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Windows XP
Windows XP
Windows XP™
Windows XP™
Windows XP
Windows XP
History
History
Design Principles
Design Principles
Design Principles (Cont
Design Principles (Cont
XP Architecture
XP Architecture
Depiction of XP Architecture
Depiction of XP Architecture
System Components — Kernel
System Components — Kernel
Kernel — Process and Threads
Kernel — Process and Threads
Kernel — Scheduling
Kernel — Scheduling
Kernel — Scheduling (Cont
Kernel — Scheduling (Cont
Kernel — Trap Handling
Kernel — Trap Handling
Depiction of XP Architecture
Depiction of XP Architecture
Executive – Privileged mode
Executive – Privileged mode
Executive — Process Manager
Executive — Process Manager
Executive — Local Procedure Call Facility
Executive — Local Procedure Call Facility
Executive — I/O Manager
Executive — I/O Manager
Depiction of XP Architecture
Depiction of XP Architecture
Environmental Subsystems
Environmental Subsystems
Environmental Subsystems (Cont
Environmental Subsystems (Cont
Environmental Subsystems (Cont
Environmental Subsystems (Cont
File System – NTFS
File System – NTFS
File System — Internal Layout
File System — Internal Layout
File System — Recovery
File System — Recovery
File System — Recovery (Cont
File System — Recovery (Cont
More on NTFS
More on NTFS
Networking
Networking
End
End

Презентация: «Windows XP». Автор: Hugh C. Lauer. Файл: «Windows XP.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 176 КБ.

Windows XP

содержание презентации «Windows XP.ppt»
СлайдТекст
1 Windows XP

Windows XP

CS-502 Operating Systems Slides excerpted from Silbershatz, Ch. 22

CS502 Spring 2006

2 Windows XP™

Windows XP™

Biggest, …most comprehensive, …most widely distributed …general purpose operating system in history of computing Affects almost all other systems, one way or another

CS502 Spring 2006

3 Windows XP

Windows XP

32-bit preemptive multitasking operating system for Intel microprocessors Key goals for the system: portability security POSIX compliance multiprocessor support extensibility international support compatibility with MS-DOS and MS-Windows applications. Uses a micro-kernel architecture Available in at least four versions: Professional, Server, Advanced Server, National Server

CS502 Spring 2006

4 History

History

In 1988, Microsoft began developing “new technology” (NT) portable operating system Support for both the OS/2 and POSIX APIs Originally, NT intended to use the OS/2 API as native environment During development NT was changed to use the Win32 API Reflects the popularity of Windows 3.0 over IBM’s OS/2

CS502 Spring 2006

5 Design Principles

Design Principles

Extensibility — layered architecture Executive, which runs in protected mode, provides the basic system services On top of the executive, several server subsystems operate in user mode Modular structure allows additional environmental subsystems to be added without affecting the executive Portability —XP can be moved from on hardware architecture to another with relatively few changes Written in C and C++ Processor-dependent code is isolated in a dynamic link library (DLL) called the “hardware abstraction layer” (HAL)

CS502 Spring 2006

6 Design Principles (Cont

Design Principles (Cont

Reliability XP uses hardware protection for virtual memory, software protection mechanisms for OS resources Compatibility Applications that follow the IEEE 1003.1 (POSIX) standard can be complied to run on XP without changing the source code Performance XP subsystems can communicate with one another via high-performance message passing Preemption of low priority threads enables the system to respond quickly to external events Designed for symmetrical multiprocessing International support Supports different locales via the national language support (NLS) API

CS502 Spring 2006

7 XP Architecture

XP Architecture

Layered system of modules Protected mode — HAL, kernel, executive User mode — collection of subsystems Environmental subsystems emulate different operating systems Protection subsystems provide security functions

CS502 Spring 2006

8 Depiction of XP Architecture

Depiction of XP Architecture

CS502 Spring 2006

9 System Components — Kernel

System Components — Kernel

Foundation for the executive and the subsystems Never paged out of memory; execution is never preempted Four main responsibilities: thread scheduling interrupt and exception handling low-level processor synchronization recovery after a power failure Kernel is object-oriented, uses two sets of objects dispatcher objects control dispatching and synchronization events, mutants, mutexes, semaphores, threads and timers control objects asynchronous procedure calls, interrupts, power notify, power status, process and profile objects

CS502 Spring 2006

10 Kernel — Process and Threads

Kernel — Process and Threads

Process Virtual memory address space Information (such as a base priority) Affinity for one or more processors Threads Unit of execution scheduled by the kernel’s dispatcher Thread state information Priority, processor affinity, and accounting information Thread can be one of six states: ready, standby, running, waiting, transition, and terminated

CS502 Spring 2006

11 Kernel — Scheduling

Kernel — Scheduling

The dispatcher uses a 32-level priority scheme to determine the order of thread execution Priorities are divided into two classes The real-time class contains threads with priorities = 16 to 31 The variable class contains threads with priorities = 0 to 15 Characteristics of XP’s priority strategy Tends to give very good response times to interactive threads that are using the mouse and windows Enables I/O-bound threads to keep the I/O devices busy Compute-bound threads soak up the spare CPU cycles in the background

CS502 Spring 2006

12 Kernel — Scheduling (Cont

Kernel — Scheduling (Cont

Scheduling can occur when Thread enters the ready or wait state, Thread terminates, or Application changes thread’s priority or processor affinity Real-time threads given preferential access to CPU But… XP does not guarantee that a real-time thread will start or execute within any particular time limit This is known as soft real-time

CS502 Spring 2006

13 Kernel — Trap Handling

Kernel — Trap Handling

The kernel provides trap handling when exceptions and interrupts are generated by hardware of software Exceptions that cannot be handled by the trap handler are handled by the kernel’s exception dispatcher The interrupt dispatcher in the kernel handles interrupts by calling either Interrupt service routine (such as in a device driver) or Internal kernel routine The kernel uses spin locks that reside in global memory to achieve multiprocessor mutual exclusion

CS502 Spring 2006

14 Depiction of XP Architecture

Depiction of XP Architecture

CS502 Spring 2006

15 Executive – Privileged mode

Executive – Privileged mode

Many components Object Manager Security Reference Manager Process Manager Plug and Play Manager Virtual Memory Manager Local Procedure Call facility I/O Manager Device Drivers Window Manager Too many details to cover in one hour

CS502 Spring 2006

16 Executive — Process Manager

Executive — Process Manager

Provides services for creating, deleting, and using threads and processes. Processes and threads are (almost) independent concepts Thread (not process) is unit of scheduling Issues such as parent/child relationships or process hierarchies are left to the particular environmental subsystem that owns the process.

CS502 Spring 2006

17 Executive — Local Procedure Call Facility

Executive — Local Procedure Call Facility

A message passing facility like remote procedure call Among separate processes LPC passes requests and results between client and server processes within a single machine Used to request services among various XP subsystems.

CS502 Spring 2006

18 Executive — I/O Manager

Executive — I/O Manager

The I/O manager is responsible for file systems cache management device drivers network drivers Keeps track of which installable file systems are loaded, and manages buffers for I/O requests Works with VM Manager to provide memory-mapped file I/O Controls the XP cache manager, which handles caching for the entire I/O system Supports both synchronous and asynchronous operations, provides time outs for drivers, and has mechanisms for one driver to call another

CS502 Spring 2006

19 Depiction of XP Architecture

Depiction of XP Architecture

CS502 Spring 2006

20 Environmental Subsystems

Environmental Subsystems

User-mode processes layered over the native XP executive services Enable XP to run programs developed for other operating system XP uses the Win32 subsystem as the main operating environment Win32 is used to start all processes Also provides all the keyboard, mouse and graphical display capabilities MS-DOS environment is provided by Win32 application called the virtual DOS machine (VDM), A user-mode process that is paged and dispatched like any other XP thread

CS502 Spring 2006

21 Environmental Subsystems (Cont

Environmental Subsystems (Cont

16-Bit Windows Environment: Provided by a VDM that incorporates Windows on Windows Provides the Windows 3.1 kernel routines and subroutines for window manager and GDI functions The POSIX subsystem is designed to run POSIX applications following the POSIX.1 standard which is based on the UNIX model OS/2 subsystems runs OS/2 applications

CS502 Spring 2006

22 Environmental Subsystems (Cont

Environmental Subsystems (Cont

Logon and Security Subsystem Authenticates all users logged on to Windows XP systems Users are required to have account names and passwords The authentication package authenticates users whenever they attempt to access an object in the system Windows XP uses Kerberos as the default authentication package

CS502 Spring 2006

23 File System – NTFS

File System – NTFS

Fundamental structure of NTFS is a volume Created by the XP disk administrator utility Based on a logical disk partition May occupy a portions of a disk, an entire disk, or span across several disks Striping, RAID, redundancy, etc. All metadata, such as information about the volume, is stored in a regular file NTFS uses clusters as the underlying unit of disk allocation A cluster is a number of disk sectors that is a power of two Because the cluster size is smaller than for the 16-bit FAT file system, the amount of internal fragmentation is reduced

CS502 Spring 2006

24 File System — Internal Layout

File System — Internal Layout

NTFS uses logical cluster numbers (LCNs) as disk addresses A file in NTFS is not a simple byte stream, as in MS-DOS or UNIX, rather, it is a structured object consisting of attributes Every file in NTFS is described by one or more records in an array stored in a special file called the Master File Table (MFT) Each file on an NTFS volume has a unique ID called a file reference. 64-bit quantity that consists of a 48-bit file number and a 16-bit sequence number Can be used to perform internal consistency checks The NTFS name space is organized by a hierarchy of directories; the index root contains the top level of the B+ tree

CS502 Spring 2006

25 File System — Recovery

File System — Recovery

All file system data structure updates are performed inside transactions that are logged Before a data structure is altered, the transaction writes a log record that contains redo and undo information After the data structure has been changed, a commit record is written to the log to signify that the transaction succeeded After a crash, the file system data structures can be restored to a consistent state by processing the log records

CS502 Spring 2006

26 File System — Recovery (Cont

File System — Recovery (Cont

This scheme does not guarantee that all the user file data can be recovered after a crash, just that the file system data structures (the metadata files) are undamaged and reflect some consistent state prior to the crash The log is stored in the third metadata file at the beginning of the volume The logging functionality is provided by the XP log file service

CS502 Spring 2006

27 More on NTFS

More on NTFS

Security Fault-tolerance Striping Mirroring Compression … Too much for one hour

CS502 Spring 2006

28 Networking

Networking

XP supports both peer-to-peer and client/server networking; it also has facilities for network management To describe networking in XP, we refer to two of the internal networking interfaces: NDIS (Network Device Interface Specification) — Separates network adapters from the transport protocols so that either can be changed without affecting the other TDI (Transport Driver Interface) — Enables any session layer component to use any available transport mechanism XP implements transport protocols as drivers that can be loaded and unloaded from the system dynamically Also too much detail for one hour …

CS502 Spring 2006

29 End

End

CS502 Spring 2006

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