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Food Safety
Food Safety
Overview
Overview
Organisms
Organisms
Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had
Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had
History
History
History
History
History
History
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Surveillance/Regulation
Surveillance/Regulation
Surveillance
Surveillance
Surveillance
Surveillance
Estimated Cost
Estimated Cost
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Produce Processing
Produce Processing
Important Organisms
Important Organisms
Important Organisms
Important Organisms
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norwalk-like Viruses
Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacteriosis
Campylobacteriosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
E. coli O157:H7
E. coli O157:H7
E. coli O157:H7
E. coli O157:H7
MMWR
MMWR
Botulism
Botulism
Reported Cases
Reported Cases
Shigellosis
Shigellosis
Rate
Rate
Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis
Emerging Pathogens
Emerging Pathogens
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Prevention and Control
Prevention and Control
HACCP
HACCP
On Farm Strategies
On Farm Strategies
At the Slaughter Plant
At the Slaughter Plant
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
USDA Recall Classification
USDA Recall Classification
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
Additional Resources
Additional Resources
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
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Food

содержание презентации «Food.ppt»
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1 Food Safety

Food Safety

2 Overview

Overview

Organisms History Epidemiology Transmission Foodborne illness Prevention and Control

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

3 Organisms

Organisms

Estimated 250 foodborne pathogens Foodborne illness 2 or more cases of a similar illness resulting from ingestion of a common food Bacteria most common cause Also viruses, parasites, natural and manufactured chemicals, and toxins from organisms

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

4 Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had

Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had

the highest number.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

5 History

History

6 History

History

Early 1900’s Contaminated food, milk and water caused many foodborne illnesses Sanitary revolution Sewage and water treatment Hand-washing, sanitation Pasteurization of milk- 1908 Refrigeration in homes- 1913

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

7 History

History

Animals identified as a source of foodborne pathogens Improved animal care and feeding Improved carcass processing Surveillance and research Outbreak investigations Laws and policies regarding food handling

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

8 Epidemiology

Epidemiology

9 Epidemiology

Epidemiology

Foodborne diseases each year in US Affects 1 in 4 Americans 76 million illnesses 325,000 hospitalizations 5,000 deaths 1,500 of those deaths caused by Salmonella, Listeria, and Toxoplasma

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

10 Epidemiology

Epidemiology

Many unrecognized or unreported Mild disease undetected Same pathogens in water and person to person Emerging pathogens unidentifiable Greatest risk Elderly Children Immunocompromised

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

11 Surveillance/Regulation

Surveillance/Regulation

Surveillance CDC FoodNet and PulseNet Regulation FDA Domestic and imported food USDA FSIS Meat, eggs, poultry National Marine Fisheries Service

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

12 Surveillance

Surveillance

FoodNet: Active surveillance Established 1996 CDC, USDA, FDA, select state health departments Nine sites in U.S. monitor 13% of U.S. population California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Tennessee

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

13 Surveillance

Surveillance

PulseNet: Identify cause Molecular fingerprinting 45 state public health labs certified Passive surveillance: Survey methods Hospital discharges Outpatient treatment facilities FoodBorne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System All states submit outbreak data

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

14 Estimated Cost

Estimated Cost

Economic Research Service - USDA Cost of top 5 foodborne pathogens $6.9 billion annually Medical cost Productivity losses (missed work) Value estimate of premature death

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

15 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

16 Transmission

Transmission

17 Transmission

Transmission

Oral route Contamination varies Organism, reservoir, handling/processing, cross-contamination Human reservoir Norwalk-like virus, Campylobacter, Shigella Animal reservoir Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, Listeria, and Toxoplasma

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

18 Transmission

Transmission

Contamination can occur at several points along the food chain On the farm or in the field At the slaughter plant During processing At the point of sale In the home

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

19 Produce Processing

Produce Processing

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

20 Important Organisms

Important Organisms

21 Important Organisms

Important Organisms

Norwalk-like viruses Campylobacter Salmonella E. coli O157:H7 Clostridium botulinum Shigella spp Toxoplasma Emerging organisms

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

22 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

23 MMWR

MMWR

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

24 MMWR

MMWR

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

25 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

26 Norwalk-like Viruses

Norwalk-like Viruses

Norovirus; Caliciviridae family Most common foodborne agent 23 million cases annually Sources Person-to-person Shed in human feces, vomitus Outbreaks in daycares, nursing homes, cruise ships Contaminated shellfish

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

27 Norwalk-like Viruses

Norwalk-like Viruses

Small infectious dose Signs 12-48 hours post-exposure Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps Headache, low-grade fever Duration: 2 days Food handlers should not return to work for 3 days after symptoms subside

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

28 Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacter jejuni

Leading cause of bacterial diarrhea 2.4 million people each year Children under 5 years old Young adults (ages 15-29) Very few deaths Can lead to Guillain-Barr? Syndrome Leading cause of acute paralysis Develops 2-4 weeks after Campylobacter infection (after diarrheal signs disappear)

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

29 Campylobacteriosis

Campylobacteriosis

Sources Raw or undercooked poultry Non-chlorinated water Raw milk Infected animal or human feces Poultry, cattle, puppies, kittens, pet birds Clinical signs Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea Duration: 2-5 days

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

30 Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis

Gram negative bacteria Many serotypes can cause disease S. enteritidis and typhimurium 41% of all human cases Most common species in U.S. 1.4 million cases annually 580 deaths

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

31 Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis

Sources Raw poultry and eggs Raw milk Raw beef Unwashed fruit, alfalfa sprouts Reptile pets: Snakes, turtles, lizards Signs Onset: 12-72 hours Diarrhea, fever, cramps Duration: 4-7 days

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

32 Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis

Reported cases per 100,000 population, by year – U.S., 1972-2002.

Rate

Most common serotypes: S. typhimurium, S. enteriditis, S. Newport

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002

MMWR

Year

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

33 E. coli O157:H7

E. coli O157:H7

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Surface proteins; toxin Sources Undercooked or raw hamburger; salami Alfalfa sprouts; lettuce Unpasteurized milk, apple juice or cider Well water Animals: Cattle, other mammals

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

34 E. coli O157:H7

E. coli O157:H7

Signs Watery or bloody diarrhea, nausea, cramps Onset: 2-5 days Duration: 5-10 days Sequela Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) Acute kidney failure in children Life threatening

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

35 MMWR

MMWR

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

36 Botulism

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin leads to flaccid paralysis Infants at greatest risk Annually: 10-30 outbreaks; ~110 cases Sources: Home-canned foods, honey Signs Double vision, drooping eyelids, difficulty speaking and swallowing Onset: 18-36 hours

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

37 Reported Cases

Reported Cases

1982 1987 1992 1997 2002

MMWR

Year

110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

38 Shigellosis

Shigellosis

Bacillary dysentery Most cases Shigella sonnei 90,000 cases every year in U.S. Sources: Human fecal contamination of food, beverages, vegetables, water Signs: Watery or bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever Onset: 2 days Duration: 5-7 days

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

39 Rate

Rate

15 10 5 0

1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002

MMWR

Year

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

40 Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasma gondii- intracellular protozoan 112,500 cases annually Pregnant women/immunocompromised at greatest risk Sources Infected cats, soil, undercooked meat Signs Fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

41 Emerging Pathogens

Emerging Pathogens

Cyclospora (Protozoan) 1996, imported raspberries Listeria monocytogenes Sources Ready-to-eat meats, soft cheeses Signs Human abortions and stillbirths Septicemia in young or low-immune

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

42 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

43 Prevention and Control

Prevention and Control

44 HACCP

HACCP

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point To monitor and control production processes Identify food safety hazards and critical control points Production, processing and marketing Establish limits Monitor Applied to meat, poultry, and eggs

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

45 On Farm Strategies

On Farm Strategies

Testing and removal for Salmonella Serologic, fecal culture, hide culture Vaccinating Many serotypes Varying effectiveness Minimize rodents, wild birds Isolation of new animals

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

46 At the Slaughter Plant

At the Slaughter Plant

FSIS target organisms Salmonella and E. coli Control points Removal of internal organs Minimize contact between carcasses Proper movement through facilities Chilling Cooking processes (time, temperature)

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

47 Irradiation

Irradiation

Used since 1986 for Trichina control in pork Gamma rays Poultry in 1990/1992 Meat in 1997/1999 Reduction of bacterial pathogens Kills living cells of organisms Damaged and cannot survive

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

48 Irradiation

Irradiation

Identified with radura….. Does not affect taste quality Nutrients remain the same Handle foods appropriately afterwards Does not sterilize Contamination can still occur

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

49 USDA Recall Classification

USDA Recall Classification

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

50 In the Home

In the Home

Drink pasteurized milk and juices Wash hands carefully and frequently After using the bathroom Changing infant’s diapers Cleaning up animal feces Wash hands before preparing food

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

51 In the Home

In the Home

Wash raw fruits and vegetables before eating After contact with raw meat or poultry Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces Hot soapy water Defrost meats in the refrigerator

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

52 In the Home

In the Home

Cook beef/beef products thoroughly Internal temperature of 160oF Cook poultry and eggs thoroughly Internal temperature of 170-180oF Eat cooked food promptly Refrigerate leftovers within 2 hours after cooking Store in shallow containers

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

53 Additional Resources

Additional Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/ U.S. Department of Agriculture http://www.foodsafety.gov http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodborne/statemen.html

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

54 Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

Development of this presentation was funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

55 Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

Author: Co-authors: Reviewer:

Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MS, MPH Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH Radford Davis, DVM, MPH Jean Gladon, BS

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

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