Basic
<<  Panda basic Программирование на языке Q BASIC  >>
Basic Definitions
Basic Definitions
Types of Effects
Types of Effects
Research methods used
Research methods used
Human Reaction
Human Reaction
Case Studies
Case Studies
Case Studies
Case Studies
Laboratory Studies
Laboratory Studies
Laboratory Studies
Laboratory Studies
General Field Studies
General Field Studies
General Field Studies
General Field Studies
Effects (SOx)
Effects (SOx)
Effects- SOx
Effects- SOx
Effects - Hydrocarbons
Effects - Hydrocarbons
Effects-Ozone
Effects-Ozone
Effects-Ozone
Effects-Ozone
Relative sensitivity of various plants to ozone
Relative sensitivity of various plants to ozone
Threshold Doses Of Ozone Needed To Cause Injury To Plants Grown Under
Threshold Doses Of Ozone Needed To Cause Injury To Plants Grown Under
Effect Of Ozone On Plants
Effect Of Ozone On Plants
Effects-Ozone
Effects-Ozone
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-Particulates
Effects-NOX
Effects-NOX
Effects-NOX
Effects-NOX
Effects-NOX
Effects-NOX
Effects - CO
Effects - CO
Effects - CO
Effects - CO
Effects - CO
Effects - CO
Effects – Heavy metals
Effects – Heavy metals
Effects – Heavy metals
Effects – Heavy metals
Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)
Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)
Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)
Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)
Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)
Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)
Effects – Heavy metals
Effects – Heavy metals

Презентация: «Basic Definitions». Автор: awma. Файл: «Basic Definitions.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 106 КБ.

Basic Definitions

содержание презентации «Basic Definitions.ppt»
СлайдТекст
1 Basic Definitions

Basic Definitions

Health Studies: Development of cause and effect relationship Effects: A measurable or perceivable detrimental change resulting from an air pollutant in humans, plants, animals, microbes, or other living matter, or non-living materials such as paints, metals, materials, fabrics etc., or visibility Dose: The concentration of the pollutant and the length of the time that the subject is exposed to that pollutant. Receptor: The things receiving pollution are called “receptors”.

2 Types of Effects

Types of Effects

Synergistic: combined effect of pollutants is worse than the simple sum effects of individual pollutants Additive: combined effect of pollutants is the same as the sum of effects of individual pollutants Potentiator: toxic substance made worse by presence of non-toxic substance Antagonistic: effect of toxic substance lessened by presence of non-toxic substance

3 Research methods used

Research methods used

Casual relationship study: proves evidentially that exposure to a specific pollutant causes an identifiable adverse effect. Scientific methods and statistical tests: reduce the uncertainty about the observed relationship between a specific pollutant and an identifiable effect Air pollution standards: based on - case studies - laboratory research - general field studies, and - other sources

4 Human Reaction

Human Reaction

Factors effecting reaction in humans include: - genetic make-up - health - history of exposure - preconditioning - function-pollutant reaction times

5 Case Studies

Case Studies

Characteristics of case studies: - conducted after occupational or accidental exposure resulting in adverse effects - result in a tracking backward from observed effects to probable causes - ‘after-the-fact’ studies Advantages - ‘real-life’ situations - effects of human exposure to high pollutant concentrations can be studied after the fact - Long-term effects can be monitored and studied

6 Case Studies

Case Studies

Disadvantages: - generally small groups are involved - some variables unaccounted for - studies must be interpreted in terms of other studies - no control over timing

7 Laboratory Studies

Laboratory Studies

Characteristics: - designed to measure the effect of exposure to specific concentration of a pollutant Advantages: - can more accurately investigate casual relationships because important variables can be more controlled and some variables can be eliminated - can repeat the experiment - have control over timing - can select subjects, concentrations, exposure times etc.

8 Laboratory Studies

Laboratory Studies

Disadvantages: - severe limitations on experiments with humans to determine cause-and-effect relationships, in health effects area. - can only test one cause- and-effect relationship at a time, when working with plants and animals - using data to predict effects in “real life” can’t be done precisely - usually work with only small-groups cannot guarantee that they are representative and that extrapolated results are totally accurate

9 General Field Studies

General Field Studies

Characteristics: - use statistical methods to determine impact on general population - trace possible causes of known effects. Advantages: - real life like and actually occurring situations - can measure effects and concentrations rather accurately while they are occurring - subjects constitute a more representative sample of the population as a whole - can select specific subjects from the population, if desired.

10 General Field Studies

General Field Studies

Disadvantages: - not repeatable - prior exposure history of subjects not known necessarily - no control over timing and other variables is often possible - estimates of effects on total population must be made only on a statistical basis.

11 Effects (SOx)

Effects (SOx)

SO2 can cause damage to - building materials, statue, cloth, metals - result in decreased visibility when sulfate particles form in the air. Humans chronically exposed to so2have a higher incidence of coughs, shortness of breath, bronchitis, fatigue, ‘colds’ of lung duration. Small particles can adsorb sulfur dioxide and with water form acid containing particles which irritate the respiratory system and damage the cells that line the system. Synergistic Effect of SO2and small particles. Effect of SO2 + Effect of small particles ----> worse effect than the sum of the individual effects.

12 Effects- SOx

Effects- SOx

Concentration of SO2 ppm

Effects

0.52 with pariculates(24 hr. avg.)

Increased deaths

0.25 with smoke(3-4 day 24 hr. avg.)

Increased deaths

0.25 with particulates(3-4 day 24 hr. avg.)

Increased illness for the elderly

0.19 with low particulate level(24 hr. mean concentration)

Increased deaths

0.11-0.19 with low particulate level (several day duration)

Increased hospitalization

0.037-0.092 with smoke (chronic exposure)

Increased respiratory symptoms and lung diseases

13 Effects - Hydrocarbons

Effects - Hydrocarbons

Humans Effects have been noted in cases of occupational exposure to tetra methyl lead, benzene etc. Plants Ethylene is the only hydrocarbon known to cause plant damage at concentrations found in urban areas. Materials No known effects at concentrations found in urban areas.

14 Effects-Ozone

Effects-Ozone

Ozone and other oxidants cause, at least temporarily physiological changes in humans. Healthy individuals exposed to ozone respond by decreasing the volume of air brought into the lungs. This occurs at concentrations on the 0.10 to 0.15 ppm or more range. Population segment most affected are the young, the sick and the unborn. The biochemical balance in the lung tissue is very important. Ozone causes shifts in: - enzyme activity - chemical activity - cellular activity Increased ambient ozone levels result in decreased hospital admissions.

15 Effects-Ozone

Effects-Ozone

Ozone inhalation may reduce performance. Other photochemical oxidants which form along with ozone are eye irritants. Ozone probably causes more plant damage in the United States than any other pollutant. Exterior coatings such as oil and acrylic latex, oil coatings, automotive finishes, and industrial deteriorate under even low ozone concentrations. Both natural and manmade volatile organic compounds can produce ozone, but naturally occurring volatile organics seldom produce enough ozone to cause substantial adverse effects. Stratospheric ozone helps in preventing harmful ultraviolet rays reaching earth’s surface.

16 Relative sensitivity of various plants to ozone

Relative sensitivity of various plants to ozone

Sensitive

Intermediate

Tolerant

Alfalfa

Cabbage

Beet

Barley

Carrot

Cotton

Bean

Corn Field

Descurainia

Buckwheat

Cowpea

Jerusalem Cherry

Citrus

Cucumber

Lamb’s Quarter

Clover, red

Endive

Lettuce

Corn, sweet

Hyperdive

Mint

Grape

Parsley

Piggy-back plant

Grass, bent

Parship

Rice

Grass, Brome

Pea

strawberry

Grass, crab

Peanut

Sweet potato

17 Threshold Doses Of Ozone Needed To Cause Injury To Plants Grown Under

Threshold Doses Of Ozone Needed To Cause Injury To Plants Grown Under

Sensitive Conditions

Time (hrs.)

ppm of Ozone Concentration (senstive plant)

ppm of Ozone Concentration (intermediate plant)

ppm of Ozone Concentration (tolerant plant)

0.5

0.15-0.30

0.25-0.60

<=0.50

1.0

0.10-0.25

0.20-0.40

<=0.35

2.0

0.07-0.12

0.15-0.30

<=0.25

4.0

0.05-015

0.10-0.25

<=0.20

8.0

0.03-0.10

0.08-0.20

<=0.15

18 Effect Of Ozone On Plants

Effect Of Ozone On Plants

Action

Results

acts as oxidizing agent and attacks cells

cell break down and collapse

modifies proteins, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, sulfhydryl residues

leakage of water and iron from cells

produces ethylene

damage in plants sensitive to ethylene

reduces carbon dioxide fixation

reduced plant vigor and reduction in new amount of cell material produced.

19 Effects-Ozone

Effects-Ozone

Ozone damage to plants can: - damage forests and crops - be aesthetically unpleasing - cause economic loss Ozone damage to Fabric: - ozone can produce marked fading in most blue dispersed dyes and in some red and yellow dyes - fading can occur in clothes along folds and edges

20 Effects-Particulates

Effects-Particulates

Suspended Particulate Matter - very small particles - solid or liquid - float in air/ settle slowly Types of Suspended Particulates - non-toxic - intrinsically toxic - non-toxic but inhibit removal of toxic substances - non-toxic but carries of toxic gases Effect of Toxicity is modified by - number of particles - size of particles

21 Effects-Particulates

Effects-Particulates

Collection of Particulate Matter in Human Respiratory System Particles >= 10 micrometers: collect in upper part of the respiratory system Particles, 1-10 micrometers: collect in middle part of respiratory system-the-tracheo-bronchial-region. Particles<=1 micrometer: collect in most remote portions of lungs-the air sacs (or alveoli) Particles with diameters of ? micrometer or less float in the air sac and are expelled with the next breath or two Particles with diameters from ? to 1 micrometer are captured by phagocytes and eliminated.

22 Effects-Particulates

Effects-Particulates

Collection of Particulate Matter in Human Respiratory System Nasal hair and warm, humid conditions of nasal passages act together to remove particles. Particles collect moisture as they move through moist air of upper respiratory region, making them heavier and causing them to strike walls of throat, nose etc. They are eliminated by sneezing, coughing, nose-blowing, and spitting, or by the digestive system. Small particles can adsorb sulfur dioxide and with water form acid containing particles which irritate the respiratory system and damage the cells that line the system.

23 Effects-Particulates

Effects-Particulates

Collection of Particulate Matter in Human Respiratory System Particles such as sulfates and nitrates interact with moisture on leaves. The result is a build up of acid which burns holes in leaves. Animal feed, either raw vegetation or processed feed, can convey or adsorb particulate pollutants, thus rendering the feed unusable or unsafe. Particulate matter may be either harmful, harmless or beneficial to plants. Particulate matter may either absorb light, scatter light, or reflect light, resulting in decreased visibility, and reduction of light available for photosynthesis and heating. Particulate matter can affect precipitation patterns. Millions of dollars are spent each year top clean items soiled by Suspended particulate matter

24 Effects-Particulates

Effects-Particulates

Concentration of particles microgram / m3

Effects on health (non-toxic particles)

(2000*10-6) gm/m3 with 0.4 ppm of SO2 (24 hr. avg. ) (episodes of several days duration)

Increase in deaths due to bronchitis

(1000*10-6) gm/m3 with 0.25 ppm of SO2 (24 hr. avg. ) (during episodes)

Increase in deaths from all causes including respiratory and cardiac diseases

(300*10-6) gm/m3 with 0.15 ppm of SO2 (24 hr. avg. )

significant increase in bronchitis symptoms

(130*10-6) gm/m3 SO2 (annual avg. )

Increase in frequency and severity of lower respiratory illness

(100-200*10-6) gm/m3 with 0.05 – 0.08 ppm SO2 (average season levels)

Increases in incidences of bronchitis reported above this level.

25 Effects-NOX

Effects-NOX

Nitric oxide (NO) - not very toxic at ambient levels - is rapidly converted to nitrogen dioxide which is toxic - at concentrations far above those observed in cities, it can cause disturbance in the - central nervous system - circulatory system - enzyme system Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) - NO2 penetrates to the most remote portions of the respiratory tract, the alveoli because of its low solubility in water.

26 Effects-NOX

Effects-NOX

Concentration of NO2 (ppm)

Effect

150 ppm(5-8 min.)

potentially fatal

50-100 ppm(<1 hr.)

may reduce broncho-pneumonia but can recover

10 -40 ppm (intermittent exposure)

may produce chronic fibrosis and emphysema

0.05-0.10 ppm (chronic exposure)

evidences of increases in chronic bronchitis

<0.05 ppm (long-term average)

evidences of increases in heart and lung disease in general population, with increasing ambient NO2 concentrations.

27 Effects-NOX

Effects-NOX

Effects of NO2 on plants - reduction in plant size (Primary Effect) - much higher concentrations cause leaf spotting Effects of NO2 on materials - dyes change color - fabrics lose strength - some metals corrode

28 Effects - CO

Effects - CO

The effects of carbon monoxide are dependent upon both - concentration - duration Oxygen transport cells usually replace carbon dioxide with oxygen. However, in the presence of carbon monoxide, they will replace oxygen and carbon dioxide with carbon monoxide. This reduces the supply of oxygen to the body. The effect of carbon monoxide intoxication is similar to that of anemia or hypoxia. It reduces the supply of oxygen to the body tissues. Under ambient conditions, carbon monoxide intoxication is likely to aggravate existing physical conditions. Under acute conditions, it may result in death.

29 Effects - CO

Effects - CO

Carbon monoxide in amounts found in some major metropolitan areas can lead to increased hospitalization for heart and circulatory system related disease. The new born and unborn are also affected by carbon monoxide. The ambient levels in highly polluted urban areas are associated with lower birth-weight and increased death of newborns. Smokers inhale a significant amount of CO Behavior is not significantly impaired by concentrations of carbon monoxide which are below NAAQS The principle reason for controlling carbon monoxide emissions is to protect health of the unborn, newborn, aged, and infirm.

30 Effects - CO

Effects - CO

Concentration of CO (ppm)

Effect

High concentration- greater than 100 ppm for 10 minutes.

Physiological stress on patients with heart disease

100 ppm-intermittently

Impaired performance in psychomotor tests

50 ppm – for 90 min.

Impaired time-interval discrimination for non-smokers

30 ppm – for up to 12 hours.

Elevated carbon in hemoglobin levels- reduced oxygen transport

31 Effects – Heavy metals

Effects – Heavy metals

Metal

Pathway

Health

Arsenic

-inhalation -ingestion

-Irritation of respiratory system -Weakness -Loss of appetite -Nausea and vomiting

Cadmium

-inhalation -ingestion

-lung, liver, and kidney damage -Irritation of respiratory system

Chromium

-inhalation -ingestion -absorption through skin

-Irritation of respiratory system -Lung damage

32 Effects – Heavy metals

Effects – Heavy metals

Metal

Pathway

Health

Mercury

-inhalation -ingestion -absorption through skin

-Irritation of respiratory system -Lung, liver and kidney damage

Lead

-inhalation -ingestion

-Lung and liver damage -Loss of appetite -Nausea and vomiting

Nickel

-inhalation

-Lung, liver, and kidney damage

33 Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)

Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)

Eating, and drinking are the principle mechanisms for lead entry into the body- but we also inhale lead particles. Children have a greater sensitivity to lead than adults because they have - greater lead intake on a per-unit-body-weight basis. - greater net respiratory intake and greater absorption and retention indigestive system. - rapid growth-reducing margin of safety against stress. - certain incompletely developed defense mechanisms. - different partitioning of lead in systems.

34 Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)

Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)

Expectant mothers and their unborns, and newborn children are an unusually sensitive population to lead pollution. - miscarriages - still births - deaths of newborn Formation of red blood cells is impaired by intake of environmental lead which may lead to - anemia - irreversible brain damage - death Blood levels of (80 -100) * 10-6 gm. Lead per deciliter (=1/10 liter. Approximately 1/10 quart), may result in - central nervous system defects - behavioral defects - animals which feed on plants near highways with heavy traffic show lead poisoning symptoms.

35 Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)

Effects – Heavy metals (Lead)

There seem to be no detrimental effect of lead on materials. Lead is not conclusively known to have any biological effect on man that can be considered beneficial. Types of effects Of Lead Noted in Studies of Laboratory animals - gametotoxic: effect on cell division - embryo toxic: effect on embryo - carcinogenic: effect on cell growth and character - teraogenic: effect on embryo producing abnormal species.

36 Effects – Heavy metals

Effects – Heavy metals

Mercury - irritation of respiratory system, lung, liver and kidney damage Arsenic: - irritation of respiratory system, liver and kidney damage - weakness, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting Cadmium - lung, liver and kidney damage - irritation of respiratory system Chromium - lung damage and Irritation of respiratory system Nickel: - lung, liver and kidney damage

«Basic Definitions»
http://900igr.net/prezentacija/informatika/basic-definitions-104023.html
cсылка на страницу
Урок

Информатика

130 тем
Слайды