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ADM392 Windows® Server™ 2003 and Windows XP Kernel Changes
ADM392 Windows® Server™ 2003 and Windows XP Kernel Changes
Outline
Outline
About The Speakers
About The Speakers
Level Of Kernel Change
Level Of Kernel Change
Outline
Outline
The Boot Process
The Boot Process
Prefetch Mechanism
Prefetch Mechanism
Prefetch Mechanism
Prefetch Mechanism
Hibernate And Resume
Hibernate And Resume
Other Performance Improvements
Other Performance Improvements
Outline
Outline
SMP Scalability
SMP Scalability
Physical Memory Limits
Physical Memory Limits
Using Extended Physical Memory
Using Extended Physical Memory
Large Pages
Large Pages
Large Pages
Large Pages
Larger Multiprocessor Systems
Larger Multiprocessor Systems
SMP Scalability
SMP Scalability
Per-CPU Scheduling Queues
Per-CPU Scheduling Queues
Hyperthreading
Hyperthreading
NUMA
NUMA
System Virtual Memory Limits
System Virtual Memory Limits
Registry Limits
Registry Limits
Outline
Outline
Windows 64-Bit Editions
Windows 64-Bit Editions
Itanium Address Space Layout
Itanium Address Space Layout
32-Bit Application Support
32-Bit Application Support
Wow64
Wow64
Win64 Disk Partitioning
Win64 Disk Partitioning
Outline
Outline
File System Enhancements
File System Enhancements
The Defrag API
The Defrag API
Volume Shadow Copy
Volume Shadow Copy
Volume Snapshots
Volume Snapshots
Shadow Copies of Shared Folders
Shadow Copies of Shared Folders
Shadow Copies on Shared Folders
Shadow Copies on Shared Folders
Outline
Outline
System Restore
System Restore
System Restore
System Restore
System Restore
System Restore
Driver Rollback
Driver Rollback
Driver Verifier Enhancements
Driver Verifier Enhancements
Side-By-Side Assemblies
Side-By-Side Assemblies
Theme-Aware Common Controls
Theme-Aware Common Controls
Outline
Outline
Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous
Terminal Services
Terminal Services
Services Infrastructure
Services Infrastructure
Debugging
Debugging
Registry Callbacks
Registry Callbacks
System Area Networks
System Area Networks
System Area Networks
System Area Networks
System Area Networks
System Area Networks
System Area Networks
System Area Networks
Summary
Summary
For More Information
For More Information
Community Resources
Community Resources
evaluations
evaluations
© 2003 Microsoft Corporation
© 2003 Microsoft Corporation

Презентация на тему: «ADM392 Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Kernel Changes». Автор: David Solomom & Mark Russinovich. Файл: «ADM392 Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Kernel Changes.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 1150 КБ.

ADM392 Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Kernel Changes

содержание презентации «ADM392 Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Kernel Changes.ppt»
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1 ADM392 Windows® Server™ 2003 and Windows XP Kernel Changes

ADM392 Windows® Server™ 2003 and Windows XP Kernel Changes

Mark Russinovich Winternals Software

David Solomon Expert Seminars

2 Outline

Outline

Overview Performance Scalability 64-bit support File systems Reliability and recovery Miscellaneous

3 About The Speakers

About The Speakers

Authors of: Inside Windows 2000, 3rd Edition (Microsoft Press) Inside Windows 2000/XP/2003 Interactive Internals Video Tutorial Used by Microsoft for worldwide internal training David Solomon: Teaches Windows internals classes (www.solsem.com) Writes books and articles on Windows internals Mark Russinovich: Author of tools on www.sysinternals.com Co-founder and Chief Software Architect for Winternals Software (www.winternals.com) Teaches Windows internals classes Writes books and articles on Windows internals

4 Level Of Kernel Change

Level Of Kernel Change

Windows Server 2003 & Windows XP are modest upgrades as compared to the changes from Windows NT 4.0 to Windows 2000 Kernel architecture is basically unchanged No new subsystems No new API sets Internal version numbers confirm this Windows 2000 was 5.0 Windows XP is 5.1 (not 6.0) Windows Server 2003 is 5.2 Not the same kernel as XP (a superset) But, nonetheless, still lots of interesting kernel changes…

5 Outline

Outline

Overview Performance Scalability 64-bit support File systems Reliability and recovery Miscellaneous

6 The Boot Process

The Boot Process

Goal: From power on to logon screen in under 30 seconds Boot monitoring tool (Bootvis) developed to help Microsoft and hardware vendors optimize Prefetching of drivers I/O overlapped with device initialization Slow drivers do work asynchronously Winlogon doesn’t wait for Workstation service to start if Account doesn't depend on a roaming profile Domain policy that affects logon hasn't changed since last logon

7 Prefetch Mechanism

Prefetch Mechanism

File activity is traced and used to prefetch data the next time On boot, system monitors first 2 minutes of boot process (stops 30 seconds after the user starts the shell or 60 seconds after all services are started) Also applies to application startup First 10 seconds are monitored Prefetch “trace file” stored in \Window\Prefetch Name of .EXE-<hash of full path>.pf Boot trace: NTOSBOOT-B00DFAAD.pf

8 Prefetch Mechanism

Prefetch Mechanism

When application run again, system automatically Reads in directories referenced Reads in code and file data Reads are asynchronous But waits for all prefetch to complete In addition, every 3 days, system automatically defrags files involved in each application startup! Bottom line: Reduces disk head seeks This was seen to be the major factor in slow application/system startup

9 Hibernate And Resume

Hibernate And Resume

Hibernation file is better compressed I/O overlapped on IDE drives Resume is faster Reads are larger Device parallelization during power up improved Power up done asynchronously in the background by drivers (specifically power-pagable devices without children)

10 Other Performance Improvements

Other Performance Improvements

Fast system calls Uses SYSENTER/SYSEXIT on Pentium II or higher; SYSCALL on AMD More intelligent working set trimming on MP systems Pages removed are LRA (Least Recently Accessed) In Windows 2000, was only done on uniprocessor systems

11 Outline

Outline

Overview Performance Scalability 64-bit Support File systems Reliability and Recovery Miscellaneous

12 SMP Scalability

SMP Scalability

Scalability improvements made in several areas of the kernel Some of these are in Windows XP More are in Server 2003 Several areas: Increased physical memory support Bigger multiprocessor systems Improved synchronization New types of multiprocessor systems Increases in system virtual memory limits

13 Physical Memory Limits

Physical Memory Limits

32-bit Server 2003 Enterprise Edition supports 32 GB RAM Windows 2000 Advanced Server limit was 8 GB 32-bit Server 2003 Datacenter Edition supports 128 GB Windows 2000 Datacenter Server was 64 GB 64-bit Sever 2003 Datacenter supports 512GB (!)

14 Using Extended Physical Memory

Using Extended Physical Memory

On 32-bit Windows, virtual address space is still 4 GB, so how can you “use” > 4 GB of memory? 1. Although each process can only address 2 GB (or 3 GB), many may be in memory at the same time (e.g. 5 * 2 GB processes = 10 GB RAM used) 2. Files in system cache remain in physical memory Although file cache doesn’t know it, memory manager keeps unmapped data in physical memory 3. Address Windowing Extensions allow Win32 processes to allocate more than 2 GB of memory Map windows as needed

15 Large Pages

Large Pages

Large pages allow a single page directory entry to map a larger region x86: 4 MB Itanium: 16 MB Large pages are used to map NTOSKRNL, HAL, boot drivers, and nonpaged pool if a “large memory system” Windows 2000: 128 MB or more Windows XP/2003: 256 MB or more Advantage: improves performance Single TLB entry used to map larger area New in Server 2003: applications can VirtualAlloc large pages with MEM_LARGE_PAGE flag

16 Large Pages

Large Pages

Disadvantage: disables kernel write protection With small pages, OS/driver code pages are mapped as read only; with large pages, entire area must be mapped read/write Drivers can then modify/corrupt system & driver code without immediately crashing system Can override by changing HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM \CurrentControlSet\Control \Session Manager \Memory Management LargePageMinimum REG_DWORD -1 EnforceWriteProtection REG_DWORD 1

17 Larger Multiprocessor Systems

Larger Multiprocessor Systems

64-bit Windows Server 2003, Datacenter edition supports 64 CPUs

18 SMP Scalability

SMP Scalability

New, more efficient locking mechanism (pushlocks) Doesn’t use spinlocks when no contention Used for object manager and address windowing extensions (AWE) related locks Minimized lock contention for hot locks E.g., PFN (Page Frame Database) lock Some locks completely eliminated Charging nonpaged/paged pool quotas, allocating and mapping system page table entries, charging commitment of pages, allocating/mapping physical memory through AWE functions

19 Per-CPU Scheduling Queues

Per-CPU Scheduling Queues

Before, there was one system-wide list of threads that want to run System had to lock this database to decide which thread to run next Now, each CPU has its own list of threads that want to run Threads always go into the ready queue of their ideal processor Instead of locking the dispatcher database to look for a candidate to run, per-CPU ready queue is checked first If there is one, does context swap Else scans other CPU’s ready queues looking for a thread to run This scan is done OUTSIDE the dispatcher lock Just acquires per-CPU scheduling database lock Global dispatcher lock still acquired to wait or unwait a thread and/or change state of a dispatcher object Bottom line: dispatcher lock is now held for a MUCH shorter time

20 Hyperthreading

Hyperthreading

Support for logical processors on hyperthreaded Xeon & Pentium 4 processors Does not count logical processors against CPU license limit like Windows 2000 E.g., Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition will use 16 logical processors on an 8 way hyperthreaded Xeon system Windows 2000 Advanced Server would only use 8 Scheduling algorithms take into account logical vs physical processors Used in choosing idle CPU to run a thread

21 NUMA

NUMA

NUMA (non uniform memory architecture) systems Groups of physical processors (called “nodes”) that have local memory Connected to the larger system through a cache-coherent interconnect bus Still an SMP system (e.g. any processor can access all of memory) But node-local memory is faster Scheduling algorithms take this into account Tries to schedule threads on processors within the same node Tries to allocate memory from local memory for processes with threads on the node New Win32 APIs to allow applications to optimize

22 System Virtual Memory Limits

System Virtual Memory Limits

Key system memory limits raised in XP & Server 2003 Windows 2000 limit of 200 GB of mapped file data eliminated Previously limited size of files that could be backed up Maximum System Page Table Entries (PTEs) increased Can now describe 1.3 GB of system space (960 MB contiguous) Windows 2000 limit was 660 MB (220 MB contiguous) Increases number of users on Terminal Servers Also means maximum device driver size is now 960 MB (was 220 MB)

23 Registry Limits

Registry Limits

SYSTEM hive was limited to 12MB in Windows 2000 Now limited to 200 MB or ? of RAM, whichever is lower Total loaded registry hive data was limited to 376MB in Windows 2000 Limited number of terminal server users This was because registry hives were read into paged pool when loaded Explains why there was a system registry quota XP/2003: No limit to loaded registry hive data Registry no longer in paged pool Hives are accessed as memory mapped files Views are mapped as necessary

24 Outline

Outline

Overview Performance Scalability 64-bit support File systems Reliability and recovery Miscellaneous

a

25 Windows 64-Bit Editions

Windows 64-Bit Editions

Supports 64-bit Itanium Intel architecture 64-bit Edition 2003 will support AMD Opteron and Athlon 64 Products Windows XP Professional 64-bit edition Windows Server 2003 64-bit editions True 64-bit versions (e.g. pointers are 64-bits) Much larger address space Good for CAD, simulation, other memory-intensive applications Not a performance boost in and of itself

26 Itanium Address Space Layout

Itanium Address Space Layout

64-bit Windows 32-bit Windows User Address Space 7152 GB (6.9 TB) 2 or 3 GB System PTEs 128 GB 1.3 GB System cache 1024 GB (1 TB) 960 MB Paged pool 128 GB 470 MB Non-paged pool 128 GB 256 MB Page file size 32 TB 16 TB

0

User-Mode User Space

6FC00000000

Kernel-Mode User Space

User Page Tables

1FFFFF0000000000

Session Space

2000000000000000

Session Space Page Tables

3FFFFF0000000000

System Space

E000000000000000

-E000060000000000

Session Space Page Tables

FFFFFF0000000000

27 32-Bit Application Support

32-Bit Application Support

“Wow64” - allows execution of Win32 32-bit applications on 64-bit OS Wow64.dll - provides core emulation infrastructure and thunks for Ntoskrnl.exe entry-point functions Loads the x86 version of Ntdll.dll and runs its initialization code, which loads all necessary 32-bit DLLs 32-bit Kernel32.dll, ntdll.dll, etc., are loaded from %systemroot%\SysWOW64 Wow64win.dll - provides thunks for Win32k.sys entry-point functions Wow64cpu.dll - provides x86 instruction emulation; executes mode-switch instructions on Itanium

28 Wow64

Wow64

Some advanced Win32 APIs not supported (e.g. scatter/gather I/o) Interoperability COM, cut/paste interoperate Cannot load 32-bit DLLs in 64-bit process and vice versa On Itanium, slower execution than on native 32-bit machine Images marked large address space aware get a full 4 GB process virtual address space OS isn’t mapped there, so space is available for process

29 Win64 Disk Partitioning

Win64 Disk Partitioning

Win64 boot.ini is in non-volatile RAM Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) First partition is FAT GUID Partition Table (GPT) 64-bit only Overcomes limitations of MBR partitioning 64-bit offsets and lengths Partition table is mirrored No nesting

30 Outline

Outline

Overview Performance Scalability 64-bit support File systems Reliability and recovery Miscellaneous

31 File System Enhancements

File System Enhancements

FAT32 on DVD-RAM Read-only NTFS volumes UDF 2.01 (new standard for DVD-ROM, DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, DVD video) Encrypting File System (EFS) No longer a separate driver—integrated into NTFS Supports multi-user access to encrypted files (supports file sharing)

32 The Defrag API

The Defrag API

Completely rewritten API Can defrag MFT and other metadata files (except log file, paging file) Can defrag encrypted files No 4KB-cluster limit on NTFS Command line interface (scriptable)

33 Volume Shadow Copy

Volume Shadow Copy

Volumes can be “snapshotted” Allows “hot backup” (including open files) Uses copy on write Changes to volume after snapshot cause original contents of cluster to be stored in snapshot file Later, reads to changed data return contents at time of snapshot Applications can tie in with mechanism to ensure consistent snapshots

34 Volume Snapshots

Volume Snapshots

Writers

Backup Application

Oracle

Volume Shadow Copy Service

SQL

Volume Shadow Copy Driver (volsnap.sys)

Mirror provider

Providers

5. Backup application saves data from volume Shadow copies

2. Writers told to freeze activity

Backup application requests shadow copy

4. Writers told to resume (“thaw”) activity

3. Providers asked to create volume shadow copies

35 Shadow Copies of Shared Folders

Shadow Copies of Shared Folders

When enabled, 2003 Server uses shadow copy to periodically create snapshots of volumes Schedule and space used is configurable

36 Shadow Copies on Shared Folders

Shadow Copies on Shared Folders

Shadow copies only exposed as network shares Clients install Explorer extension that integrates with server that let’s them View the state of folders and files within a snapshot Rollback individual folders and files to a snapshot

37 Outline

Outline

Overview Performance Scalability 64-bit support File systems Reliability and recovery Miscellaneous

38 System Restore

System Restore

Rollback system to previous state: Registry, COM+ registration database, user profiles, other files not protected by WFP Windows XP only (not on Server) Replacement of certain file types causes original version to be stored in a restore point folder 569 file types monitored – see Platform SDK for list Restore operation replaces these files Implemented as a service and a filter driver

39 System Restore

System Restore

Applications

System Restore Filter

Change.log1

File System Driver (NTFS/FAT)

A0009653.exe

A0009654.ini

User mode Kernel mode

File system request

\System Volume Information\ _restore{XX-XXX-XXX }\ RP5

40 System Restore

System Restore

Restore Points are created Every 24 hours When installing an unsigned driver When explicitly requested by user or an install program (via an API or script) WMI interfaces allow scriptable control Create/delete restore points, change configuration

41 Driver Rollback

Driver Rollback

System saves updated driver in \Windows\System32 \ReinstallBackups\nnnn \DriverFiles New button on device properties to roll back driver If you choose roll back, also saves a copy in \Windows\LastGood \System32\Drivers Will then automatically roll back driver when booting from “last known good”

42 Driver Verifier Enhancements

Driver Verifier Enhancements

New verification options: DMA verification – detects improper use of DMA buffers, adapters, and map registers Deadlock detection – detects lock hierarchy violations with spinlocks, mutexes, fast mutexes SCSI verification - monitors the interaction between a SCSI miniport driver and the port driver Enhanced I/O Verification tests drivers' support for power management, WMI, and filters Simpler wizard-style GUI (verifier.exe) Defaults verify unsigned drivers

43 Side-By-Side Assemblies

Side-By-Side Assemblies

Microsoft wants to end DLL hell by letting applications specify DLLs they use by version Support multiple versions simultaneously installed Application will use updates only if backward compatible Application that uses assemblies has a manifest file XML file that specifies application version number and DLLs DLLs are identified by GUIDs and version number and are stored either in the application’s directory or in SystemRoot\Winsxs

44 Theme-Aware Common Controls

Theme-Aware Common Controls

Example: Windows XP Common Control DLL (comctrl32.dll) Windows XP version is 6, which supports Luna themes Windows 2000 version is 5, which doesn’t support themes Non-theme aware applications can behave incorrectly if used with v6 controls, If an application doesn’t have a manifest that specifies v6, it gets v5, which is in the SystemRoot\System32 directory

45 Outline

Outline

Overview Performance Scalability 64-bit support File systems Reliability and recovery Miscellaneous

46 Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous

Boot and execute from ROM OS and drivers copied to RAM Applications can execute from ROM Hot plug memory Hot plug PCI Headless server support (no keyboard, video, mouse) Remote Installation Service EMS (Emergency Management Service) allows remote disaster recovery/control via serial port or network

47 Terminal Services

Terminal Services

Terminal Services included with Windows XP supports multiple sessions Home Edition: Supports “disconnect and switch users” Professional: Remote Desktop Connection Remote desktop redirection for audio, serial/parallel port, file system (local drives) Server 2003: Load balancing support, remote audio, local drive & printer mapping

48 Services Infrastructure

Services Infrastructure

More services run in generic service host process (svchost.exe) Reduces number of processes Two new less privileged accounts for built-in services LOCAL SERVICE, NETWORK SERVICE Less rights than SYSTEM Reduces possibility of damage if system compromised Four instances of Svchost (at least) SYSTEM SYSTEM (2nd instance – for RPC) LOCAL SERVICE NETWORK SERVICE

49 Debugging

Debugging

Can now detach debugger without killing debuggee See new Win32 DebugActiveProcessStop Kernel debugging Live local system kernel debugging (kd –kl or windbg –kl) Kernel debugging over 1394 (in addition to serial) Auto load of updated drivers to target

50 Registry Callbacks

Registry Callbacks

Up until now Regmon has relied on system call “hooking” to intercept Registry accesses Hooking isn’t supported by the kernel As of XP the system call table is write-protected by default if a system has < 256 MB, requiring a trick Server 2003 introduces a Registry callback mechanism Driver can see and modify Registry behavior Latest version of Regmon comes with two drivers: one for Server 2003 and one for previous versions

51 System Area Networks

System Area Networks

System Area Networks (SAN) is a connection-oriented server interconnect Not to be confused with Storage Area Networks (SAN) Provides reliable, in-order delivery Both network and bus semantics: Messages Remote DMA (memory semantics) Segmentation/reassembly in hardware Interconnect types include InfiniBand Ethernet FiberChannel Proprietary Even shared memory

52 System Area Networks

System Area Networks

Data Center

Web Tier Front End (Web Servers)

Database Backend

Business Logic

Internet Traffic via Standard WAN

High-Speed SAN Fabric

53 System Area Networks

System Area Networks

WinSock Direct (WSD) allows applications to get performance benefits of SANs No application modification needed Provides third generation task offload

54 System Area Networks

System Area Networks

Winsock Direct Model

Traditional Model

Socket App

Socket App

Winsock

Winsock

Winsock Switch

WinSock SPI

TCP/IP WinSock Provider

SAN Winsock Provider

User Mode Kernel Mode

TCP/IP Transport Driver

SAN Proxy Driver

NDIS

NDIS Miniport

SAN NDIS Miniport

NIC

Private interface

SAN Hardware

TCP/IP WinSock Provider

TCP/IP Transport Driver

55 Summary

Summary

Server 2003 & XP represent a modest evolution of the NT kernel More reliable, more secure, and much more scalable than Windows 2000 Upgrade today!!

56 For More Information

For More Information

December 2001 MSDN Magazine article Kernel Improvements Create a More Robust, “Windows Powerful, and Scalable OS” http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag /issues/01/12/XPKernel/XPKernel.asp XP/2003 update to our internals video 4th edition of our book To be called “Windows Internals” Will cover Windows 2000, XP, and Server 2003 To be available end of 2003

57 Community Resources

Community Resources

Community Resources http://www.microsoft.com/communities/default.mspx Most Valuable Professional (MVP) http://www.mvp.support.microsoft.com/ Newsgroups Converse online with Microsoft Newsgroups, including Worldwide http://www.microsoft.com/communities/newsgroups/default.mspx User Groups Meet and learn with your peers http://www.microsoft.com/communities/usergroups/default.mspx

58 evaluations

evaluations

59 © 2003 Microsoft Corporation

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation

All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IN THIS SUMMARY.

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