kullu

173.400

9.10

362.280

21.74

1140.402

74.13

3

Mandi

72.120

3.79

211.380

12.68

1163.586

75.64

4

Kinnaur

15.840

0.83

85.800

5.15

236.280

15.36

5

Chamba

0.000

0.00

--

--

64.176

4.17

6

Sirmour

0.000

0.00

2.880

0.17

--

--

40 S. No

S. No

S. No.

S. No.

Name of District

Name of District

Name of District

2011

2011

2012

2012

2013

2013

Procurement price @ Rs.5.25 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.5.25 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.6.00 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.6.00 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.6.00 per kg

Procurement price @ Rs.6.00 per kg

Qty. Procured (in M.T)

Value of Procured apples (in lakh Rs.)

Qty. Procured (in M.T.)

Value of Procured apples (in lakh Rs.)

Qty. Procur3ed (in M.T.)

Value of Procured apples (in lakh Rs.)

7

Lahaul & Spiti

3.360

0.18

0.840

0.05

2.520

0.16

8

Kangra

0.000

0.00

--

--

--

--

9

Solan

0.000

0.00

--

--

--

--

Grand Total

Grand Total

5663.64

297.34

11821.980

709.32

34229.172

2224.90

41 Issues/problems of mis in the state

Issues/problems of mis in the state

Payments are not always in cash, farmers are obliged to accept inputs like fertilizers, packing materials and insecticides etc as kind payment. During the years of high production, significant amount of procured apples is wasted and destroyed. This is a burden on state exchequer. The quantum of apple used for processing is low and only apple procured b y HPMC is being used for processing. Most importantly, this is a loss making preposition for the state and as such has large scope for improvement in management of the scheme.

42 Suggestions:

Suggestions:

The quality of MIS produce needed to be improved so that problem of shortage of buyers is eliminated to some extent. Arrangements of vehicles at the time to peak season need to be improved so that produce can be handled safely, with low cost and well in time. There is a need of finalizing the auction place for selling of the produce and date and time of auction well in advance. This information can be passed on to interested traders through advertisement.

43 Handling charges need to area specific so that the collection of

Handling charges need to area specific so that the collection of

produce especially in those areas where collection centres are away from road head is facilitated. Opening of new processing units is the immediate need in the state. With opening of these units MIS produce can be disposed off efficiently. If such arrangement are not made urgently the time may come when the scheme may become unviable. There should be equal distribution of collection centres to both the agencies so that competition between these does not arise.

44 The positive effects of market intervention

The positive effects of market intervention

Assured returns Avoid distress sale Encourage farming Ensure Food Security Better agri-marketing through sorting, grading, packing and levelling Innovative marketing practices Selling through APMC market yards, co-operatives, direct marketing or through E-commerce Ensure disposal of produce Promote processing

45 Issue

Issue

Monoculture practices Distort Competition Excessive use of Natural Resources.

46 Conclusion

Conclusion

Market intervention is required for major surplus commodities of respective states. Like in case of HP major surplus of fruits and vegetables which are highly perishable. State/central Govt. agencies can procure surplus fruits and vegetables for processing by the PSUs and processed products can be sold through Fair Price shops, PDS etc. Market intervention for perishable, semi-perishable commodities like potato, Cauliflower, tomato, ginger, garlic, paddy, wheat, pulses etc should also be in place to prevent distress sale by the farmers.

47 Boon for farmer when excessive production

Boon for farmer when excessive production

Focus on diversification and market orientation Intrusion of private players More focus on perishables & semi-perishables

48 Thanks

Thanks

«Apple 10 сентября 2013»
http://900igr.net/prezentacija/ekonomika/apple-10-sentjabrja-2013-243516.html
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