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2: Internet History
2: Internet History
How did the Internet come to be
How did the Internet come to be
Who invented the Internet
Who invented the Internet
1958-1961: Connect Computers
1958-1961: Connect Computers
1966 –1968: Connect Computers
1966 –1968: Connect Computers
1969: First Connections
1969: First Connections
1967-1971: So what do we do with it
1967-1971: So what do we do with it
1971-1973 Networks Growing
1971-1973 Networks Growing
1972-1974: Protocol Development
1972-1974: Protocol Development
1974-1978: Development of TCP/IP
1974-1978: Development of TCP/IP
1981 –1984: Base Protocols In Place
1981 –1984: Base Protocols In Place
1983-1986: Not Just a Research Project Anymore
1983-1986: Not Just a Research Project Anymore
1988-1989: Growing Pains
1988-1989: Growing Pains
1990-1993: WWW Explosion
1990-1993: WWW Explosion
1990-1993: Ready for Public Consumption
1990-1993: Ready for Public Consumption
1995: As we know it
1995: As we know it
How to make the Internet better
How to make the Internet better
Vint Cerf: Open Challenges
Vint Cerf: Open Challenges
Tim Berners-Lee: Making the Internet Better
Tim Berners-Lee: Making the Internet Better
Making the Internet Better
Making the Internet Better
Outtakes
Outtakes
Internet Grows Exponentially
Internet Grows Exponentially

Презентация на тему: «2: Internet History». Автор: . Файл: «2: Internet History.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 53 КБ.

2: Internet History

содержание презентации «2: Internet History.ppt»
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1 2: Internet History

2: Internet History

Last Modified: 11/2/2015 7:52:18 PM

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2 How did the Internet come to be

How did the Internet come to be

It started as a research project to experiment with connecting computers together with packet switched networks. It was developed with funding and leadership of the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

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3 Who invented the Internet

Who invented the Internet

Al Gore? No ? Leonard Kleinrock who did early work in packet switching? Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn who defined the "Internet Protocol" (IP) and participated in the development of TCP? Tim Berners-Lee who developed HTTP to support a global hyper-text system he called the World Wide Web? (Internet vs the World Wide Web?)

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4 1958-1961: Connect Computers

1958-1961: Connect Computers

1958 – After USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the following year, within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military 1961 – First published work on packet switching (“Information Flow in Large Communication Nets”, Leonard Kleinrock, MIT graduate student) 1964 – other independent work in packet switching at RAND Institute and National Physics Laboratory in England

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5 1966 –1968: Connect Computers

1966 –1968: Connect Computers

Funded

1966 – Lawrence Roberts (colleague of Kleinrock from MIT) publishes overall plan for an ARPAnet, a proposed packet switch network 1968 – ARPA awards contracts for four nodes in ARPANET to UCLA (Network Measurement), Stanford Research Institute (Network Information Center), UCSB (Interactive Mathematics) and U Utah (Graphics); BBN gets contract to build the IMP switches

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6 1969: First Connections

1969: First Connections

4/7/1969 – First RFC (“Host Software” by Steve Crocker) basis for the Network Control Protocol(NCP) 9/2/1969 – Leonard Kleinrock’s computer at UCLA becomes first node on the ARPANET 10/29/1969 – First packets sent; Charlie Kline attempts use of remote login from UCLA to SRI; system crashes as “G” in entered

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7 1967-1971: So what do we do with it

1967-1971: So what do we do with it

1967-1972 – Vint Cerf, graduate student in Kleinrock’s lab, works on application level protocols for the ARPANET (file transfer and Telnet protocols) 1971 - Ray Tomlinson of BBN writes email application; derived from two existing: an intra-machine email program (SENDMSG) and an experimental file transfer program (CPYNET)

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8 1971-1973 Networks Growing

1971-1973 Networks Growing

1970 - First cross-country link installed by AT&T between UCLA and BBN at 56kbps Other networks: ALOHAnet (microwave network in Hawaii), Telenet (commercial, BBN), Transpac (France) 1973 – Ethernet was designed in 1973 by Bob Metcalfe at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) How do we connect these networks together?

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9 1972-1974: Protocol Development

1972-1974: Protocol Development

1972-1974 – Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf develop protocols to connect networks without any knowledge of the topology or specific characteristics of the underlying nets 1972 – Robert Kahn gives first public demonstration of ARPAnet (now 15 nodes) at International Conference on Computer Communication

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10 1974-1978: Development of TCP/IP

1974-1978: Development of TCP/IP

1974 – First full draft of TCP produced November 1977 - First three-network TCP/IP based interconnection demonstrated linking SATNET, PRNET and ARPANET in a path leading from Menlo Park, CA to Univ. College London and back to USC/ISI (Marina del Ray, CA) 1978 – TCP split into TCP and IP

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11 1981 –1984: Base Protocols In Place

1981 –1984: Base Protocols In Place

1981 – Term “Internet” coined to mean collection of interconnected networks 1982 – ISO releases OSI seven layer model; actual protocols die but model is influential 1/1/1983 – Original ARPANET NCP was banned from the ARPANET and TCP/IP was required 1984 – Cisco Systems founded

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12 1983-1986: Not Just a Research Project Anymore

1983-1986: Not Just a Research Project Anymore

1984 – Domain Name System introduced; 1000+ hosts (200 hosts by end of 1970s; over 100000 by end of 1980s) 1986 – NSFNET created to provide access to 5 super computer centers including Theory Center at Cornell (NSFNET backbone speeds 56 Kbps) 1983 – ARPANET split into ARPANET and MILNET; MILNET to carry defense related traffic

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13 1988-1989: Growing Pains

1988-1989: Growing Pains

1988 - Nodes on Internet began to double every year November 1988 – Internet worm affecting about 10% of the 60000 computers on the Internet (Robert Morris, Cornell) 1988 - Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) established in December with Jon Postel as its Director. Postel was also the RFC Editor and US Domain registrar for many years

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14 1990-1993: WWW Explosion

1990-1993: WWW Explosion

1990 – ARPANET ceases to exist 1990 – Tim Berners-Lee develops hypertext system with initial versions of HTML and HTTP and first GUI web browser called “WorldWideWeb” 1993 – Mosaic, a GUI web browser, written by Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina at NCSA takes world by storm (showed in-line images and was easy to install); WWW proliferates at a 341,634% annual growth rate of service traffic

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15 1990-1993: Ready for Public Consumption

1990-1993: Ready for Public Consumption

1990 – First ISP world.std.com 1991 – NSFNET lifted restrictions on use of NSFNET for commercial purposes 1992 – Internet Society founded 1993 – InterNIC created by NSF to provide Internet services; Private companies transition into roles (AT&T – directory and database services; Network Solutions – registration services; CERFnet – information services)

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16 1995: As we know it

1995: As we know it

1995- NSFNET reverts back to a research network. Main US backbone traffic now routed through commercial internet service providers 1995 – Sun launches Java 1995 - Traditional online dial-up systems (Compuserve, America Online, Prodigy) begin to provide Internet access 1995 - Registration of domain names no longer free

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17 How to make the Internet better

How to make the Internet better

????????????????????????

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18 Vint Cerf: Open Challenges

Vint Cerf: Open Challenges

Vint Cerf: “My primary disappointment has been the slow pace of high speed access for residential customers and the demise of so many competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs) in the US. The second area of disappointment is the slow uptake of version 6 of the Internet protocol (IPv6). Perhaps the third area is the continuing difficulty caused by viruses, worms and distributed denial of service attacks.”

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19 Tim Berners-Lee: Making the Internet Better

Tim Berners-Lee: Making the Internet Better

Tim Berners-Lee: “Nothing can be perfect, but the Web could be a lot better. It would help is we had easy hypertext editors which let us make links between documents with the mouse. It would help if everyone with Web access also had some space they can write to -- and that is changing nowadays as a lot of ISPs give web space to users. It would help if we had an easy way of controlling access to files on the web so that we could safely use it for private, group, or family information without fear of the wrong people being able to access it.”

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20 Making the Internet Better

Making the Internet Better

How about you?

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21 Outtakes

Outtakes

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22 Internet Grows Exponentially

Internet Grows Exponentially

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