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MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE
MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE
Where to find texts of lectures and seminars:
Where to find texts of lectures and seminars:
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
BUTLER EDUCATION ACT
BUTLER EDUCATION ACT
Characteristics of British Universities of the 1960s
Characteristics of British Universities of the 1960s
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
RESULTS OF BUTLER ACT
RESULTS OF BUTLER ACT
DAVID LODGE (b
DAVID LODGE (b
LODGE?S STYLE
LODGE?S STYLE
Synopsis of Small World
Synopsis of Small World
Post-war modernisation of the old class-ridden and antiquated British
Post-war modernisation of the old class-ridden and antiquated British
BRITISH POST-WAR LITERATURE
BRITISH POST-WAR LITERATURE
Six periods/groups according to Gilbert Phelps: Survivors of the
Six periods/groups according to Gilbert Phelps: Survivors of the
SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION: Serious novels: Graham Greene Comic novels: G
SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION: Serious novels: Graham Greene Comic novels: G
CHRONOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION: The 30
CHRONOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION: The 30
Before we talk about movemements and groups
Before we talk about movemements and groups
1. Self-classification of authors:
1. Self-classification of authors:
2. MODERNISM vs
2. MODERNISM vs
POSTMODERNISM  BASIC THOUGHTS
POSTMODERNISM BASIC THOUGHTS
Introduction to postmodernism - Diego Rodr
Introduction to postmodernism - Diego Rodr
Who/what are the people in the painting looking at
Who/what are the people in the painting looking at
A passer by
A passer by
How many figures are there
How many figures are there
How many figures are there
How many figures are there
Jacques Foucault: Words and Objects PAINTING SERVES AS A METAPHOR
Jacques Foucault: Words and Objects PAINTING SERVES AS A METAPHOR
MODERNISM vs
MODERNISM vs
POSTMODERNISM and FASHION
POSTMODERNISM and FASHION
POSTMODERNISM and FASHION
POSTMODERNISM and FASHION
POSTMODERNISM and FILM
POSTMODERNISM and FILM
POSTMODERNISM and MUSIC
POSTMODERNISM and MUSIC
POSTMODERNISM and ARCHITECTURE
POSTMODERNISM and ARCHITECTURE
...meaning is not: inherent to the text given or pre-conceived by
...meaning is not: inherent to the text given or pre-conceived by
...meaning is: WHAT READERS ADD TO THE TEXT YOUR INTERPETATION BASED
...meaning is: WHAT READERS ADD TO THE TEXT YOUR INTERPETATION BASED
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - NOVELISTS WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - NOVELISTS WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE
1. WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE
1. WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE
2. WHO WERE THEY
2. WHO WERE THEY
Wrote about : An angry young anti-hero: working class origin boorish
Wrote about : An angry young anti-hero: working class origin boorish
ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS  REPRESENTATIVES John Barrington Wain - b. 1925
ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS REPRESENTATIVES John Barrington Wain - b. 1925
ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:
ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:
ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:
ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:
ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS  OTHER REPRESENTATIVES
ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS OTHER REPRESENTATIVES
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS
Look Back in Anger
Look Back in Anger
?
?
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS Representatives: 1. Working-class origin
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS Representatives: 1. Working-class origin
Allan Sillitoe Style: versatile author: plays, poems (The Rats and
Allan Sillitoe Style: versatile author: plays, poems (The Rats and
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS  A. SILLITOE Major writings: The Saturday
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS A. SILLITOE Major writings: The Saturday
Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of aLong-Distance Runner, 1959 Style:
Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of aLong-Distance Runner, 1959 Style:
Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of aLong-Distance Runner, 1959 Style:
Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of aLong-Distance Runner, 1959 Style:
Allan SILLITOE: Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
Allan SILLITOE: Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS  OTHER REPRESENTATIVES Sid Chaplin b. 1916,
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS OTHER REPRESENTATIVES Sid Chaplin b. 1916,
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS  OTHER REPRESENTATIVES Sid Chaplin Durham
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS OTHER REPRESENTATIVES Sid Chaplin Durham
COMPARISON OF AYM and WCN
COMPARISON OF AYM and WCN
WHO HAD A BETTER REASON TO PROTEST
WHO HAD A BETTER REASON TO PROTEST
POSTCOLONIAL LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
POSTCOLONIAL LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
NOVELISTS OF THE 50
NOVELISTS OF THE 50
POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS 2. Who were the major representatives of
POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS 2. Who were the major representatives of
Doris Lessing (b
Doris Lessing (b
Doris Lessing The Grass is Singing, 1950 Collection of stories: Little
Doris Lessing The Grass is Singing, 1950 Collection of stories: Little
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
TETRALOGY BY PAUL SCOTT
TETRALOGY BY PAUL SCOTT
LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
VISUAL ARTS
VISUAL ARTS
VISUAL ARTS AND PROPAGANDA
VISUAL ARTS AND PROPAGANDA
Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
Post-colonial literature reacts to myths, half-truths and the
Post-colonial literature reacts to myths, half-truths and the
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
Salman Rushdie Novels are not to lay down rules but to ask questions
Salman Rushdie Novels are not to lay down rules but to ask questions
FATWA  SENTENCE TO DEATH
FATWA SENTENCE TO DEATH
EFFECTS OF THE SATANIC VERSES
EFFECTS OF THE SATANIC VERSES
Salman Rushdies Style:
Salman Rushdies Style:
The Satanic Verses  issues:
The Satanic Verses issues:
Main characters:
Main characters:
Theme of The Satanic Verses:
Theme of The Satanic Verses:
Rushdie writes of the title of Satanic Verses:
Rushdie writes of the title of Satanic Verses:
Other novels by Salman Rushdie
Other novels by Salman Rushdie
Kazuo Ishiguro What is history to a nation, memory is to the
Kazuo Ishiguro What is history to a nation, memory is to the
Ishiguros style:
Ishiguros style:
Ishiguros major novels
Ishiguros major novels
The Remains of the Day
The Remains of the Day
The Prophet
The Prophet
Roman fleuve Stream novel River novel
Roman fleuve Stream novel River novel
Saga Novel
Saga Novel
OTHER EXPERIMENTS WITH FORM
OTHER EXPERIMENTS WITH FORM
NOVELISTS OF THE 50
NOVELISTS OF THE 50
NOVELISTS OF THE 50
NOVELISTS OF THE 50
ANTHONY POWELL
ANTHONY POWELL
ANTONY POWELS MAJOR WORKS:
ANTONY POWELS MAJOR WORKS:
A Dance to the Music of Time
A Dance to the Music of Time
A Dance to the Music of Time
A Dance to the Music of Time
A painting by Nicolas Poussin
A painting by Nicolas Poussin
Charles Percy Snow Baron Snow of Leicester (1905 - 1980)
Charles Percy Snow Baron Snow of Leicester (1905 - 1980)
NOVELS BY CHARLES PERCY SNOW
NOVELS BY CHARLES PERCY SNOW
ANGUS WILSON
ANGUS WILSON
NOVELISTS OF THE 50
NOVELISTS OF THE 50
GRAHAM GREENES STYLE
GRAHAM GREENES STYLE
HAVANA
HAVANA
GRAHAM GREENES MAJOR WORKS
GRAHAM GREENES MAJOR WORKS
Our Man in Havana
Our Man in Havana
There were eight Japanese gentlemen having a fish dinner at Bentley
There were eight Japanese gentlemen having a fish dinner at Bentley
LITERATURE OF THE 50
LITERATURE OF THE 50
Lawrence Durrell (1912 - 1990)
Lawrence Durrell (1912 - 1990)
Lawrence Durrell (1912 - 1990)
Lawrence Durrell (1912 - 1990)
The Alexandria Quartet
The Alexandria Quartet
William Golding (1911 - 1993)
William Golding (1911 - 1993)
Novels by W. Golding
Novels by W. Golding
Novels by W. Golding
Novels by W. Golding
Lord of the Flies
Lord of the Flies
Lord of the Flies = inborn evil in people
Lord of the Flies = inborn evil in people
Post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism
Post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism
Goldings Post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism
Goldings Post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism
Symbolism in Lord of the Flies
Symbolism in Lord of the Flies
BRITISH POST-WAR POETRY
BRITISH POST-WAR POETRY
THE MOVEMENT
THE MOVEMENT
I had suggested, in exasperation, that he finds Something other to
I had suggested, in exasperation, that he finds Something other to
Artistic manifesto of the Movement
Artistic manifesto of the Movement
Intimacy
Intimacy
MEMBERS OF THE MOVEMENT
MEMBERS OF THE MOVEMENT
PHILIP LARKIN
PHILIP LARKIN
Days What are days for
Days What are days for
DENNIS JOSEPH ENRIGHT - b. 1920
DENNIS JOSEPH ENRIGHT - b. 1920
MINOR MOVEMENTS AND LITERARY TRENDS: THE UNDERGROUND
MINOR MOVEMENTS AND LITERARY TRENDS: THE UNDERGROUND
THE REVIEW
THE REVIEW
THE MAVERICKS
THE MAVERICKS
- collection: A Martian Sends a Postcard Home, 1979 - representatives:
- collection: A Martian Sends a Postcard Home, 1979 - representatives:
SEAMUS HEANEY
SEAMUS HEANEY
SEAMUS HEANEYs APOLITICAL POETRY
SEAMUS HEANEYs APOLITICAL POETRY
SEAMUS HEANEYs POLITICAL POETRY
SEAMUS HEANEYs POLITICAL POETRY
(Edward James) Ted Hughes
(Edward James) Ted Hughes
Ted Hughes style:
Ted Hughes style:
Controversial poetry of Ted Hughes
Controversial poetry of Ted Hughes
Written test
Written test
Sample task 1
Sample task 1
Sample task 2
Sample task 2
Task 3  Essay - Points for:
Task 3 Essay - Points for:
Write a paragraph on the status revolt of a female protagonist in LBA
Write a paragraph on the status revolt of a female protagonist in LBA
List of Sources Photos and Images: Books http://images
List of Sources Photos and Images: Books http://images
Postcolonialism http://www
Postcolonialism http://www
Introduction  quick and easy
Introduction quick and easy
Write the first and second sentence of your introduction:
Write the first and second sentence of your introduction:
WARNING
WARNING

: MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE. : . : MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE.ppt. zip-: 1679 .

MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE

MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE.ppt
1 MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE

MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE

Lectures: Mgr. Jana Javor??kov?, PhD. (lectures, Fhv seminars) Seminars: Mgr. Martin Kubu? (Fif seminars) PaedDr. Jana Javor??kov?, PhD. (Fhv seminars) (Externists)

2 Where to find texts of lectures and seminars:

Where to find texts of lectures and seminars:

http://www.fhv.umb.sk katedry Katedra anglick?ch a americk?ch ?t?di? ?t?dium Kurzy denn?ho ?t?dia Kurzy v odbore u?ite?stvo ... Mgr. Jana Javor??kov?, PhD. Modern? britsk? literat?ra 1

PASSWORD: mbl1 or mbl2

3 THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE

THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE

BEFORE

WWII

AFTER

ECONOMICS The slump The economics of the gold standard

Full employment Keynes? and Beveridge?s economics

John Maynard Keynes: American economist believed in econ. stimulus William Beveridge: British economist and social reformer

4 THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE

THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE

BEFORE

WWII

AFTER

POLITICS Conservative hegemony Government of men

Labour victory (1945) administration of things

Labour victory in 1945: Clement Atlee won over W. Churchill (Cons.) Atlee: Welfare State: from craddle to grave or from womb to tomb

5 THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE

THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE

BEFORE

WWII

AFTER

SOCIETY Class system Aristocratic privilege and glitter THEM dependence of women dual system of education

Classless society Egalitarian way US feminism of the 60?s tripartite system of education (Butskellism) status revolution

BUTSKELLISM: blend of Butler and Hugh Gaitskell?s political thought

6 BUTLER EDUCATION ACT

BUTLER EDUCATION ACT

1944 Butler Education Act passed: (Richard Austen Butler, 1902-82) compulsory education under 15 system of sponsorship for the underprivileged students;

7 Characteristics of British Universities of the 1960s

Characteristics of British Universities of the 1960s

Formal, traditional, conservative, abstract (virtual character of Oxford)

Redbrick provincial universities opposed to Oxbridge

vs.

8 THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE

THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE

BEFORE

WWII

AFTER

CULTURE high vs. low culture

common culture equalisation nationalisation decentralisation Americanisation Racial integration Multiculturalism

9 RESULTS OF BUTLER ACT

RESULTS OF BUTLER ACT

POSITIVES: More democratic access to education NEGATIVES: ANGRY YOUNG MEN

10 DAVID LODGE (b

DAVID LODGE (b

1935)

BIOGRAPHY teacher at the University of Birmingham (1960 1987) His university studies portrayed in a combination of an autobiographical novel, Bildungsroman Out of Shelter, 1970) and H. James international novel (setting: London Heidelberg).

11 LODGE?S STYLE

LODGE?S STYLE

master of parody (The British Museum is Falling Down, 1965; Changing Places, 1975); parody of V. W.; J. J.; D. H. L; F. K. Often depicts the Anglo-American cultural gap (Small World, 1984); motivations: sexual intrigue and the drive for power; Also wrote theoretical handbooks (The Language of Fiction, 1967) explaining the methodology of structuralism and empiricism.

12 Synopsis of Small World

Synopsis of Small World

Setting: Rummidge, everywhere : late 1970?s early 1980?s Characters: professors and scholars in humanities (Perssy McGarrigle, Angelica Pabbst, Morris Zapp, Phillip Swallow) Genre and tone: academic romance, ironic

13 Post-war modernisation of the old class-ridden and antiquated British

Post-war modernisation of the old class-ridden and antiquated British

society

END OF LECTURE NO. 1

14 BRITISH POST-WAR LITERATURE

BRITISH POST-WAR LITERATURE

VARIOUS GENRES, TOPICS, STYLES, MOVEMENTS OR MISFITS.

15 Six periods/groups according to Gilbert Phelps: Survivors of the

Six periods/groups according to Gilbert Phelps: Survivors of the

1930s : Virginia Woolf, James Joyce Already active novelists Leslie Paul Hartley Post-colonial or anti-colonial novelists: Paul Scott; James G. Farrell; Hanif Kureishi Female writers: Muriel Spark, Beryl Bainbridge Angry Young Men: John Osborne, J. Wain, J. Braine Misfits: John Fowles, David Lodge, Ian McEwan

16 SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION: Serious novels: Graham Greene Comic novels: G

SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION: Serious novels: Graham Greene Comic novels: G

Greene Linguistic experimens: Anthony Burgess Traditionalists: August Wilson Detective novels: A. Christie Spy novels: John Le Carr? Political allegories: George Orwell Sci-fi: Aldous Huxley

17 CHRONOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION: The 30

CHRONOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION: The 30

s: All the Fun: Carpe Diem philosophy of the Jazz Age/Roaring 20?s The 40?s: Extravagance and Reason: war-time escapism The 50?s: Anger and Fear The 60?s and 70?s: Dreams Revived: back to colonial past and its effects

18 Before we talk about movemements and groups

Before we talk about movemements and groups

..

TWO PROBLEMS: Self-classification of authors POSTMODERNISM - ownership of the text

19 1. Self-classification of authors:

1. Self-classification of authors:

Alan Sillitoe (Writer) Author of the original novel and scriptwriter of the screenplay for the film. A bestselling novelist for the past 40 years, Alan Sillitoe has lately produced his long-awaited sequel to that first novel, Birthday (Flamingo, 2002).

Classification of authors is not easy. Take, for example Alan Sillitoe. He is a typical representative of the literary group called Angry Young Men : Sillitoe himself was born to a working class family but was able to pursue in his studies at a university due to a state sponsorship His main representatives followed the same carreer (e.g. Arthur Seeton) He wrote most of his novels during the highlights of the Angry Young Men period. However, he refused to be labeled an angry young man

20 2. MODERNISM vs

2. MODERNISM vs

POSTMODERNISM

MODERNISTS: James Joyce; V. W.; Edward M. Foster; G. G.; J. Conrad POSTMODERNISTS: Muriel Spark; Beryl Bainbridge; David Lodge CHRONOLOGY: End of the 19th ct. MODERNISM 1920?s highlights of MODERNISM 1940?s POSTMODERNISM 1960?s highlights of POSTMODERNISM POSTMODERNISM: deflection from established rules: double names, characters conventions, form: pastiche style: syntax, sentence structure

21 POSTMODERNISM  BASIC THOUGHTS

POSTMODERNISM BASIC THOUGHTS

MODERNISM: STRUCTURALISM Language is a system of signs. Writing is encoding, Reading is decoding. Text has THE MEANING. MODERNIST EXPERIMENT: sub-trends: surrealism, old avant-garde POSTMODERNISM: POSTSTRUCTURALISM,DECONSTRUCTION Language is asystematic. Every decoding is another encoding. Text has A MEANING. POSTMODERN EXPERIMENT Novel ? anti-novel, noveau roman Poetry ? concrete poetryDrama ? total theatre LITERARY CRITICISM: Marxist criticism, Feminist criticism, New criticism

22 Introduction to postmodernism - Diego Rodr

Introduction to postmodernism - Diego Rodr

guez de Silva y Vel?zquez

LAS MENINAS: THE MAIDS OF HONOUR

1599-1660

23 Who/what are the people in the painting looking at

Who/what are the people in the painting looking at

How many figures are there? /Notice the sources of light/ 3. Where are you standing?

A passer by - you

c) Another painter

b) Somebody else, e.g. a royal couple, infants parents, a joker, etc.

24 A passer by

A passer by

The passer by, be it you or whoever else, represents the OBSERVER of the scene. Metaphorically, he symbolises the READER while the scene represents the TEXT.

25 How many figures are there

How many figures are there

8

9

7

1

4

2

6

3

5

26 How many figures are there

How many figures are there

9 10

8

9

7

1

2

6

3

5

MEANING

you

you

MIRROR

4

27 Jacques Foucault: Words and Objects PAINTING SERVES AS A METAPHOR

Jacques Foucault: Words and Objects PAINTING SERVES AS A METAPHOR

..

THE PAINTING = THE TEXT YOU = THE READER THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN THE PAINTING = THE/A MEANING OF THE PAINTING/ TEXT SOMETHING THE READER HAS TO ADD BYTHE PROCESS OF THINKING, REFLECTING, ETC.

28 MODERNISM vs

MODERNISM vs

POSTMODERNISM

Postmodernism is a new trend in arts that expands to many genres, for example to architecture, painting, music, fashion or literature.

Postmodern attitudecan be well illustrated by a paining by Diego Velasquese.

29 POSTMODERNISM and FASHION

POSTMODERNISM and FASHION

Lacroix Goes Giddy for The Kitsch and Kiddy Lacroix likes to dress his women like a fantastic mix between Peter Pan, Alice In Wonderland and A Mid-Summer Nights Dream. If youre looking for a lighthearted dress that oozes childhood sentimentality then Lacroix is your man. I like this dress the best, it so reminds me of Alice are you ready for the rabbit hole?

30 POSTMODERNISM and FASHION

POSTMODERNISM and FASHION

EXPERIMENT

COLAGE OF STYLES (fairy tale vs. ballet vs. surrealist wedding dress)

AMBIGUITY

EXISTENCIALISM

mockery

QUESTIONS TRADITIONAL VALUES

31 POSTMODERNISM and FILM

POSTMODERNISM and FILM

EXPERIMENT

COLAGE OF STYLES (detective story vs. love story vs. pulp fiction)

AMBIGUITY

EXISTENCIALISM

QUESTIONS TRADITIONAL VALUES

PARODY OF A TRADITIONAL GANGSTER FILM

32 POSTMODERNISM and MUSIC

POSTMODERNISM and MUSIC

EXPERIMENT

COLAGE OF STYLES

AMBIGUITY

EXISTENCIALISM

QUESTIONS TRADITIONAL VALUES

33 POSTMODERNISM and ARCHITECTURE

POSTMODERNISM and ARCHITECTURE

EXPERIMENT

COLAGE OF STYLES

AMBIGUITY

EXISTENCIALISM

QUESTIONS TRADITIONAL VALUES

34 ...meaning is not: inherent to the text given or pre-conceived by

...meaning is not: inherent to the text given or pre-conceived by

the writer controlled by renowned literary critics

35 ...meaning is: WHAT READERS ADD TO THE TEXT YOUR INTERPETATION BASED

...meaning is: WHAT READERS ADD TO THE TEXT YOUR INTERPETATION BASED

ON YOUR UNIQUE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

END OF LECTURE NO. 2

36 ANGRY YOUNG MEN - NOVELISTS WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE

ANGRY YOUNG MEN - NOVELISTS WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE

2. WHO WERE THEY? 3. WHAT/WHO DID THEY WRITE ABOUT AND AGAINST?

LECTURE NO. 3

37 1. WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE

1. WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE

Active in the 50?s: 1951: Leslie Paul?s autobiography: The Angry Young Men 1956: 8th May premi?re of Look Back in Anger Characteristics of the period: the individual has been devalued, like the pound (L. P. Hartley) people still feeling the hangover of the war culture was in crisis: narrowness and pessimism of novels

John Osborne

38 2. WHO WERE THEY

2. WHO WERE THEY

The writers themselves and their characters were: Young, needy, intellectuals Disillusioned Displaced Conformists (contrast to the Beat Generation)

Defined themselves against: a blend of homely sensibility; upper class aloofness; liberal politics; avant-garde literary device.

39 Wrote about : An angry young anti-hero: working class origin boorish

Wrote about : An angry young anti-hero: working class origin boorish

rather than well behaved rudely angry rather than angry philistine rather than arty Other dominant topics: rise of a working class man into the upper middle class hurdles of education, upbringing and accent

3. WHO/WHAT DID THEY WRITE ABOUT AND AGAINST?

40 ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS  REPRESENTATIVES John Barrington Wain - b. 1925

ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS REPRESENTATIVES John Barrington Wain - b. 1925

in the English Midlands graduated from Oxford - professor of poetry at Oxford (1973 78) a member of the Inklinks (an Oxford literary group) Hurry on Down, 1953 a picaresque novel Living in the Present, 1955 The Contenders John Braine b. 1922 in Bedford, Yorkshire; d. 1986 Room at the Top, 1957; Life at the Top, 1962; The Jealous God, 1964; Stay with Me till Morning, 1970; Writing a Novel, 1974; Finger on Fire, 1977.

41 ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:

ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:

John Wain: Hurry on Down - bestseller

Genre: picaresque novel, partly autobiographical

Main character: Charles Lumley university graduate unable to fit in

Jack of all trades:

smuggler

driver

bouncer

hospital orderly

42 ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:

ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:

John Brain: Room at the Top bestseller Life at the Top sequel

Style: open X-rated in the USA

Main character: Joe Lampton an army vet, town-hall clerk

the running fight between himself and society had ended in a draw

Not unlike Clyde Griffits (American Tragedy, Theodore Dreiser)

Loves two women

rich Susan Brown - Seduces and marries her

poor Alice Aisgill

43 ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS  OTHER REPRESENTATIVES

ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS OTHER REPRESENTATIVES

Colin Wilson: The Outsider; Kingsley Amis: Lucky Jim; Allan Sillitoe: Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner Stan Barstow: A Kind of Loving David Storey: This Sporting Life Keith Waterhouse

44 ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS

ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS

John Osborne Life: (b. 1929 in London) educated at "a rather cheap boarding school" former actor in provincial repertory companies founding member of the "A. Y. M." group

45 ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS

ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS

John Osborne Characteristics of Osborne's style primitive dramatic skills; "kitchen sink" drama; mood of frustration: anarchic, cynical, nihilistic anti-heroes, social misfits. Major plays and novels The Entertainer, 1957 - comic Archie Rice; Luther, 1961; Inadmissible Evidence, 1964; A Patriot for Me, 1965 Autobiography: A Better Class of Person.

46 Look Back in Anger

Look Back in Anger

Richard Burton as Jimmy Porter, the speaker of the generation: "Nobody thinks, nobody cares, no beliefs, no convictions and no enthusiasm MAJOR ISSUES: conflict of generations, social classes and opposite sexes: conflict of the "sycophantic, phlegmatic and pusillanimous world of upper class and Jimmy's private, "loose" morality.

John Osborne

47 ?

?

JIMMY PORTER: A tall, thin young man about 25. A mixture of sincerity and cheerful malice, of tenderness and freebooting cruelty, restless, importunate, full of pride, a combination which alienates the sensitive and the insensitive alike.

Jim hates:

Jim loves:

ALISON PORTER: Tall, slim, delicate, with surprising reservation in her eyes I was wrong! I dont want to be saint. I want to be a lost cause. I want to be corrupt and futile

Sundays Sunday ironing Pretentionus editorials Sycophantic, pusillanimous people

48 WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS Representatives: 1. Working-class origin

WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS Representatives: 1. Working-class origin

writers 2. novelists writing about the working class. Allan Sillitoe b. 1928 in Nottingham son of an illiterate tannery laborer father unemployed during Depression - financial problems left school at 14 - earned money in RAF (Malaya) Style: versatile author: plays, poems (The Rats and Other Poems, 1960) over 50 essays, children?s books: character of Marmelade Jim labelled also as an AYM advocate of the social function of novels (like J. Galsworthy, E. Zola) realistically portrayed working-class heroes

49 Allan Sillitoe Style: versatile author: plays, poems (The Rats and

Allan Sillitoe Style: versatile author: plays, poems (The Rats and

Other Poems, 1960) over 50 essays, children?s books: character of Marmelade Jim labelled also as an AYM advocate of the social function of novels (like J. Galsworthy, E. Zola) realistically portrayed working-class heroes

50 WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS  A. SILLITOE Major writings: The Saturday

WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS A. SILLITOE Major writings: The Saturday

Night and Sunday Morning, 1958 depicts a weekend of a young laborer Arthur Seaton (an anti-hero) local colour Loneliness of a Long-Distance Runner, 1959 a collection of stories (Uncle Ernest) Raw Material, 1972 autobiographical features

51 Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of aLong-Distance Runner, 1959 Style:

Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of aLong-Distance Runner, 1959 Style:

llan SILLITOE: Loneliness of a Long-Distance Runner, 1959 Style: rich in inner monologues slang local colour (dialects, regionalisms) - Symbol of protest against those in power upper classes

Shows inner rebelion

52 Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of aLong-Distance Runner, 1959 Style:

Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of aLong-Distance Runner, 1959 Style:

llan SILLITOE: Loneliness of a Long-Distance Runner, 1959 Style: rich in inner monologues slang local colour (dialects, regionalisms) -

Come on , Smith, Roach the sports master called to me, we don?t want You to be late for the big race, eh? Although I dare say you?d catch them up if you were ... So the big race it was, for them, watching from the grandstand under the fluttering Union Jack, a race for the governor, that he has been waiting for, and I hoped he and all The rest of his pop-eyed gang were busy placing big bets on me, hundred to one to win, all the money they had in their pockets All the wages they were going to get for the next five years and the more they placed , the happier I?d be.

53 Allan SILLITOE: Saturday Night and Sunday Morning

Allan SILLITOE: Saturday Night and Sunday Morning

Saturday nights

Sunday mornings

wild parties, drinking, dating women

repenting gone fishing

Conformist lifestyle: No motivation ambitions, enthusiasm, beliefs. Shows nihilism, resignation of WC

ARTHUR SEATON

married, older Brenda

younger Doreen

54 WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS  OTHER REPRESENTATIVES Sid Chaplin b. 1916,

WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS OTHER REPRESENTATIVES Sid Chaplin b. 1916,

Shildon, Durham - d. 1980 the son of a coal miner, working in mines at 15 obtained education from the worker?s Educational Association (Durham) writing since 1950?s Durham mining community writings: The Leaping Lad, 1964 The Thin Seam, 1950 The Day of the Sardine, 1961 The Mines of Alabaster, 1971 Other writers: Mervyn Jones: Holding On

55 WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS  OTHER REPRESENTATIVES Sid Chaplin Durham

WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS OTHER REPRESENTATIVES Sid Chaplin Durham

mining community writings: The Day of the Sardine, 1961 ARTHUR HAGGARSTON: his journey to adulthood conflict between him and his tedious, repressive employer the only way out of stereotype: gangs, violence

56 COMPARISON OF AYM and WCN

COMPARISON OF AYM and WCN

AYM Jim Porter Jim Dixon (comic)

WCN Smith Uncle Ernest (serious)

Social rank/ education

WC but univer. graduate

Little education - criminals

Family background Social status

Do have a family/ misfits by choice

No family, at the subsistance level

Reasons for their frustrations

Social misplacement anger

Impoverished life resignation

57 WHO HAD A BETTER REASON TO PROTEST

WHO HAD A BETTER REASON TO PROTEST

Who did?

COMPARISON OF AYM and WCN

ANGRY INTELLECTUALS LOUDMOUTHS

UNEDUCATED WORKERS, WHO WERE OFTEN CRIMINALISED AND DEMONISED

58 POSTCOLONIAL LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

POSTCOLONIAL LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

PAKISTAN

CANADA

INDIA

CEYLON

MALAYSIA

GUYANA

AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND

TASMANIA

EGYPT, SUDAN, SOUTH AFRICA, NAMIBIA...

http://images.google.sk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/post/icons/post.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/post/&h=255&w=428&sz=26&hl=sk&start=71&tbnid=jZzvTNwkMbOMRM:&tbnh=75&tbnw=126&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dicons%2B%252B%2Bliterature%26start%3D54%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

59 NOVELISTS OF THE 50

NOVELISTS OF THE 50

s DISSOLUTION OF THE EMPIRE 1. What were the reasons for decolonization and its results? Two reasons for decolonization: 1. Imperialism grew unpopular 2. Finance Milestones in decolonization: 1947 independent India 1956 Suez fiasco 1960?s conflicts in Malaya, Cyprus Falkland Islands crisis Results of decolonization: 1. loose association - Commonwealth 2. mass immigration (1950?s 60?s)

LECTURE

60 POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS 2. Who were the major representatives of

POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS 2. Who were the major representatives of

post-colonial literature?

NOVELISTS OF THE 1950?s: Post-Imperialists predecessors: Rudyard Kipling (The Jungle Book), Edward Morgan Forster (Passage to India) James Gordon Farrell, Paul Scott 2. Anti- imperialists: Doris Lessing, Nadine Gordimer

61 Doris Lessing (b

Doris Lessing (b

1919, Persia present-day Iran - ) Childhood spent in Rhodesia, Africa Exposed to contradictions, illusions and pessimism Style: ...English writer without English tradition realism: ambiguous nature of African-English co-existence 1979 psychoanalysis, (The Golden Notebook); space fiction The Grass is Singing, 1950 Children of Violence African Stories, 1961

62 Doris Lessing The Grass is Singing, 1950 Collection of stories: Little

Doris Lessing The Grass is Singing, 1950 Collection of stories: Little

Tembi, No Witchcraft for Sale African English: Baas, Missus, Boss Boy

European rationalism (Cartesian compulsion to think rationally

African rituals (faith healing, taboo and code, miracles)

VS.

63 POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

James Gordon Farrell (b. 1935, Liverpool 1979) Spent a great deal of life abroad: France, North America Won the Booker Prize in 1973 Style: Blended English sensitivity and Indian exoticism topics: Hindustan life, trappings of civilisation The Siege of Krishnapur; 1973 A Girl In the Head The Singapore Grip, 1978 The Hill Station, 1981

Sabres and Dust by Chris Collingwood British light cavalry and horsemen of Skinners Horse fight Pindarn and Maratha 1826. In 1827 Skinners Regiment was known as the 1st Regiment of Local Horse and had just been awarded the Battle Honour 'Bhurtpore' for its part in the reduction of the fortress at Bharatpur. Skinner himself being made a companion of the Order of the Bath.

64 POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

James Gordon Farrell The Siege of Krishnapur; 1973 depicts 1857 Sepoy rebellion in India the English struggling for their way of life The Singapore Grip, 1978

65 POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

Paul (Mark) Scott ( 1920- d. 1978) brings to India the fractious personality of the Westerner India a Lost Paradise, Englishmans India Raj Quartet: The Towers of Silence ; The Day of the Scorpion The Jewel in the Crown; Staying On

Officer Skinners Horse 1905 by Mark Churms The Founder's Church of St. James, Dehli, illustrates its association with this famous regiment of Bengal Lancers.

66 TETRALOGY BY PAUL SCOTT

TETRALOGY BY PAUL SCOTT

67 LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

CRITICISM OF COLONIALISM AND ITS PROPAGANDA CRITICISM OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT IMPACT OF COLONIALISM

pictoresque

romantic

idealised

COLONIAL VISUAL ARTS:

68 LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

CRITICISM OF COLONIALISM AND ITS PROPAGANDA CRITICISM OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT IMPACT OF COLONIALISM

The British portrayed as (naturally) superior

COLONIAL VISUAL ARTS:

69 VISUAL ARTS

VISUAL ARTS

Painters often showed the Indians in subordinate positions

70 VISUAL ARTS AND PROPAGANDA

VISUAL ARTS AND PROPAGANDA

http://posters.nce.buttobi.net/

71 Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling

White Man's Burden Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.

1865-1936

72 Post-colonial literature reacts to myths, half-truths and the

Post-colonial literature reacts to myths, half-truths and the

autocratic view of the world represented by the colonial literature

73 POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

PROPAGANDA AND CRITICISM OF COLONIALISM IN POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS

1. Direct Criticism: Doris Lessing Nadine Gordimer

Indirect criticism: Paul Scott In his novel The Jewell in the Crown, Scott pays attention to the propaganda taught at British colonial schools, run by British teachers. Except for basics of algebra and reading, teachers often idealised the relationship bethween India and Great Britain. Britain was depicted as a mother, taking India under her protective wing, promoting education, religion, hygiene and culture. Indians, on the other hand, were depicted as willing to offer their country as a gift to their Mother Country, Britain. In visual arts, many painters also depicted the harmonic relationship and obedience or submissiveness of the Indians.

74 POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:

PROPAGANDA AND CRITICISM OF COLONIALISM IN POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS

1. Direct Criticism: Doris Lessing Nadine Gordimer

Indirect criticism: Paul Scott In his novel The Jewell in the Crown, Scott pays attention to the propaganda taught at British colonial schools, run by British teachers. Except for basics of algebra and reading, teachers often idealised the relationship bethween India and Great Britain. Britain was depicted as a mother, taking India under her protective wing, promoting education, religion, hygiene and culture. Indians, on the other hand, were depicted as willing to offer their country as a gift to their Mother Country, Britain. In visual arts, many painters also depicted the harmonic relationship and obedience or submissiveness of the Indians.

75 Salman Rushdie Novels are not to lay down rules but to ask questions

Salman Rushdie Novels are not to lay down rules but to ask questions

b. in Bombay, India to a prosperous family b. in 1947, the year of political changes in India Moved to England Received M.A. from King?s College, Cambridge Worked as an actor, free-lance advertising copy-writer 1989 - FATWA - Condemned by Ayatollah Khomeni to death

POSTCOLONIAL AND POSTIMPERIAL LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

76 FATWA  SENTENCE TO DEATH

FATWA SENTENCE TO DEATH

I inform all zealous Muslims of the world that the author of the book entitled The Satanic Verses which has been compiled, printed and published in opposition to Islam, the Prophet, and the Qur'an and all those involved in its publication who were aware of its content, are sentenced to death. I call on all zealous Muslims to execute them quickly, wherever they may be found, so that no one else will dare to insult the Muslim sanctities. God Willing, whoever is killed on this path is a martyr.

77 EFFECTS OF THE SATANIC VERSES

EFFECTS OF THE SATANIC VERSES

Japanese translator Hitosh Igorashi stabbed to death Italian translator Ettore Capriolo seriously injured Norweigan translator William Nygaard hardly survived assassination attack

78 Salman Rushdies Style:

Salman Rushdies Style:

Influenced by J. Joyce Combines fantasy and magic Uses satire Attacks religious bigotry Criticism: Incoherent melange of plots, themes, characters

79 The Satanic Verses  issues:

The Satanic Verses issues:

Ispired by the life of Muhammad Attempts to be the false part of Quran Uses MAGIC REALISM (characters of angels, demons, hybrids...)

80 Main characters:

Main characters:

Indian expatriates in England

PLANE CRASH

SALADIN CHAMCHA Voice-over in Indian films

GIBREEL FARISHTA Bollywood star

ARCHANGEL GIBREEL schizophrenia

DEVIL

Falls into hallucinations

Understands his Indian identity

81 Theme of The Satanic Verses:

Theme of The Satanic Verses:

...migration, metamorphosis, divided selves, love, death, London and Bombay. Other concepts: faith BLASPHEMOUS fanaticism revelation justifying Gods existence

82 Rushdie writes of the title of Satanic Verses:

Rushdie writes of the title of Satanic Verses:

You call us devils? It seems to ask. Very well, then, here is the devil's version of the world, of "your" world, the version written from the experience of those who have been demonized by virtue of their otherness. Just as the Asian kids in the novel wear toy devil-horns proudly, as an assertion of pride in identity, so the novel proudly wears its demonic title. The purpose is not to suggest that the Qur'an is written by the devil; it is to attempt the sort of act of affirmation that, in the United States, transformed the word black from the standard term of racist abuse into a "beautiful" expression of cultural pride.

83 Other novels by Salman Rushdie

Other novels by Salman Rushdie

Concepts: NEWNESS CHANGE (IDENTITY POLITICS): FOREIGNERS ALIENS UNSPOILED NATIVES CENTRAL AND MARGINAL CULTURES

Novels: The Book of the Pir, 1971 Midnight Children, 1981 Shame, 1983 The Satanic Verses, 1989

84 Kazuo Ishiguro What is history to a nation, memory is to the

Kazuo Ishiguro What is history to a nation, memory is to the

individual b. in 1954 in Nagasaki, Japan moved to Britain in 1960 depicts cultural gap between two cultures graduated from the Univ. of East Anglia, lives in London

POSTCOLONIAL AND POSTIMPERIAL LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

85 Ishiguros style:

Ishiguros style:

It is perhaps a sign of my advancing years, that I have taken to wandering into rooms for no purpose. (Masuji Ono, in: Artist of the F.V.) Characters wander through the rooms of their memories (ellipses, meanders) Distortion of the past and present Ironical deceptions of memory

86 Ishiguros major novels

Ishiguros major novels

Novels: A Pale view of Hills, 1982 An Artist of the Floating World, 1985 The Remains of the Day, 1989 The Unconsoled, 1995 Concepts: FLOATING WORLD the night time of pleasure, entertainment and drink. JOURNEY the journey motif

87 The Remains of the Day

The Remains of the Day

Set in pre and post-war Britain Narrator: aging butler Stevens who serves for Lord Darlington

Mrs Kenton love subdued to duty

THE ESSENCE OF BRITISHNESS

Lord Darlington abosolute loyalty

Stevens father latent love

Mr. Farraday new American master

88 The Prophet

The Prophet

s Hair

Set in: India, 19- Characters: wealthy moneylender Hashim, his son Atta, daughter Huma Plot: Hashim finds a relic, decides to keep it. Instead of good fortune, it brings his family ill fortune: Hashim turns a bigot, forces his family to ultraorthodox Muslim life. Contribution: Developing cultural awareness: shikara, khichri, phial, purdah, mulahs (no endnotes, explanation) Combines fantasy and magic (reclic = prophet?s hair its miraculous powers) Satire of religious bigotry (countereffects of the relic, mullahs wanted to lynch Atta for the loss of relic, Sheikh?s crippled children were healed which ruined them for life)

89 Roman fleuve Stream novel River novel

Roman fleuve Stream novel River novel

Saga

Bildungsroman

LITERATURE OF THE 60 s , 70s AND 80s

After experiment with new topics (post-imperialism) Experiment with the form

90 Saga Novel

Saga Novel

a narrative or a tale of heroic achievements or extraordinary or marvellous adventures, e.g. Beowulf a narrative about the life of a large family, written over a long period and linked together by a character or place, e.g. Forsyte Saga

91 OTHER EXPERIMENTS WITH FORM

OTHER EXPERIMENTS WITH FORM

Roman Fleuve stream novel river novel a term used for a series of novels, each of which exists as a separate novel but all of which are related because the characters reappear in each succeeding work. roman fleuve was established by E. Zola, H. Balzac and M. Proust the most popular variants: trilogy, tetralogy Bildungsroman - the term used widely by German critics, referring to a novel which is an account of the youthful development of a hero or heroine (David Lodge: Out of Shelter)

92 NOVELISTS OF THE 50

NOVELISTS OF THE 50

s ANTHONY POWELL, ANGUS WILSON, C. P. SNOW

Novelists of the 50?s achieved considerable reputation in the 50?s unique category Common Features: satiric interest in the changes in the Great Britain in the 50?s and 60?s disgust with the spread of Western civilisation genre (roman fleuve)

93 NOVELISTS OF THE 50

NOVELISTS OF THE 50

s ANTHONY POWELL, ANGUS WILLSON and CHARLES PERCY SNOW

stories of upper-class hard-heads started publishing in the 30?s

94 ANTHONY POWELL

ANTHONY POWELL

(1905 - 2000)

Style: universal: - 4 volumes of memoirs 3 volumes of diaries 2 volumes of literary criticisms

educated at prestigious Eton Balliol College (Oxford) a friend of Evelyn Waugh, Graham Greene started as a film script-writer critic and book reviewer for: the Daily Telegraph; the Times Literary Supplement; Punch; the Spectator

Nicolas Poussins picture which gives name to the novel

95 ANTONY POWELS MAJOR WORKS:

ANTONY POWELS MAJOR WORKS:

Novels: Afternoon Men, 1931 Venusberg, 1932 A Dance to the Music of Time slowly developing narrative (narrator: Nicholas Jenkins), set between the 20?s and 50?s a chronicle of British upper middle class a fictionalised war memoir a prose elegy for the decline and fall of a ruling class

96 A Dance to the Music of Time

A Dance to the Music of Time

1. A Question of Upbringing 2. A Buyer?s Market 3. The Acceptance World 4. At Lady Molly?s 5. Casanova?s Chinese Restaurant 6. The Kindly Ones 7. The Walley of Bones 8. The Soldier?s Art 9. The Military Philosophers 10. Books do Furnish a Room 11. Temporary Kings 12. Hearing Secret Harmonies

97 A Dance to the Music of Time

A Dance to the Music of Time

Metaphor: Conformism of those who dance to the music of time Parody of English political, social and military life

98 A painting by Nicolas Poussin

A painting by Nicolas Poussin

Seasons hand in hand Symbolising: Passing of time, Human mortality

Dance Symbolises Partmership its twists and turns

99 Charles Percy Snow Baron Snow of Leicester (1905 - 1980)

Charles Percy Snow Baron Snow of Leicester (1905 - 1980)

educated as a chemist and physicist at the Univ. of Leicester held important positions in the British Government

Style: rational, atheistic, scientifically exact, influenced by the genre of detective stories - conflict between the sciences and the humanities (The Two Cultures)

100 NOVELS BY CHARLES PERCY SNOW

NOVELS BY CHARLES PERCY SNOW

Strangers and Brothers, 1940 1970 - eleven novels in the series - narrated by 'Lewis Eliot'. - follows his life and career from humble beginnings in an English provincial town, to London lawyer, to Cambridge don, to wartime service in Whitehall, to senior civil servant and finally retirement. The Masters, 1951 The New Men, 1954 Last Things, 1970

101 ANGUS WILSON

ANGUS WILSON

b. 1913 Style: -restless experimentation with: REALISM (Hemlock and After, 1952) FABLE, ALLEGORY (The Old Man at the ZOO, 1961) Topics: criticised SOCIETY ; society understood holistically favoured NATURE source of stable values Characters: (3 groups) PRINCIPAL PLAYERS SUPPORITNG ROLES ADDITIONAL CAST

102 NOVELISTS OF THE 50

NOVELISTS OF THE 50

s - GRAHAM GREENE

b. in 1904 to the family of a Headmaster; studied at Balliol College, Oxford; editor of the Oxford Outlook, The Times, The Spectactor; during WWII an employee of the Ministry of Information. Style: 1. Catholicism; 2. Exotic settings (Cuba, Estonia); 3. Spy novels, double agents; 4. Greenland.

103 GRAHAM GREENES STYLE

GRAHAM GREENES STYLE

Greenland the term describing specific atmosphere in Greene?s novels: the sweat and infection, the ill-built town which is beautiful for a few minutes at sundown, the brothel where all men are equal, the vultures the snobbery of the 2nd class public schools, the law which all can evade, the everpresent haunting underworld of gossip, spying, bribery, violence and betrayal Evelyn Waugh Technique of writing/narration: Camera Eye recording significant details (absolutely objective narrative, no judgemental voice)

104 HAVANA

HAVANA

atmosphere of greenland

...the sweat and infection, the ill-built town which is beautiful for a few minutes at sundown, the brothel where all men are equal, the vultures the snobbery of the 2nd class public schools, the law which all can evade, the everpresent haunting underworld of gossip, spying, bribery, violence and betrayal Evelyn Waugh

105 GRAHAM GREENES MAJOR WORKS

GRAHAM GREENES MAJOR WORKS

Novels: Early Years: 1929, The Man Within Pre-WWII novels: 1938, Brighton Rock 1939, The Confidential Agent 1940, The Power and the Glory

Post-WWII novels: 1948, The Heart of the Matter 1951, The End of the Affair 1955, The Quiet American 1958, Our Man in Havana 1969, Travels with my Aunt 1973, The Honorary Consul

106 Our Man in Havana

Our Man in Havana

Parody of a spy novel Based on G. Gs experience during WWII Set in Cuba Story of an underdog Wormold Selling vacuum cleaners mistaken for military plans of nuclear bombs Becomes Secret Agent 5920015

107 There were eight Japanese gentlemen having a fish dinner at Bentley

There were eight Japanese gentlemen having a fish dinner at Bentley

s. They spoke to each other rarely in their incomprehensible tongue, but always with a courteous smile and often with a small bow. All but one of them wore glasses. Sometimes a prety girl who sat in the window beyond gave them a passing glance, but her own problem seemed too serious for her to pay any real attention to anyone in the world except herself and her companion.

a) Objective narrator b) Subjective narrator c) 1st person narr. d) 3rd person narrator

108 LITERATURE OF THE 50

LITERATURE OF THE 50

S AND 60?S - EXOTIC NOVELS

50s 60s Period of the Dreams revived Inspiration by the colonial past, (Lawrence Durrell) exotic countries, (William Golding) utopia, dystopia and sci-fi (Eric Arthur Blair George Orwell) George Orwell)

109 Lawrence Durrell (1912 - 1990)

Lawrence Durrell (1912 - 1990)

b. in Jullundur, northern India to his English father and Irish-English mother result: inclination toward Tibetan mentality; mixed nationality sent to England at the age of 11 to be formally educated there missed Southern climate and way of life, moved to Corfu fled Greece in 1941 just ahead of Nazi army Press attach? in the British Information Office in Alexandria, Egypt (Belehrad and Rhodes) A teacher of English literature in Cyprus Deeply touched by the death of his wife and daughter

110 Lawrence Durrell (1912 - 1990)

Lawrence Durrell (1912 - 1990)

Style: Influenced by Henry Miller (naturalism), H. D. Lawrence (sexual openness) Fascination for the Far East (oriental folklore, habits) Modernist fiction (philosophical point of view) Novels: Pied Piper of Lovers (pseudonym: Charles Norden) Panic Spring, 1937 Bitter Lemons

111 The Alexandria Quartet

The Alexandria Quartet

The Alexandria Quartet: Justine, 1957 Balthazar, 1958 Mountain Olive, 1958 Clea, 1960 Subject: the expression of love: pure love, incest, rape, infant prostitution, lesbian love, homosexuality. Specific expressions of L. G. Dartley?s love to Justine (passion), Melissa (affection), Clea (healing love), Mount Olive (friendship). The Revolt of Aphrodite: 1. Tunc, 1968 2. The Avignon Quintet, 1974-85

112 William Golding (1911 - 1993)

William Golding (1911 - 1993)

b. in Newquay, Cornwall graduated from Oxford University during WWII joined the military service 1983 - Nobel Laureate in Literature Style: influenced by Greene?s religiosity: original sin, evil in people Interested in existential rather than national issues: I should have thought that a pack of British boys would have been able to put up a better show than that. called his writings fables or myths; also writing moral allegories: post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism excessively using symbolism

113 Novels by W. Golding

Novels by W. Golding

Poems, 1934 The Inheritors, 1955 Pincher Martin, 1965 Free Fall, 1959 The Spire, 1964 The Lord of the Flies, 1954

EVIL IN MEN

OUTSIDERISM

CORRUPTION OF POWER

INNER SAVAGERY

SOCIAL RULES AND ABSENCE THEREOF

114 Novels by W. Golding

Novels by W. Golding

Man produces evil like a bee produces honey An outsider often draws attention away from predators mistakes People need an absolute monarch

EVIL IN MEN

OUTSIDERISM

CORRUPTION OF POWER

INNER SAVAGERY

SOCIAL RULES AND ABSENCE THEREOF

115 Lord of the Flies

Lord of the Flies

Subject: collapse of civilisation: transition from civilised to barbaric Inspired by Robert Ballantyne?s Coral Island (1858), Jules Verne, Daniel Defoe and sci fi Setting: unspecified - Indian Pacific Ocean time: WWII (?)

116 Lord of the Flies = inborn evil in people

Lord of the Flies = inborn evil in people

Nemesis (in Greek, ???????), was the spirit of divine retribution against those who succumb to hubris, vengeful fate personified as a remorseless goddess. The name Nemesis is related to the Greek word ???????, meaning "to give what is due". The Romans equated one aspect of Greek Nemesis, which might be interpreted as "indignation at unmerited advantage", as Invidia (Aronoff 2003). Nemesis is now used as a term used to describe one's worst enemy, normally someone or something that is the exact opposite of oneself but is also somehow similar. For example, Professor Moriarty is frequently described as the nemesis of Sherlock Holmes.

117 Post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism

Post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism

LoF shows the downfall of civilisation (from civilised to barbaric)

Herbert Spencer had published The principles of biology in 1864. In that he referred to 'survival of the fittest' twice

Charles Darwin Origin of Species (1869) The Survival of the Fittest

118 Goldings Post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism

Goldings Post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism

Herbert George Wells The Father of Sci-fi Author of: The Time Machine The War of Worlds The Invisible Man The Island of Doctor Moreau

Believed that technology does not make a man happier

119 Symbolism in Lord of the Flies

Symbolism in Lord of the Flies

English cathedral choir schoolboys - microcosm Piggy, glasses: intelligence Ralph, the conch democracy Simon Jesus Roger Evil, Satan Jack anarchy The island a microcosm The beast evil, residing within everyone Lord of the Flies the Devil Other authors: Malcolm Lowry: Under the Volcano

120 BRITISH POST-WAR POETRY

BRITISH POST-WAR POETRY

SEVERAL MOVEMENTS EMERGED

THE MOVEMENT

THE GROUP

THE MARTIANS

THE REVIEW

THE UNDERGROUND

TED HUGHES

SEAMUS HEANEY

121 THE MOVEMENT

THE MOVEMENT

- dominated in the 40's - 50's; - manifesto of THE MOVEMENT: collections: "Poets of the 50's", 1955 and "New Lines", 1956 P. Larkin: I believe a poet has to enjoy writing poetry and the readers enjoy reading it, or they are both wasting their time. (The Times, 1964).

122 I had suggested, in exasperation, that he finds Something other to

I had suggested, in exasperation, that he finds Something other to

write about the moon, and flowers and birds, and temples, And the bare hills of the once holy city - Through the leprous lakes of mud. (Changing the Subject).

The poet

Should seek more serious topics

Struggle with life

123 Artistic manifesto of the Movement

Artistic manifesto of the Movement

Philosophy of the Movement

Influences: W.Butler Yeats; W.H.Auden; Edwin Muir;

* Disillusionment * Empirism * Subjectivity, intimacy, privacy * Intellectualism * Specific target: poets, churchgoers, mourners * Rational, logical language * Representatives: educated, Oxbridge graduates

124 Intimacy

Intimacy

Existential topics

Sharp observations on life

And why should this chain of miracles be easier to believe Than that my darling should come to me as naturally As she trusts a restaurant not to poison her?"

This man I knew Only a little, by his death Shows me a love I thought I lacked... For finished work, like answered prayer, makes death taste sweet.

Vivid SIMILES

125 MEMBERS OF THE MOVEMENT

MEMBERS OF THE MOVEMENT

1. Robert Conquest A World of Difference, 1955; "Arias from a Love Opera", 1969 "Forays", 1979 2. Philip Larkin: Whitsun Weddings 3. D. J. Enright 4. Elisabeth Jennings Poems, 1953; A Way of Looking, 1955; A Sense of the World" 5. Kingsley Amis Poems: "The End" 6. John Wain "Mixed Feelings", 1951; "A Word Carved on a Sill", 1956; Weep before God, 1961 7. Thom Gunn "On the Move", 1966; "The Sense of Movement" 8. John Holloway - literary criticism 9. Donald Davie - literary criticism

126 PHILIP LARKIN

PHILIP LARKIN

- b. 1922 in Coventry, died 1985; - studied at Oxford, St. John's - librarian in Belfast, Leicester

Style: Days What are days for? Days are where we five. They come, they wake us Time and time over They are to be happy in: Where can we live but Ah, solving that question Brings the priest and the doctor In their long coats Running over the fields.

Collections: The North Ship", 1945 The Less Deceived, 1955 The Whitsun Weddings, 1964 High Windows

127 Days What are days for

Days What are days for

Days are where we live. They come, they wake us Time and time over They are to be happy in: Where can we live but Ah, solving that question Brings the priest and the doctor In their long coats Running over the fields.

MOTIFS OF PANTA REI

ANAPHORA

METAPHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS

TABOO QUESTIONS

RHETORIC QUESTION

128 DENNIS JOSEPH ENRIGHT - b. 1920

DENNIS JOSEPH ENRIGHT - b. 1920

Style: comic, funny verses Collections: "The Laughing Hyena", 1953 "Bread Rather than Blossoms", 1956 The Old Adam", 1965 "Unlawful Assembly", 1968 The Terrible Shears",

129 MINOR MOVEMENTS AND LITERARY TRENDS: THE UNDERGROUND

MINOR MOVEMENTS AND LITERARY TRENDS: THE UNDERGROUND

Loose groups also called The Liverpool Poets Representatives: Adrian Henri, Roger McGough TOPICS: Criticism of the Establishment Formed since the 1960?s Influenced by the Beat Generation, jazz, William Blake, dadaism, surrealism Collections: Love, love, love, love, 1968; Children of Albion, 1969

130 THE REVIEW

THE REVIEW

- Their manifesto: magazine - Reaction to the Movement - Confessional poetry and dramatic lyrics of Alfred Alvarez

131 THE MAVERICKS

THE MAVERICKS

- Opposition to the Movement - their anthology: The Mavericks - representatives: Ian Silkin (Nature with Man, 1965) TONE: reflexive, meditative poetry about the North of England and its nature

132 - collection: A Martian Sends a Postcard Home, 1979 - representatives:

- collection: A Martian Sends a Postcard Home, 1979 - representatives:

Craig Raine

THE MARTIANS or THE MARTIAN SCHOOL

133 SEAMUS HEANEY

SEAMUS HEANEY

...poetry as revelation of the self to the self, as the restoration of the culture to itself, poems as elements of continuity... (1976) - b. in Ireland (Conn Derry), 1939 - studied in Belfast at Queen?s University - teacher, later the Head of the Department in Dublin 1995 awarded the Nobel Prize Style: - prolific, near-demonic poet - simple but strong - anti-human - reflections of the experience of human cruelty - psychic drama

134 SEAMUS HEANEYs APOLITICAL POETRY

SEAMUS HEANEYs APOLITICAL POETRY

1. APOLITICAL POETRY: Traditionalist: images of farms, diligence, animals, nature Language: robust, uses dialects, archaisms, experiments with assonance Prosody: unrhymed, American free verse form inspired by neonaturalism of Ted Hughes, Robert Lowell Collections: - Death of a Naturalist, 1966 Wintering Out The North, 1975 Field Work, 1979

135 SEAMUS HEANEYs POLITICAL POETRY

SEAMUS HEANEYs POLITICAL POETRY

2. POLITICAL POETRY influenced by Patrick Ravanagh rooted in Heaney?s Irish Catholic origin (Ulster Catholics) criticises bigotry of the Protestant Extremists Military Images: Trout, Rookery Collections: Whatever You Say, Say Nothing North, 1975

136 (Edward James) Ted Hughes

(Edward James) Ted Hughes

b. 1930 in the North of England (West Yorkshire); Studied at Cambridge; interested in folklore, D.H Lawrence, Shakespeare, Dylan Thomas; Many unusual jobs 1956 married to a U.S. poet Sylvia Plath; founded Arvon foundation; died 1984.

137 Ted Hughes style:

Ted Hughes style:

individual; middle-English poetry north-English dialect; philosophical topics, questions; neo-naturalist; 1st person narrator: I sit in the top of the world, my eyes closed. Topics/Themes: brutality vs. vitality : Symbolism: of Jaguar, Hawk, Fox, Cat, Pike; pigs, apes, parrots Death vs. life: symbolism of animal world, war Horror, roughness: - silhouette of horror, enraged jaguar; sudden sharp hot stink of fox Determinism; Exercise of power

138 Controversial poetry of Ted Hughes

Controversial poetry of Ted Hughes

Exercise of power: I kill where I please because it is all mine... Nothing has changed since I began. My eye has permitted no change. I am going to keep things like this. (Hawk Roosting) Collections of poems: - The Hawk in the Rain, 1957; - Lupercal, 1960; - Gandette, 1977; - Cave Birds, 1978; - Moortown, 1979.

139 Written test

Written test

Content: lectures, seminars, Look Back in Anger, Lord of the Flies, dopl?uj?ce texty na sk??ku (see: web page) FORM: multiple choice, gap filling, essay

140 Sample task 1

Sample task 1

1. Who wrote Dance to the Music of Time? John Osborne Baron Snow of Leicester Doris Lessing Charles Percy Snow None of these

141 Sample task 2

Sample task 2

1. What do Allan Sillitoe, Kingsley Amis and Sid Barstow have in common? They were awarded the Nobel prize They all use metaphors in the titles of their novels They all use the setting of Greenland They are working class novelists None of these

142 Task 3  Essay - Points for:

Task 3 Essay - Points for:

Cultural and historical context Correct information from the piece (names, setting, plot) Active use of the story to illustrate your point Independent thinking

143 Write a paragraph on the status revolt of a female protagonist in LBA

Write a paragraph on the status revolt of a female protagonist in LBA

The character in LBA who represents the status rebellion is Alison Redfern, the daughter of an India veteran, colonel Redfern. She was born to a privileged upper class, however, for dubious reasons she decided to marry below her standard. She married a working class representative, Jim Porter, who in spite of his education could not find a proper job and worked in a candy stand. He represents a typical angry young man, product of Butlers educational law of 1944 which left many overqualified young people unemployed. That, of course, made Jim irritated and oversensitive and he often relieved his anger on Alison. Thus Alison, as a representative of the upper class ended up in a depressive relationship with an upset and conformist young man. It is a good question what made Alison rebell against her own class and parents was it just a generation gap, natural teenage protest against authorities, or more serious reasons? Or was it love that brought her to a tiny attic room? John Osborne did not really answer the question in the play and let the spectactor wonder about Alisons true motivation.

144 List of Sources Photos and Images: Books http://images

List of Sources Photos and Images: Books http://images

google.sk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.wickedlady.com/tins/images/literature.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.wickedlady.com/tins/literature.html&h=348&w=300&sz=36&hl=sk&start=18&tbnid=qKxvZv6mYZBb_M:&tbnh=120&tbnw=103&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2Bliterature%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG www.newtherapist.com/diagnosis12.html Farrell, J. G. http://images.google.fr/images?svnum=10&hl=sk&lr=&q=j.+g.+farrell+%2B+writer&btnG=H%C4%BEada%C5%A5 Greene, Graham http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham_Greene Ishiguro, Kazuo http://images.google.fr/images?q=kazuo+ishiguro&hl=sk&btnG=Vyh%C4%BEad%C3%A1vanie+obr%C3%A1zkov Osborne, John http://images.google.fr/images?q=john+osborne&hl=sk&btnG=Vyh%C4%BEad%C3%A1vanie+obr%C3%A1zkov Postmodernism http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/pomo.html Rushdie, Salman http://images.google.fr/images?q=salman+rushdie&hl=sk&btnG=Vyh%C4%BEad%C3%A1vanie+obr%C3%A1zkov Sillitoe, Allan http://images.google.fr/imgres?imgurl=http://www.open2.net/open2static/source/file/root/45/58/188077/allan_sillitoe.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.open2.net/castandcrew/snsm.html&h=134&w=134&sz=30&hl=sk&start=4&tbnid=TBt2TYSuNpOLaM:&tbnh=92&tbnw=92&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dallan%2Bsillitoe%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG

Web-pages:

145 Postcolonialism http://www

Postcolonialism http://www

britishempire.co.uk/art/artandempire.htm super str?nka na kol umenie Postmodernism http://images.google.sk/imgres?imgurl=http://home.nc.rr.com/donaldwood/Society-BG.gif&imgrefurl=http://home.nc.rr.com/donaldwood/Page%252010.htm&h=200&w=253&sz=5&hl=sk&start=322&tbnid=awNCbk-iHKJ5bM:&tbnh=88&tbnw=111&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2Bpostmodernism%26start%3D306%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

READING COUPLE IMAGE http://images.google.sk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.americanplacetheatre.org/stage/images/stories/illustrations_icons/performances.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.americanplacetheatre.org/stage/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26task%3Dsection%26id%3D7%26Itemid%3D35&h=128&w=150&sz=3&hl=sk&start=247&tbnid=7ZN3fPfAAUBvbM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=96&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dicons%2B%252B%2Bliterature%26start%3D234%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

146 Introduction  quick and easy

Introduction quick and easy

Think of the play you liked (e.g. Look Back in Anger)

Decide what was it?s theme: (e.g. social and historical changes can lead to personal tragedies and crises)

Write your thesis statement: John Osborne in his play Look Back in Anger demonstrates how social and historical changes can lead to many personal tragedies and crises

Expand your thesis:John Osborne, a British playwright and an Angry young man in his 3-act play Look Back in Anger demonstrates how social and historical changes can lead to disastrous personal tragedies and crises.

147 Write the first and second sentence of your introduction:

Write the first and second sentence of your introduction:

People who read in books of history about historical, political and social turmoils tend to forget how these great changes influenced day-to-day lives of individuals.

For example, everybody remembers how the Nazis seized Italy but few understand that they were the first and the last ones in history that made the Italian traffic run on time. Another example is the American space program that gave us not only te first man on the moon but also aluminium folio or the frying pan.

John Osborne, a British playwright and an angry young man in his play Look Back in Anger (1956) also demonstrates how social and historical changes, namely the Butler?s educational act in 1944 lead to many personal tragedies and crises and how his main protagonist Jim Porter struggles with personal and emotional paralysis.

148 WARNING

WARNING

Any non-academic behaviour during the test will affect your grade. Talking to another student - 5 point penalty Use of cheat-sheets, cell phones, more talking to other students test confiscated, F grade Lost test minus 10 points

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