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PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case,
PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case,
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2 of 49
Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice
Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice
16
16
Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice
Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice
Find the statement below that is incorrect about the study of
Find the statement below that is incorrect about the study of
Find the statement below that is incorrect about the study of
Find the statement below that is incorrect about the study of
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
For every unit produced beyond the level at which P = MC: a. Society
For every unit produced beyond the level at which P = MC: a. Society
For every unit produced beyond the level at which P = MC: a. Society
For every unit produced beyond the level at which P = MC: a. Society
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
In the case of a negative externality, the socially efficient level of
In the case of a negative externality, the socially efficient level of
In the case of a negative externality, the socially efficient level of
In the case of a negative externality, the socially efficient level of
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
When a tax is used to internalize an externality, the tax should be
When a tax is used to internalize an externality, the tax should be
When a tax is used to internalize an externality, the tax should be
When a tax is used to internalize an externality, the tax should be
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities Are All Around Us
Externalities Are All Around Us
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
According to the Coase theorem, in order to arrive at an efficient
According to the Coase theorem, in order to arrive at an efficient
According to the Coase theorem, in order to arrive at an efficient
According to the Coase theorem, in order to arrive at an efficient
Externalities and Environmental Economics
Externalities and Environmental Economics
The Debate Over Global Warming
The Debate Over Global Warming
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Which of the following is the best example of a mixed good
Which of the following is the best example of a mixed good
Which of the following is the best example of a mixed good
Which of the following is the best example of a mixed good
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Which of the following is/are true
Which of the following is/are true
Which of the following is/are true
Which of the following is/are true
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Public (Social) Goods
Social Choice
Social Choice
Social Choice
Social Choice
Social Choice
Social Choice
Social Choice
Social Choice
Social Choice
Social Choice
Government and the Market
Government and the Market
REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS
REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS

Презентация на тему: «Г остер привет мартышке». Автор: Fernando and Yvonn Quijano. Файл: «Г остер привет мартышке.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 660 КБ.

Г остер привет мартышке

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1 PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case,

PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case,

Ray C. Fair & Sharon M. Oster

; ;

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2 2 of 49

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3 Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice

Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice

Prepared by:

Fernando & Yvonn Quijano

4 16

16

Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice

PART III MARKET IMPERFECTIONS AND THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Externalities and Environmental Economics Marginal Social Cost and Marginal-Cost Pricing Private Choices and External Effects Internalizing Externalities Public (Social) Goods The Characteristics of Public Goods Income Distribution as a Public Good? Public Provision of Public Goods Optimal Provision of Public Goods Local Provision of Public Goods: Tiebout Hypothesis Mixed Goods Social Choice The Voting Paradox Government Inefficiency: Theory of Public Choice Rent-Seeking Revisited Government and the Market

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5 Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice

Externalities, Public Goods, and Social Choice

Externalities and Environmental Economics

market failure Occurs when resources are misallocated or allocated inefficiently.

externality A cost or benefit imposed or bestowed on an individual or a group that is outside, or external to, the transaction.

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6 Find the statement below that is incorrect about the study of

Find the statement below that is incorrect about the study of

externalities? a. Externalities are also called spillover, or neighborhood effects. b. The study of externalities is a major concern of environmental economics. c. Externalities are limited to free market economies. d. When people closer together, externalities become more important. e. None of the above. All of the statements above are correct.

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7 Find the statement below that is incorrect about the study of

Find the statement below that is incorrect about the study of

externalities? a. Externalities are also called spillover, or neighborhood effects. b. The study of externalities is a major concern of environmental economics. c. Externalities are limited to free market economies. d. When people closer together, externalities become more important. e. None of the above. All of the statements above are correct.

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8 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Marginal Social Cost and Marginal-Cost Pricing

marginal social cost (MSC) The total cost to society of producing an additional unit of a good or service. MSC is equal to the sum of the marginal costs of producing the product and the correctly measured damage costs involved in the process of production.

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9 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Marginal Social Cost and Marginal-Cost Pricing

? FIGURE 16.1 Profit-Maximizing Perfectly Competitive Firms Will Produce Up to the Point That Price Equals Marginal Cost (P = MC)

If we assume that the current price reflects what consumers are willing to pay for a product at the margin, firms that create external costs without weighing them in their decisions are likely to produce too much. At q*, marginal social cost exceeds the price paid by consumers.

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10 For every unit produced beyond the level at which P = MC: a. Society

For every unit produced beyond the level at which P = MC: a. Society

uses up resources that have a value (or cost) in excess of the benefits that consumers place on that unit. b. Society uses up resources that have a value (or cost) that is less than the benefits that consumers place on that unit. c. Society begins to enjoy the benefits of additional production. d. Society stops enjoying the benefits of additional production.

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11 For every unit produced beyond the level at which P = MC: a. Society

For every unit produced beyond the level at which P = MC: a. Society

uses up resources that have a value (or cost) in excess of the benefits that consumers place on that unit. b. Society uses up resources that have a value (or cost) that is less than the benefits that consumers place on that unit. c. Society begins to enjoy the benefits of additional production. d. Society stops enjoying the benefits of additional production.

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12 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Marginal Social Cost and Marginal-Cost Pricing

Acid Rain and the Clean Air Act

Acid rain is an excellent example of an externality and of the issues and conflicts involved in dealing with externalities. The case of acid rain highlights the fact that efficiency analysis ignores the distribution of gains and losses. That is, to establish efficiency, we need only demonstrate that the total value of the gains exceeds the total value of the losses.

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13 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Marginal Social Cost and Marginal-Cost Pricing

Other Externalities

Other examples of external effects are all around us. When people drive their cars into the center of the city at rush hour, they contribute to the congestion and impose costs (in the form of lost time and auto emissions) on others. Clearly, the most significant and hotly debated issue of externalities is global warming.

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14 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Marginal Social Cost and Marginal-Cost Pricing

Some Examples of Positive Externalities

Thus far we have described a series of negative externalities. But externalities can also be positive. In some cases, when other people or firms engage in an activity, there are side benefits from that activity. From an economics perspective, there are problems with positive externalities as well. The problem with positive externalities is that the individuals in charge have too little incentive to engage in the activity.

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15 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Private Choices and External Effects

? FIGURE 16.2 Externalities in a College Dormitory

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The marginal benefits to Harry exceed the marginal costs he must bear to play his stereo system for a period of up to 8 hours. When the stereo is playing, a cost is being imposed on Jake. When we add the costs borne by Harry to the damage costs imposed on Jake, we get the full cost of the stereo to the two-person society made up of Harry and Jake. Playing the stereo more than 5 hours is inefficient because the benefits to Harry are less than the social cost for every hour above 5. If Harry considers only his private costs, he will play the stereo for too long a time from society’s point of view.

16 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Private Choices and External Effects

marginal private cost (MPC) The amount that a consumer pays to consume an additional unit of a particular good.

marginal damage cost (MDC) The additional harm done by increasing the level of an externality-producing activity by 1 unit. If producing product X pollutes the water in a river, MDC is the additional cost imposed by the added pollution that results from increasing output by 1 unit of X per period.

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17 In the case of a negative externality, the socially efficient level of

In the case of a negative externality, the socially efficient level of

output is set where marginal benefit equals: a. Marginal social cost. b. Marginal private cost. c. Marginal damage cost. d. Marginal cost.

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18 In the case of a negative externality, the socially efficient level of

In the case of a negative externality, the socially efficient level of

output is set where marginal benefit equals: a. Marginal social cost. b. Marginal private cost. c. Marginal damage cost. d. Marginal cost.

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19 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Internalizing Externalities

Five approaches have been taken to solving the problem of externalities: government imposed taxes and subsidies, private bargaining and negotiation, legal rules and procedures, sale or auctioning of rights to impose externalities, and direct government regulation.

While each is best suited for a different set of circumstances, all five provide decision makers with an incentive to weigh the external effects of their decisions.

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20 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Internalizing Externalities

Taxes and Subsidies

? FIGURE 16.3 Tax Imposed on a Firm Equal to Marginal Damage Cost

If a per-unit tax exactly equal to marginal damage costs is imposed on a firm, the firm will weigh the tax, and thus the damage costs, in its decisions. At the new equilibrium price, P1, consumers will be paying an amount sufficient to cover full resource costs as well as the cost of damage imposed. The efficient level of output for the firm is q1.

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21 When a tax is used to internalize an externality, the tax should be

When a tax is used to internalize an externality, the tax should be

set equal to: a. Marginal social cost. b. Marginal private cost. c. Marginal damage cost. d. Marginal cost.

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22 When a tax is used to internalize an externality, the tax should be

When a tax is used to internalize an externality, the tax should be

set equal to: a. Marginal social cost. b. Marginal private cost. c. Marginal damage cost. d. Marginal cost.

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23 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Internalizing Externalities

Taxes and Subsidies

Measuring Damages

The biggest problem with using taxes and subsidies is that damages must be estimated in financial terms.

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24 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Internalizing Externalities

Taxes and Subsidies

Reducing Damages to an Efficient Level

Taxes also provide firms with an incentive to use the most efficient technology for dealing with damage.

The Incentive to Take Care and to Avoid Harm

You should understand that all externalities involve at least two parties and that it is not always clear which party is “causing” the damage.

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25 Externalities Are All Around Us

Externalities Are All Around Us

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Internalizing Externalities

Taxes and Subsidies

Subsidizing External Benefits

Sometimes activities or decisions generate external benefits instead of costs.

Abominable Snowmen: The War on Lawn Decorations Wall Street Journal

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26 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Internalizing Externalities

Bargaining and Negotiation

Coase theorem Under certain conditions, when externalities are present, private parties can arrive at the efficient solution without government involvement.

Legal Rules and Procedures

injunction A court order forbidding the continuation of behavior that leads to damages.

liability rules Laws that require A to compensate B for damages imposed.

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27 According to the Coase theorem, in order to arrive at an efficient

According to the Coase theorem, in order to arrive at an efficient

solution to an externality problem associated with a given activity: a. No party should be given the right to that activity prior to negotiation; otherwise, that party would have no incentive to bargain. b. The right to an activity must be decided during the negotiation process. c. It doesn’t matter which party is initially assigned the right to that activity. d. Both parties must feel that they have equal rights to the activity prior to negotiation.

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28 According to the Coase theorem, in order to arrive at an efficient

According to the Coase theorem, in order to arrive at an efficient

solution to an externality problem associated with a given activity: a. No party should be given the right to that activity prior to negotiation; otherwise, that party would have no incentive to bargain. b. The right to an activity must be decided during the negotiation process. c. It doesn’t matter which party is initially assigned the right to that activity. d. Both parties must feel that they have equal rights to the activity prior to negotiation.

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29 Externalities and Environmental Economics

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Internalizing Externalities

Selling or Auctioning Pollution Rights

TABLE 16.1 Permit Trading

TABLE 16.1 Permit Trading

TABLE 16.1 Permit Trading

TABLE 16.1 Permit Trading

TABLE 16.1 Permit Trading

TABLE 16.1 Permit Trading

Firm A

Firm A

Firm A

Firm B

Firm B

Firm B

1

$ 5

$ 5

1

$ 8

$ 8

2

7

12

2

14

22

3

9

21

3

23

45

4

12

33

4

35

80

5

17

50

5

50

130

Reduction of pollution by Firm A (in units of pollution)

MC of reducing pollution for Firm A

TC of reducing pollution for Firm A

Reduction of pollution by Firm B (in units of pollution)

MC of reducing pollution for Firm B

TC of reducing pollution for Firm B

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30 The Debate Over Global Warming

The Debate Over Global Warming

Externalities and Environmental Economics

Internalizing Externalities

Direct Regulation of Externalities

One of the most hotly debated issues involving externalities is the potential cost of global warming.

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty on global warming negotiated by the United Nations in the 1990s. It came into force after being ratified by Russia in February 2005. A total of 141 countries have ratified the agreement, which commits them to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases or to engage in emissions trading. The United States has not ratified the treaty.

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31 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

public goods (social or collective goods) Goods that are nonrival in consumption and/or their benefits are nonexcludable.

The Characteristics of Public Goods

nonrival in consumption A characteristic of public goods: One person’s enjoyment of the benefits of a public good does not interfere with another’s consumption of it.

nonexcludable A characteristic of most public goods: Once a good is produced, no one can be excluded from enjoying its benefits.

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32 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

The Characteristics of Public Goods

free-rider problem A problem intrinsic to public goods: Because people can enjoy the benefits of public goods whether or not they pay for them, they are usually unwilling to pay for them.

drop-in-the-bucket problem A problem intrinsic to public goods: The good or service is usually so costly that its provision generally does not depend on whether any single person pays.

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33 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

Income Distribution as a Public Good?

Note that some economists have argued for redistribution of income on grounds that it generates public benefits. If we accept the idea that redistributing income generates a public good, private endeavors may fail to do what we want them to do, and government involvement may be called for.

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34 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

Public Provision of Public Goods

All societies, past and present, have had to face the problem of providing public goods. When members of society get together to form a government, they do so to provide themselves with goods and services that will not be provided if they act separately.

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35 Which of the following is the best example of a mixed good

Which of the following is the best example of a mixed good

a. A Big Mac. b. The Golden Gate bridge. c. The Statue of Liberty. d. Elementary education. e. All of the above are good examples of mixed goods.

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36 Which of the following is the best example of a mixed good

Which of the following is the best example of a mixed good

a. A Big Mac. b. The Golden Gate bridge. c. The Statue of Liberty. d. Elementary education. e. All of the above are good examples of mixed goods.

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37 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

Optimal Provision of Public Goods

Economist Paul Samuelson demonstrated that there exists an optimal, or a most efficient, level of output for every public good.

Samuelson’s Theory

An efficient economy produces what people want. Private producers, whether perfect competitors or monopolists, are constrained by the market demand for their products. If they cannot sell their products for more than it costs to produce them, they will be out of business. Because private goods permit exclusion, firms can withhold their products until households pay. Buying a product at a posted price reveals that it is “worth” at least that amount to you and to everyone who buys it.

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38 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

Optimal Provision of Public Goods

Samuelson’s Theory

? FIGURE 16.4 With Private Goods, Consumers Decide What Quantity to Buy; Market Demand Is the Sum of Those Quantities at Each Price

At a price of $3, A buys 2 units and B buys 9 for a total of 11. At a price of $1, A buys 9 units and B buys 13 for a total of 22. We all buy the quantity of each private good that we want. Market demand is the horizontal sum of all individual demand curves.

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39 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

Optimal Provision of Public Goods

Samuelson’s Theory

? FIGURE 16.5 With Public Goods, There Is Only One Level of Output and Consumers Are Willing to Pay Different Amounts for Each Level

A is willing to pay $6 per unit for X1 units of the public good. B is willing to pay only $3 for X1 units. Society—in this case A and B—is willing to pay a total of $9 for X1 units of the good. Because only one level of output can be chosen for a public good, we must add A’s contribution to B’s to determine market demand. This means adding demand curves vertically.

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40 Which of the following is/are true

Which of the following is/are true

a. Only one level of output can be chosen for a public good. b. The demand for a public good is the horizontal summation of individual demand curves for that good. c. Government must decide how much of a public good to produce. d. The satisfaction we derive from the quantity consumed of public goods is just as great as the satisfaction derived from consumption of private goods. e. All of the above.

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41 Which of the following is/are true

Which of the following is/are true

a. Only one level of output can be chosen for a public good. b. The demand for a public good is the horizontal summation of individual demand curves for that good. c. Government must decide how much of a public good to produce. d. The satisfaction we derive from the quantity consumed of public goods is just as great as the satisfaction derived from consumption of private goods. e. All of the above.

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42 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

Optimal Provision of Public Goods

Samuelson’s Theory

? FIGURE 16.6 Optimal Production of a Public Good

Optimal production of a public good means producing as long as society’s total willingness to pay per unit (DA+B) is greater than the marginal cost of producing the good.

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43 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

Optimal Provision of Public Goods

Samuelson’s Theory

optimal level of provision for public goods The level at which society’s total willingness to pay per unit is equal to the marginal cost of producing the good.

The Problems of Optimal Provision

One major problem exists. To produce the optimal amount of each public good, the government must know something that it cannot possibly know— everyone’s preferences.

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44 Public (Social) Goods

Public (Social) Goods

Local Provision of Public Goods: Tiebout Hypothesis

Tiebout hypothesis An efficient mix of public goods is produced when local land/housing prices and taxes come to reflect consumer preferences just as they do in the market for private goods.

Mixed Goods

mixed goods Goods that are part public goods and part private goods. Education is a key example.

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45 Social Choice

Social Choice

social choice The problem of deciding what society wants. The process of adding up individual preferences to make a choice for society as a whole.

The Voting Paradox

Impossibility theorem A proposition demonstrated by Kenneth Arrow showing that no system of aggregating individual preferences into social decisions will always yield consistent, nonarbitrary results.

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46 Social Choice

Social Choice

The Voting Paradox

TABLE 16.2 Results of Voting on University’s Plans: The Voting Paradox

TABLE 16.2 Results of Voting on University’s Plans: The Voting Paradox

TABLE 16.2 Results of Voting on University’s Plans: The Voting Paradox

TABLE 16.2 Results of Voting on University’s Plans: The Voting Paradox

TABLE 16.2 Results of Voting on University’s Plans: The Voting Paradox

Votes of:

Votes of:

Votes of:

Votes of:

Votes of:

Vote

VP1

VP2

Dean

Resulta

A versus B

A

B

A

A wins: A > B

B versus C

B

B

C

B wins: B > C

C versus A

A

C

C

C wins: C > A

aA > B is read “A is preferred to B.”

aA > B is read “A is preferred to B.”

aA > B is read “A is preferred to B.”

aA > B is read “A is preferred to B.”

aA > B is read “A is preferred to B.”

? FIGURE 16.7 Preferences of Three Top University Officials

VP1 prefers A to B and B to C. VP2 prefers B to C and C to A. The dean prefers C to A and A to B.

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47 Social Choice

Social Choice

The Voting Paradox

voting paradox A simple demonstration of how majority-rule voting can lead to seemingly contradictory and inconsistent results. A commonly cited illustration of the kind of inconsistency described in the impossibility theorem.

logrolling Occurs when congressional representatives trade votes, agreeing to help each other get certain pieces of legislation passed.

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48 Social Choice

Social Choice

Government Inefficiency: Theory of Public Choice

Looking at the public sector from the standpoint of the behavior of public officials and the potential for inefficient choices and bureaucratic waste rather than in terms of its potential for improving the allocation of resources has become quite popular. This is the viewpoint of what is called the public choice field in economics that builds heavily on the work of Nobel laureate James Buchanan.

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49 Social Choice

Social Choice

Rent-Seeking Revisited

A monopolist would be willing to pay to prevent competition from eroding its economic profits. Many—if not all—industries lobby for favorable treatment, softer regulation, or antitrust exemption. This, as you recall, is rent-seeking. Theory may suggest that unregulated markets fail to produce an efficient allocation of resources. This should not lead you to the conclusion that government involvement necessarily leads to efficiency. There are reasons to believe that government attempts to produce the right goods and services in the right quantities efficiently may fail.

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50 Government and the Market

Government and the Market

There is no question that government must be involved in both the provision of public goods and the control of externalities. The question is not whether we need government involvement. The question is how much and what kind of government involvement we should have.

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51 REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS

REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS

Coase theorem drop-in-the-bucket problem externality free-rider problem impossibility theorem injunction liability rules logrolling marginal damage cost (MDC) marginal private cost (MPC) marginal social cost (MSC)

market failure mixed goods nonexcludable nonrival in consumption optimal level of provision for public goods public goods (social or collective goods) social choice Tiebout hypothesis voting paradox

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